Abstract

Polymer cholesteric liquid-crystal flakes suspended in a fluid with nonnegligible conductivity can exhibit motion in the presence of an ac electric field. The plateletlike particles with a Grandjean texture initially lie parallel to the cell substrates and exhibit a strong selective reflection that is diminished or extinguished as the flakes move. Flake motion was seen within a specific frequency bandwidth in an electric field as low as 5 mVrms/µm. Flakes reoriented about their longest axis to align parallel to the applied field, and a rise time of 560 ms was seen in a 40-mVrms/µm field at 100 Hz.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. M. Faris, “Aligned cholesteric liquid crystal inks,” U.S. patent5,364,557 (15November1994).
  2. E. M. Korenic, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Cholesteric liquid crystal flakes—a new form of domain,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 317, 197–219 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. van Renesse, “Liquid crystal security devices,” in Optical Document Security, R. L. van Renesse, ed. (Artech House, Boston, 1994), p. 263.
  4. E. M. Korenic, “Colorimetry of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 1997).
  5. W. M. Winslow, “Induced fibration of suspensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1137–1140 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B.-S. Yu, E.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, “Developments in suspended particle devices (SPD),” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion, C. M. Lambert, C.-G. Granqvist, M. Graetzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 217–225 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, “Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel,” Proc. IEEE 61, 832–836 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. L. Fergason, “Polymer encapsulated nematic liquid crystals for display and light control applications,” in 1985 Society for Information Display International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers, J. Morreale, ed. (Pallisades Institute of Research Services, New York, 1985), p. 68.
  9. B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, “Electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays,” Nature 394, 253–255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. K. Sheridon, G. G. Robertson, “Subtractive color twisting ball display,” U.S. patent5,767,826 (16June1998).
  12. D. R. Cairns, M. Sibulkin, G. P. Crawford, “Switching dynamics of suspended mesogenic polymer microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2643–2645 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Li, Reveo, Inc., 85 Executive Blvd, Elmsford, NY 10523 (personal communication 1998).
  14. K. L. Marshall, T. Z. Kosc, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” World patentWO 01/88607 A1 (22November2001); and T. Z. Kosc, K. L. Marshall, S. D. Jacobs, B. Klehn, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” presented at the Novel Optical Materials and Applications Meeting, Cetraro, Italy, 20–27 May 2001.
  15. Wacker-Chemie, Consortium für Electrochemische Industrie GmbH, Zielstattstrasse 20, D-81379 München, Germany.
  16. R. S. Higgins, S. A. Klinger, eds., High Purity Solvent Guide (Burdick and Jackson Division of Baxter Diagnostics, Inc., Muskegon, Mich., 1990).
  17. Sigma-Aldrich-Fluka Catalog (Sigma-Aldrich-Fluka, Milwaukee, Wis., 2000).
  18. Thin Film Devices Inc., Anaheim Calif., 92807. The indium tin oxide is sputter coated 750 Å thick onto a soda lime float glass substrate with a rms surface roughness of 3–4 Å (Zygo NewView 5000, 20× Mirau, areal over 250 µm × 350 µm; Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Conn. 06455). It has a resistivity of 100 Ω/sq and 88% transmission in the visible.
  19. T. B. Jones, Electromechanics of Particles (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Okagawa, R. G. Cox, S. G. Mason, “Particle behavior in shear and electric fields VI. The microrheology of rigid spheroids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 536–567 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. R. Cairns, M. Sibulkin, G. P. Crawford, “Switching dynamics of suspended mesogenic polymer microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2643–2645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. M. Korenic, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Cholesteric liquid crystal flakes—a new form of domain,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 317, 197–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, “Electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays,” Nature 394, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Okagawa, R. G. Cox, S. G. Mason, “Particle behavior in shear and electric fields VI. The microrheology of rigid spheroids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 536–567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, “Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel,” Proc. IEEE 61, 832–836 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

W. M. Winslow, “Induced fibration of suspensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1137–1140 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J. D.

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, “Electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays,” Nature 394, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, D. R.

D. R. Cairns, M. Sibulkin, G. P. Crawford, “Switching dynamics of suspended mesogenic polymer microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2643–2645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Comiskey, B.

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, “Electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays,” Nature 394, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cox, R. G.

A. Okagawa, R. G. Cox, S. G. Mason, “Particle behavior in shear and electric fields VI. The microrheology of rigid spheroids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 536–567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

D. R. Cairns, M. Sibulkin, G. P. Crawford, “Switching dynamics of suspended mesogenic polymer microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2643–2645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crowley, J. C.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faris, S. M.

