Abstract

We have used digital in-line holography (DIH) with numerical reconstruction to image micrometer-sized latex spheres as well as ferrimagnetic beads suspended in gelatin. We have examined in detail theoretically and experimentally the conditions necessary to achieve submicrometer resolution of holographic reconstructions. We found that both transparent and opaque particles could be imaged with a resolution that was limited only by the wavelength of the light used. Simple inspection of intensity profiles through a particle allowed an estimate to be made of the particle’s three position coordinates within an accuracy of a few hundred nanometers. When the derivative of a second-order polynomial fitted to the intensity profiles was taken, the X, Y, Z position coordinates of particles could be determined within ±50 nm. More-accurate positional resolution should be possible with the help of more-advanced computer averaging techniques. Because a single hologram can give information about a large collection of distributed particles, DIH offers the prospect of a powerful new tool for three-dimensional tracking of particles.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. J. Kreuzer, “Low energy electron point source microscopy,” Micron 26, 503–509 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Schmid, H.-W. Fink, H. J. Kreuzer, “In-line holography using low-energy electrons and photons: applications for manipulation on a nanometer scale,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2428–2431 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Kreuzer, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, S. Bonev, “Holography of holes, with electrons and photons,” J. Microsc. 178, 191–197 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, “Fast implementation of in-line holography for high resolution shape measurement,” in Simulation and Experiment in Laser Metrology, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Laser Applications in Precision Measurements, Z. Füzessy, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
  5. H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, “Numerical reconstruction for in-line holography under glancing incidence,” in Fringe ’97: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
  6. H. J. Kreuzer, N. Pomerleau, K. Blagrave, M. H. Jericho, “Digital in-line holography with numerical reconstruction,” in Interferometry ’99: Techniques and Technologies, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3744, 65–74 (1999).
  7. W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 25, 11,301–11,305 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, W.-B. Xu, “Digital in-line holography with photons and electrons,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10,729–10,741 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. B. Owen, A. A. Zozulya, “In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2187–2197 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, “Theory of the point source electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 381–403 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, leeps, Version 1.2, software package for the simulation and reconstruction of low-energy electron point source images and other holograms (1993–1998).
  12. D. Gabor, “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454–487 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Barton, “Photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1356–1359 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Heinz, U. Starke, J. Bernardt, “Surface holography with LEED electrons,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 64, 163–178 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, H. J. Kreuzer, “State of the art of low-energy electron holography,” in Electron Holography, A. Tonomura, L. F. Allard, D. C. Pozzi, D. C. Joy, Y. A. Ono, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995).
  16. A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. J. Barton, “Removing multiple scattering and twin images from holographic images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3106–3109 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. B. DeVelis, G. Parrent, B. J. Thompson, “Image reconstruction with Fraunhofer holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 423–427 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 25, 11,301–11,305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, W.-B. Xu, “Digital in-line holography with photons and electrons,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10,729–10,741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. B. Owen, A. A. Zozulya, “In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2187–2197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Heinz, U. Starke, J. Bernardt, “Surface holography with LEED electrons,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 64, 163–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

H. J. Kreuzer, “Low energy electron point source microscopy,” Micron 26, 503–509 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H.-W. Fink, H. J. Kreuzer, “In-line holography using low-energy electrons and photons: applications for manipulation on a nanometer scale,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2428–2431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, S. Bonev, “Holography of holes, with electrons and photons,” J. Microsc. 178, 191–197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, “Theory of the point source electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 381–403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. J. Barton, “Removing multiple scattering and twin images from holographic images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3106–3109 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. J. Barton, “Photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1356–1359 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

1949 (1)

D. Gabor, “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454–487 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. J.

J. J. Barton, “Removing multiple scattering and twin images from holographic images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3106–3109 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Barton, “Photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1356–1359 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernardt, J.

K. Heinz, U. Starke, J. Bernardt, “Surface holography with LEED electrons,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 64, 163–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blagrave, K.

H. J. Kreuzer, N. Pomerleau, K. Blagrave, M. H. Jericho, “Digital in-line holography with numerical reconstruction,” in Interferometry ’99: Techniques and Technologies, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3744, 65–74 (1999).

Bonev, S.

H. J. Kreuzer, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, S. Bonev, “Holography of holes, with electrons and photons,” J. Microsc. 178, 191–197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. P.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeVelis, J. B.

Fabry, B.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, H.-W.

H. J. Kreuzer, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, S. Bonev, “Holography of holes, with electrons and photons,” J. Microsc. 178, 191–197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H.-W. Fink, H. J. Kreuzer, “In-line holography using low-energy electrons and photons: applications for manipulation on a nanometer scale,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2428–2431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, “Theory of the point source electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 381–403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, H. J. Kreuzer, “State of the art of low-energy electron holography,” in Electron Holography, A. Tonomura, L. F. Allard, D. C. Pozzi, D. C. Joy, Y. A. Ono, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995).

Friedberg, J. J.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454–487 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Gloganev, M.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gölzhäuser, A.

A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grunze, M.

A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, K.

K. Heinz, U. Starke, J. Bernardt, “Surface holography with LEED electrons,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 64, 163–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, B.

A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jericho, M. H.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 25, 11,301–11,305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, W.-B. Xu, “Digital in-line holography with photons and electrons,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10,729–10,741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, N. Pomerleau, K. Blagrave, M. H. Jericho, “Digital in-line holography with numerical reconstruction,” in Interferometry ’99: Techniques and Technologies, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3744, 65–74 (1999).

Kreuzer, H. J.

