Abstract

An airborne UV–visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4π) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54°49′S, 68°18′W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2π FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  6. A. Weaver, S. Solomon, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H. L. Miller, “Atmospheric NO3. 5. Off-axis measurements at sunrise: estimates of tropospheric NO3 at 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]

2000

1999

R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Effects of clouds on ozone column retrieval from GOME UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8281–8294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, L. Sokolov, S. Balestri, A. R. MacKenzie, V. Khattatov, “The M-55 Geophysica as a platform for the Airborne Polar Experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1303–1312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, J. A. Lathrop, “Ten years of ozonesonde measurements at the South Pole: implications for recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8931–8943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Weaver, S. Solomon, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H. L. Miller, “Atmospheric NO3. 5. Off-axis measurements at sunrise: estimates of tropospheric NO3 at 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. T. McElroy, “A spectroradiometer for the measurements of direct and scattered solar irradiance from on-board the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1361–1364 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, “Ozone measurements by zenith-sky spectrometers: an evaluation of errors in air-mass factors calculated by radiative transfer models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. H. Arpag, P. V. Johnston, H. L. Miller, R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, “Observation of stratospheric BrO column over Colorado, 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8175–8181 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment: observation of O3 and NO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1375–1378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Solomon, L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. Perner, U. Platt, “Detection of nitrous acid in the atmosphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 917–920 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

J. F. Noxon, “Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy,” Science 189, 547–549 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D.

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arpag, K.

A. Weaver, S. Solomon, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H. L. Miller, “Atmospheric NO3. 5. Off-axis measurements at sunrise: estimates of tropospheric NO3 at 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arpag, K. H.

K. H. Arpag, P. V. Johnston, H. L. Miller, R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, “Observation of stratospheric BrO column over Colorado, 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8175–8181 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arshinov, K.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balestri, S.

L. Stefanutti, L. Sokolov, S. Balestri, A. R. MacKenzie, V. Khattatov, “The M-55 Geophysica as a platform for the Airborne Polar Experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1303–1312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, N.

Becca, R.

G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, R. Becca, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, I. Kostadinov, “Performance of a diode-array spectrometer in DOAS applications,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques, K. Schaefer, ed., Proc. SPIE3106, 171–178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blom, C. E.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonafè, U.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonasoni, P.

G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, M. Cervino, F. Evangelisti, F. Ravegnani, “Ozone ground-based measurements by the GASCOD near-UV and visible system,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 707–711.

G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, R. Becca, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, I. Kostadinov, “Performance of a diode-array spectrometer in DOAS applications,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques, K. Schaefer, ed., Proc. SPIE3106, 171–178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cervino, M.

G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, M. Cervino, F. Evangelisti, F. Ravegnani, “Ozone ground-based measurements by the GASCOD near-UV and visible system,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 707–711.

Chen, H. B.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, M. P.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dahlback, A.

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeMajistre, R.

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erle, F.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evangelisti, F.

G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, M. Cervino, F. Evangelisti, F. Ravegnani, “Ozone ground-based measurements by the GASCOD near-UV and visible system,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 707–711.

G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, R. Becca, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, I. Kostadinov, “Performance of a diode-array spectrometer in DOAS applications,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques, K. Schaefer, ed., Proc. SPIE3106, 171–178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferlemann, F.

Fischer, H.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fish, D.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, “Ozone measurements by zenith-sky spectrometers: an evaluation of errors in air-mass factors calculated by radiative transfer models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fitzenberger, R.

Georgiadis, T.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gil, M.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Giovanelli, G.

G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, R. Becca, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, I. Kostadinov, “Performance of a diode-array spectrometer in DOAS applications,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques, K. Schaefer, ed., Proc. SPIE3106, 171–178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, M. Cervino, F. Evangelisti, F. Ravegnani, “Ozone ground-based measurements by the GASCOD near-UV and visible system,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 707–711.

Glattor, N.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gulde, T.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, K.

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harder, H.

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, J. A. Lathrop, “Ten years of ozonesonde measurements at the South Pole: implications for recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8931–8943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. J.

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, J. A. Lathrop, “Ten years of ozonesonde measurements at the South Pole: implications for recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8931–8943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P. V.

K. H. Arpag, P. V. Johnston, H. L. Miller, R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, “Observation of stratospheric BrO column over Colorado, 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8175–8181 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keys, J. G.

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Khattatov, V.

L. Stefanutti, L. Sokolov, S. Balestri, A. R. MacKenzie, V. Khattatov, “The M-55 Geophysica as a platform for the Airborne Polar Experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1303–1312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koelemeijer, R. B. A.

R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Effects of clouds on ozone column retrieval from GOME UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8281–8294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinov, I.

G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, R. Becca, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, I. Kostadinov, “Performance of a diode-array spectrometer in DOAS applications,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques, K. Schaefer, ed., Proc. SPIE3106, 171–178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kylling, A.