E. M. Korenic, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Cholesteric liquid crystal flakes—a new form of domain,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 317, 197–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Faris, “Aligned cholesteric liquid crystal inks,” U.S. patent5,364,557 (15November1994).

K. L. Marshall, T. Z. Kosc, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” World patentWO 01/88607 A1 (22November2001); and T. Z. Kosc, K. L. Marshall, S. D. Jacobs, B. Klehn, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” presented at the Novel Optical Materials and Applications Meeting, Cetraro, Italy, 20–27 May 2001.

Fergason, J. L.

J. L. Fergason, “Polymer encapsulated nematic liquid crystals for display and light control applications,” in 1985 Society for Information Display International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers, J. Morreale, ed. (Pallisades Institute of Research Services, New York, 1985), p. 68.

Howard, M. E.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

E. M. Korenic, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Cholesteric liquid crystal flakes—a new form of domain,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 317, 197–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Marshall, T. Z. Kosc, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” World patentWO 01/88607 A1 (22November2001); and T. Z. Kosc, K. L. Marshall, S. D. Jacobs, B. Klehn, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” presented at the Novel Optical Materials and Applications Meeting, Cetraro, Italy, 20–27 May 2001.

Jacobson, J.

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, “Electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays,” Nature 394, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. B.

T. B. Jones, Electromechanics of Particles (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.-S.

B.-S. Yu, E.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, “Developments in suspended particle devices (SPD),” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion, C. M. Lambert, C.-G. Granqvist, M. Graetzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 217–225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Korenic, E. M.

E. M. Korenic, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Cholesteric liquid crystal flakes—a new form of domain,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 317, 197–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Korenic, “Colorimetry of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 1997).

Kosc, T. Z.

K. L. Marshall, T. Z. Kosc, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” World patentWO 01/88607 A1 (22November2001); and T. Z. Kosc, K. L. Marshall, S. D. Jacobs, B. Klehn, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” presented at the Novel Optical Materials and Applications Meeting, Cetraro, Italy, 20–27 May 2001.

Lee, Y.-W.

B.-S. Yu, E.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, “Developments in suspended particle devices (SPD),” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion, C. M. Lambert, C.-G. Granqvist, M. Graetzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 217–225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

E. M. Korenic, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Cholesteric liquid crystal flakes—a new form of domain,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 317, 197–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Reveo, Inc., 85 Executive Blvd, Elmsford, NY 10523 (personal communication 1998).

K. L. Marshall, T. Z. Kosc, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” World patentWO 01/88607 A1 (22November2001); and T. Z. Kosc, K. L. Marshall, S. D. Jacobs, B. Klehn, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” presented at the Novel Optical Materials and Applications Meeting, Cetraro, Italy, 20–27 May 2001.

Marshall, K. L.

K. L. Marshall, T. Z. Kosc, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” World patentWO 01/88607 A1 (22November2001); and T. Z. Kosc, K. L. Marshall, S. D. Jacobs, B. Klehn, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” presented at the Novel Optical Materials and Applications Meeting, Cetraro, Italy, 20–27 May 2001.

Mason, S. G.

A. Okagawa, R. G. Cox, S. G. Mason, “Particle behavior in shear and electric fields VI. The microrheology of rigid spheroids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 536–567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, J. C.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, J.

I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, “Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel,” Proc. IEEE 61, 832–836 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, A.

A. Okagawa, R. G. Cox, S. G. Mason, “Particle behavior in shear and electric fields VI. The microrheology of rigid spheroids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 536–567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Oraha, K. A.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ota, I.

I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, “Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel,” Proc. IEEE 61, 832–836 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Richley, E. A.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, G. G.

N. K. Sheridon, G. G. Robertson, “Subtractive color twisting ball display,” U.S. patent5,767,826 (16June1998).

Rodkin, M. A.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheridon, N. K.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Sheridon, G. G. Robertson, “Subtractive color twisting ball display,” U.S. patent5,767,826 (16June1998).

Sibulkin, M.

D. R. Cairns, M. Sibulkin, G. P. Crawford, “Switching dynamics of suspended mesogenic polymer microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2643–2645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swidler, R.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, D.

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Renesse, R. L.

R. L. van Renesse, “Liquid crystal security devices,” in Optical Document Security, R. L. van Renesse, ed. (Artech House, Boston, 1994), p. 263.

Winslow, W. M.

W. M. Winslow, “Induced fibration of suspensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1137–1140 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiyama, M.

I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, “Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel,” Proc. IEEE 61, 832–836 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, H.

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, “Electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays,” Nature 394, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.-S.