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, W.-B. Xu, “Digital in-line holography with photons and electrons,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10,729–10,741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 25, 11,301–11,305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, “Low energy electron point source microscopy,” Micron 26, 503–509 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H.-W. Fink, H. J. Kreuzer, “In-line holography using low-energy electrons and photons: applications for manipulation on a nanometer scale,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2428–2431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, S. Bonev, “Holography of holes, with electrons and photons,” J. Microsc. 178, 191–197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, “Theory of the point source electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 381–403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, N. Pomerleau, K. Blagrave, M. H. Jericho, “Digital in-line holography with numerical reconstruction,” in Interferometry ’99: Techniques and Technologies, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3744, 65–74 (1999).

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, “Fast implementation of in-line holography for high resolution shape measurement,” in Simulation and Experiment in Laser Metrology, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Laser Applications in Precision Measurements, Z. Füzessy, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, H. J. Kreuzer, “State of the art of low-energy electron holography,” in Electron Holography, A. Tonomura, L. F. Allard, D. C. Pozzi, D. C. Joy, Y. A. Ono, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995).

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, “Numerical reconstruction for in-line holography under glancing incidence,” in Fringe ’97: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, leeps, Version 1.2, software package for the simulation and reconstruction of low-energy electron point source images and other holograms (1993–1998).

Maksym, G. N.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meinertzhagen, I. A.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 25, 11,301–11,305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, W.-B. Xu, “Digital in-line holography with photons and electrons,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10,729–10,741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

H. J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, “Theory of the point source electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 381–403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Navajas, D.

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, R. B.

R. B. Owen, A. A. Zozulya, “In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2187–2197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parrent, G.

Pawlitzek, R. A.

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, “Fast implementation of in-line holography for high resolution shape measurement,” in Simulation and Experiment in Laser Metrology, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Laser Applications in Precision Measurements, Z. Füzessy, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, leeps, Version 1.2, software package for the simulation and reconstruction of low-energy electron point source images and other holograms (1993–1998).

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, “Numerical reconstruction for in-line holography under glancing incidence,” in Fringe ’97: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).

Pomerleau, N.

H. J. Kreuzer, N. Pomerleau, K. Blagrave, M. H. Jericho, “Digital in-line holography with numerical reconstruction,” in Interferometry ’99: Techniques and Technologies, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3744, 65–74 (1999).

Schmid, H.

H. Schmid, H.-W. Fink, H. J. Kreuzer, “In-line holography using low-energy electrons and photons: applications for manipulation on a nanometer scale,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2428–2431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, S. Bonev, “Holography of holes, with electrons and photons,” J. Microsc. 178, 191–197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, “Theory of the point source electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 381–403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, H. J. Kreuzer, “State of the art of low-energy electron holography,” in Electron Holography, A. Tonomura, L. F. Allard, D. C. Pozzi, D. C. Joy, Y. A. Ono, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995).

Starke, U.

K. Heinz, U. Starke, J. Bernardt, “Surface holography with LEED electrons,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 64, 163–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. J.

Völkel, B.

A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wierzbicki, A.

H. J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, “Theory of the point source electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 381–403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 25, 11,301–11,305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.-B.

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, W.-B. Xu, “Digital in-line holography with photons and electrons,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10,729–10,741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zharnikov, M.

A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zozulya, A. A.

R. B. Owen, A. A. Zozulya, “In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2187–2197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

H. J. Kreuzer, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, S. Bonev, “Holography of holes, with electrons and photons,” J. Microsc. 178, 191–197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, W.-B. Xu, “Digital in-line holography with photons and electrons,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10,729–10,741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

A. Gölzhäuser, B. Völkel, B. Jäger, M. Zharnikov, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Grunze, “Holographic imaging of macromolecules,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 3025–3028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. Schmid, H.-W. Fink, H. J. Kreuzer, “In-line holography using low-energy electrons and photons: applications for manipulation on a nanometer scale,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2428–2431 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Micron (1)

H. J. Kreuzer, “Low energy electron point source microscopy,” Micron 26, 503–509 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. B. Owen, A. A. Zozulya, “In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2187–2197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. J. Barton, “Removing multiple scattering and twin images from holographic images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3106–3109 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fabry, G. N. Maksym, J. P. Butler, M. Gloganev, D. Navajas, J. J. Friedberg, “Scaling the microrheology of living cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 148102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Barton, “Photoelectron holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1356–1359 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 25, 11,301–11,305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

D. Gabor, “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454–487 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

K. Heinz, U. Starke, J. Bernardt, “Surface holography with LEED electrons,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 64, 163–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

H. J. Kreuzer, K. Nakamura, A. Wierzbicki, H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, “Theory of the point source electron microscope,” Ultramicroscopy 45, 381–403 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, leeps, Version 1.2, software package for the simulation and reconstruction of low-energy electron point source images and other holograms (1993–1998).

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, “Fast implementation of in-line holography for high resolution shape measurement,” in Simulation and Experiment in Laser Metrology, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Laser Applications in Precision Measurements, Z. Füzessy, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

H. J. Kreuzer, R. A. Pawlitzek, “Numerical reconstruction for in-line holography under glancing incidence,” in Fringe ’97: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).

H. J. Kreuzer, N. Pomerleau, K. Blagrave, M. H. Jericho, “Digital in-line holography with numerical reconstruction,” in Interferometry ’99: Techniques and Technologies, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE3744, 65–74 (1999).

H.-W. Fink, H. Schmid, H. J. Kreuzer, “State of the art of low-energy electron holography,” in Electron Holography, A. Tonomura, L. F. Allard, D. C. Pozzi, D. C. Joy, Y. A. Ono, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995).

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