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lathrop, J. A.

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, J. A. Lathrop, “Ten years of ozonesonde measurements at the South Pole: implications for recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8931–8943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lechenuk, N.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. M.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MacKenzie, A. R.

L. Stefanutti, L. Sokolov, S. Balestri, A. R. MacKenzie, V. Khattatov, “The M-55 Geophysica as a platform for the Airborne Polar Experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1303–1312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

C. T. McElroy, “A spectroradiometer for the measurements of direct and scattered solar irradiance from on-board the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1361–1364 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, H. L.

A. Weaver, S. Solomon, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H. L. Miller, “Atmospheric NO3. 5. Off-axis measurements at sunrise: estimates of tropospheric NO3 at 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Arpag, P. V. Johnston, H. L. Miller, R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, “Observation of stratospheric BrO column over Colorado, 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8175–8181 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mount, G. H.

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noxon, J. F.

J. F. Noxon, “Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy,” Science 189, 547–549 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oltmans, S. J.

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, J. A. Lathrop, “Ten years of ozonesonde measurements at the South Pole: implications for recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8931–8943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osterkamp, H.

Oulanovsky, A.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perliski, L.

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D.

Pfeilsticker, K.

F. Ferlemann, N. Bauer, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument for stratospheric balloonborne trace-gas studies,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2377–2386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment: observation of O3 and NO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1375–1378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Piesch, C.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

F. Ferlemann, N. Bauer, R. Fitzenberger, H. Harder, H. Osterkamp, D. Perner, U. Platt, M. Schneider, P. Vradelis, K. Pfeilsticker, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument for stratospheric balloonborne trace-gas studies,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2377–2386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment: observation of O3 and NO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1375–1378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Perner, U. Platt, “Detection of nitrous acid in the atmosphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 917–920 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, P.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pyle, J. A.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ravegnani, F.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, R. Becca, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, I. Kostadinov, “Performance of a diode-array spectrometer in DOAS applications,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques, K. Schaefer, ed., Proc. SPIE3106, 171–178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, M. Cervino, F. Evangelisti, F. Ravegnani, “Ozone ground-based measurements by the GASCOD near-UV and visible system,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 707–711.

Roscoe, H. K.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, “Ozone measurements by zenith-sky spectrometers: an evaluation of errors in air-mass factors calculated by radiative transfer models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roudakov, I.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, R. W.

A. Weaver, S. Solomon, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H. L. Miller, “Atmospheric NO3. 5. Off-axis measurements at sunrise: estimates of tropospheric NO3 at 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Arpag, P. V. Johnston, H. L. Miller, R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, “Observation of stratospheric BrO column over Colorado, 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8175–8181 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sarkissian, A.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, “Ozone measurements by zenith-sky spectrometers: an evaluation of errors in air-mass factors calculated by radiative transfer models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, A. L.

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, L.

S. Solomon, L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M.

Slusser, J.

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. P.

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, L.

L. Stefanutti, L. Sokolov, S. Balestri, A. R. MacKenzie, V. Khattatov, “The M-55 Geophysica as a platform for the Airborne Polar Experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1303–1312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

A. Weaver, S. Solomon, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H. L. Miller, “Atmospheric NO3. 5. Off-axis measurements at sunrise: estimates of tropospheric NO3 at 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Arpag, P. V. Johnston, H. L. Miller, R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, “Observation of stratospheric BrO column over Colorado, 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8175–8181 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stammes, P.

R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Effects of clouds on ozone column retrieval from GOME UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8281–8294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stefanutti, L.

L. Stefanutti, L. Sokolov, S. Balestri, A. R. MacKenzie, V. Khattatov, “The M-55 Geophysica as a platform for the Airborne Polar Experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1303–1312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonov, F.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Roozendael, M.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

von Clarmann, T.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vradelis, P.

Wang, P.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, A.

A. Weaver, S. Solomon, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H. L. Miller, “Atmospheric NO3. 5. Off-axis measurements at sunrise: estimates of tropospheric NO3 at 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yushkov, V.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, P. Pommereau, M. Van Roozendael, M. Gil, H. B. Chen, P. Wang, J. Lenoble, “Ozone and NO2 air-mass factor for zenith-sky spectrometers: intercomparison of calculation with different radiative transfer models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1113–1116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Perner, U. Platt, “Detection of nitrous acid in the atmosphere by differential optical absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 917–920 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment: observation of O3 and NO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1375–1378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. T. McElroy, “A spectroradiometer for the measurements of direct and scattered solar irradiance from on-board the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1361–1364 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