B.-S. Yu, E.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, “Developments in suspended particle devices (SPD),” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion, C. M. Lambert, C.-G. Granqvist, M. Graetzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 217–225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. R. Cairns, M. Sibulkin, G. P. Crawford, “Switching dynamics of suspended mesogenic polymer microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2643–2645 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. M. Winslow, “Induced fibration of suspensions,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1137–1140 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

A. Okagawa, R. G. Cox, S. G. Mason, “Particle behavior in shear and electric fields VI. The microrheology of rigid spheroids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 536–567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

N. K. Sheridon, E. A. Richley, J. C. Mikkelsen, D. Tsuda, J. C. Crowley, K. A. Oraha, M. E. Howard, M. A. Rodkin, R. Swidler, R. Sprague, “The Gyricon rotating ball display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7, 141–144 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

E. M. Korenic, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Cholesteric liquid crystal flakes—a new form of domain,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 317, 197–219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, H. Yoshizawa, J. Jacobson, “Electrophoretic ink for all-printed reflective electronic displays,” Nature 394, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

I. Ota, J. Ohnishi, M. Yoshiyama, “Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel,” Proc. IEEE 61, 832–836 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

J. L. Fergason, “Polymer encapsulated nematic liquid crystals for display and light control applications,” in 1985 Society for Information Display International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers, J. Morreale, ed. (Pallisades Institute of Research Services, New York, 1985), p. 68.

S. M. Faris, “Aligned cholesteric liquid crystal inks,” U.S. patent5,364,557 (15November1994).

R. L. van Renesse, “Liquid crystal security devices,” in Optical Document Security, R. L. van Renesse, ed. (Artech House, Boston, 1994), p. 263.

E. M. Korenic, “Colorimetry of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 1997).

B.-S. Yu, E.-S. Kim, Y.-W. Lee, “Developments in suspended particle devices (SPD),” in Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion, C. M. Lambert, C.-G. Granqvist, M. Graetzel, S. K. Deb, eds., Proc. SPIE3138, 217–225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Reveo, Inc., 85 Executive Blvd, Elmsford, NY 10523 (personal communication 1998).

K. L. Marshall, T. Z. Kosc, S. D. Jacobs, S. M. Faris, L. Li, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” World patentWO 01/88607 A1 (22November2001); and T. Z. Kosc, K. L. Marshall, S. D. Jacobs, B. Klehn, “Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flakes for display and other electro-optic applications,” presented at the Novel Optical Materials and Applications Meeting, Cetraro, Italy, 20–27 May 2001.

Wacker-Chemie, Consortium für Electrochemische Industrie GmbH, Zielstattstrasse 20, D-81379 München, Germany.

R. S. Higgins, S. A. Klinger, eds., High Purity Solvent Guide (Burdick and Jackson Division of Baxter Diagnostics, Inc., Muskegon, Mich., 1990).

Sigma-Aldrich-Fluka Catalog (Sigma-Aldrich-Fluka, Milwaukee, Wis., 2000).

Thin Film Devices Inc., Anaheim Calif., 92807. The indium tin oxide is sputter coated 750 Å thick onto a soda lime float glass substrate with a rms surface roughness of 3–4 Å (Zygo NewView 5000, 20× Mirau, areal over 250 µm × 350 µm; Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Conn. 06455). It has a resistivity of 100 Ω/sq and 88% transmission in the visible.

T. B. Jones, Electromechanics of Particles (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Sheridon, G. G. Robertson, “Subtractive color twisting ball display,” U.S. patent5,767,826 (16June1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Dimensions of a typical irregularly shaped pCLC flake. (b) Flakes lie approximately parallel to cell substrates when no electric field is applied and have a selective reflection peak at λ0 = 520 nm (green) because of the helical molecular structure of cholesteric liquid crystals, as depicted by the enlarged flake. (c) Flakes reorient with one long axis parallel to the applied field. They appear dark since light is no longer reflected off their flat surfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristic time response of a representative pCLC flake as a function of frequency at specific electric field values. Lines are drawn to guide the eye. Similar behavior was observed for dozens of flakes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average response time of several flakes has an inverse quadratic dependence on the applied voltage. The standard deviation of 10% is of the order of the size of the data points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flake motion in a 40-mVrms/µm (1.72-Vrms) field at 100 Hz was studied with a PMT detecting light reflected from the flake surface. Initially, the flake reflected brightly but little light was detected on reorientation. The resulting contrast ratio, with no attempt to eliminate light from other flakes and sources of scatter, was approximately 15:1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of CLC520 Flakes and Host Fluid

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