V. Yushkov, A. Oulanovsky, N. Lechenuk, I. Roudakov, K. Arshinov, F. Tikhonov, L. Stefanutti, F. Ravegnani, U. Bonafè, T. Georgiadis, “A chemiluminescent analyzer for stratospheric measurements of the ozone concentration (FOZAN),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1345–1350 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Stefanutti, L. Sokolov, S. Balestri, A. R. MacKenzie, V. Khattatov, “The M-55 Geophysica as a platform for the Airborne Polar Experiment,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1303–1312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

N. Glattor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, J. P. Smith, L. Perliski, H. L. Miller, G. H. Mount, J. G. Keys, A. L. Schmeltekopf, “Visible and near-ultraviolet spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 7219–7228 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Arpag, P. V. Johnston, H. L. Miller, R. W. Sanders, S. Solomon, “Observation of stratospheric BrO column over Colorado, 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8175–8181 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Weaver, S. Solomon, R. W. Sanders, K. Arpag, H. L. Miller, “Atmospheric NO3. 5. Off-axis measurements at sunrise: estimates of tropospheric NO3 at 40 °N,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18605–18612 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Slusser, K. Hammond, A. Kylling, K. Stamnes, L. Perliski, A. Dahlback, D. Anderson, R. DeMajistre, “Comparison of air mass computations,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9315–9321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, J. A. Lathrop, “Ten years of ozonesonde measurements at the South Pole: implications for recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8931–8943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. B. A. Koelemeijer, P. Stammes, “Effects of clouds on ozone column retrieval from GOME UV measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8281–8294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

A. Sarkissian, H. K. Roscoe, D. Fish, “Ozone measurements by zenith-sky spectrometers: an evaluation of errors in air-mass factors calculated by radiative transfer models,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 471–480 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. F. Noxon, “Nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere and troposphere measured by ground-based absorption spectroscopy,” Science 189, 547–549 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, R. Becca, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, I. Kostadinov, “Performance of a diode-array spectrometer in DOAS applications,” in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques, K. Schaefer, ed., Proc. SPIE3106, 171–178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, M. Cervino, F. Evangelisti, F. Ravegnani, “Ozone ground-based measurements by the GASCOD near-UV and visible system,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, Italy, 1998), pp. 707–711.

Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry, University of Essen, and the Research Center Karlsruhe, “UV/Vis spectra of atmospheric constituents,” supplied by the ATMOS User Centre, http://auc.dfd.dlr.de/search/index.html .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mechanical (optical unit) and schematic (electronic unit) drawing of the GASCOD/A4π. The light collected by the input windows (1) is redirected by the rotating plane mirror (2) to an optical system (3) composed of a spherical mirror (f/5) and two plane mirrors and the filter wheel. Finally a 45° mirror takes the light to the entrance slit (4) and the monochromator (5), where the f/5 holographic grating focuses the dispersed spectrum onto the CCD camera (6). A custom-developed PC (7) manages the whole instrumentation. A 115-V 400-Hz and 27-V dc power supply was provided by the Geophysica electronic system through a shielded electronic cable (8). The internal pressure is kept at ground-level value. The optical unit is thermally insulated with a polyurethane lining (not shown in the diagram). The incoming light paths are labeled accordingly with symbols used in the text: vertical direction (V), horizontal right (H 0), and horizontal left (H 4).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement geometry of the GASCOD/A4π DOAS windows. The Cartesian coordinates are shown in the left lower corner. The solar radiation, approximated as a uniform beam of parallel rays, travels through the atmosphere (S V , S 0, S 4), and, after it reaches the instrumental optical plane, a portion of the electromagnetic radiation is scattered in the GASCOD/A4π FOV along paths V, H 0, and H 4 according to the Rayleigh and Mie scattering laws.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Parameters for the flight on 23 September 1999. Altitude (bold solid curve) was provided by the Geophysica UCSE system, while the SZA (dashed curve) was calculated. The relative solar azimuth (solid curve) is the azimuth of the Sun with respect to the aircraft velocity vector. (b) The flight trajectory in latitude–longitude coordinates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probability density functions calculated with the AMEFCO model, assuming that the aircraft is in shell 18, (i.e., 18-km flight altitude).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ozone ACILA values from the GASOCD/A4π horizontal windows and FOZAN data during the flight of 23 September 1999. Geographic position labels are indicated by the dashed–dotted lines for take off, turning point, and landing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Correlation between the ACILA and the FOZAN under ozone depletion conditions and (b) ozone concentrations outside the polar vortex.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

ACILA values calculated along the P H,l path by averaging along both horizontal and vertical directions through the atmospheric layer. Strong gas vertical gradients could therefore involve a significant discrepancy between in situ sampling and remote-sensing retrieval.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ll,la (km) as a Function of Altitude (l), Off-Axis Angle (φ), and Shell Number (l a )

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γl,la= RE+Ala×sinφ-arcsinRE+Al-0.5RE+Alasin φsin φ,
HCD=laρi,laLl,laρi,MPH,l,

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