Abstract

A new optical technique based on real-time color holographic interferometry has been developed for analyzing unsteady aerodynamic wakes in fluid mechanics or for measuring displacements and deformations in solid mechanics. The technique’s feasibility is demonstrated here. It uses three coherent wavelengths produced simultaneously by a cw laser (mixed argon and krypton). Holograms are recorded on single-layer panchromatic silver halide (Slavich PFG 03C) plates. Results show the optical setup can be adjusted to obtain a uniform background color. The interference fringe pattern visualized is large and colored and exhibits a single central white fringe, which makes the zero order of the interferogram easy to identify. An application in a subsonic wind tunnel is presented, in which the unsteady wake past a cylinder is recorded at high rate.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Desse, “Instantaneous density measurement in two-dimensional gas flow by high speed differential interferometry,” Exp. Fluid 9, 85–91 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Desse, “Recording and processing of interferograms by spectral characterization of the interferometric setup,” Exp. Fluid 23, 256–271 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Desse, “Three-color differential interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7150–7156 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Surget, “Etude quantitative d’un écoulement aérodynamique,” Rech. Aérosp. 3, 167–171 (1973).
  5. L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, “Double exposure holographic interferometry,” Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. II 10, 1187–1190 (1965).
  6. R. L. Powell, K. Stetson, “Interferometric vibration analysis of three-dimensional objects by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 612 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Stetson, R. L. Powell, “Interferometric hologram evaluation and real-time vibration analysis of diffuse objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1694–1695 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.
  9. P. K. Rastogi, ed., Holographic Interferometry, Principles and Methods, Vol. 68 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Smigielski, H. Fagot, F. Albe, “Application de l’holographie ultra rapide à référence arrière à l’étude de déformations dynamiques,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of High-Speed Photography (1976).
  11. C. S. Vikram, W. K. Witherow, “Critical needs of fringe-order accuracy in two-color holographic interferometry,” Exp. Mech., March1992, 74–77.
  12. J. Harthong, J. Sadi, M. Torzynski, D. Vukicevic, “Speckle phase averaging in high resolution color holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 405–410 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. H. Jeong, H. J. Bjelkhagen, L. M. Spoto, “Holographic interferometry with multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3686–3688 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Wang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters spectrally modulate light,” Laser Focus World, August1992, 173–178.
  15. P. M. Hubel, “Recent advances in color reflection holography,” in Practical Holography V, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 167–174 (1991).
  16. H. J. Bjelkhagen, D. Vukicevic, “Lippmann color holography in single-layer silver-halide emulsion,” in Fifth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong ed., Proc. SPIE2333, 34–48 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. J. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer silver halide emulsion,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40-2, 134–146 (1996).
  18. H. J. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing, Vol. 66 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Sasomov, P. Kumonko, D. Ratcliffe, G. Skokov, M. Grichine, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holographic Materials V, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 42–53 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

H. J. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer silver halide emulsion,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40-2, 134–146 (1996).

1992 (2)

C. S. Vikram, W. K. Witherow, “Critical needs of fringe-order accuracy in two-color holographic interferometry,” Exp. Mech., March1992, 74–77.

X. Wang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters spectrally modulate light,” Laser Focus World, August1992, 173–178.

1990 (1)

J. M. Desse, “Instantaneous density measurement in two-dimensional gas flow by high speed differential interferometry,” Exp. Fluid 9, 85–91 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. Surget, “Etude quantitative d’un écoulement aérodynamique,” Rech. Aérosp. 3, 167–171 (1973).

1965 (3)

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, “Double exposure holographic interferometry,” Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. II 10, 1187–1190 (1965).

R. L. Powell, K. Stetson, “Interferometric vibration analysis of three-dimensional objects by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 612 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. Stetson, R. L. Powell, “Interferometric hologram evaluation and real-time vibration analysis of diffuse objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1694–1695 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Albe, F.

P. Smigielski, H. Fagot, F. Albe, “Application de l’holographie ultra rapide à référence arrière à l’étude de déformations dynamiques,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of High-Speed Photography (1976).

Armstrong, S. D.

W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.

Bjelkhagen, H. J.

T. H. Jeong, H. J. Bjelkhagen, L. M. Spoto, “Holographic interferometry with multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3686–3688 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer silver halide emulsion,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40-2, 134–146 (1996).

H. J. Bjelkhagen, D. Vukicevic, “Lippmann color holography in single-layer silver-halide emulsion,” in Fifth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong ed., Proc. SPIE2333, 34–48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing, Vol. 66 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, R. E.

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, “Double exposure holographic interferometry,” Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. II 10, 1187–1190 (1965).

Desse, J. M.

J. M. Desse, “Three-color differential interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7150–7156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Desse, “Recording and processing of interferograms by spectral characterization of the interferometric setup,” Exp. Fluid 23, 256–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Desse, “Instantaneous density measurement in two-dimensional gas flow by high speed differential interferometry,” Exp. Fluid 9, 85–91 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Facemire, B. R.

W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.

Fagot, H.

P. Smigielski, H. Fagot, F. Albe, “Application de l’holographie ultra rapide à référence arrière à l’étude de déformations dynamiques,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of High-Speed Photography (1976).

Grichine, M.

Y. Sasomov, P. Kumonko, D. Ratcliffe, G. Skokov, M. Grichine, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holographic Materials V, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 42–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harthong, J.

Heflinger, L. O.

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, “Double exposure holographic interferometry,” Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. II 10, 1187–1190 (1965).

Hubel, P. M.

P. M. Hubel, “Recent advances in color reflection holography,” in Practical Holography V, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 167–174 (1991).

Jeong, T. H.

T. H. Jeong, H. J. Bjelkhagen, L. M. Spoto, “Holographic interferometry with multiple wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3686–3688 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer silver halide emulsion,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40-2, 134–146 (1996).

Kumonko, P.

Y. Sasomov, P. Kumonko, D. Ratcliffe, G. Skokov, M. Grichine, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holographic Materials V, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 42–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. L.

R. L. Powell, K. Stetson, “Interferometric vibration analysis of three-dimensional objects by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 612 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. Stetson, R. L. Powell, “Interferometric hologram evaluation and real-time vibration analysis of diffuse objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1694–1695 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ratcliffe, D.

Y. Sasomov, P. Kumonko, D. Ratcliffe, G. Skokov, M. Grichine, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holographic Materials V, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 42–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. R.

W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.

Sadi, J.

Sasomov, Y.

Y. Sasomov, P. Kumonko, D. Ratcliffe, G. Skokov, M. Grichine, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holographic Materials V, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 42–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Skokov, G.

Y. Sasomov, P. Kumonko, D. Ratcliffe, G. Skokov, M. Grichine, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holographic Materials V, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 42–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smigielski, P.

P. Smigielski, H. Fagot, F. Albe, “Application de l’holographie ultra rapide à référence arrière à l’étude de déformations dynamiques,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of High-Speed Photography (1976).

Spoto, L. M.

Stetson, K.

K. Stetson, R. L. Powell, “Interferometric hologram evaluation and real-time vibration analysis of diffuse objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1694–1695 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Powell, K. Stetson, “Interferometric vibration analysis of three-dimensional objects by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 612 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Surget, J.

J. Surget, “Etude quantitative d’un écoulement aérodynamique,” Rech. Aérosp. 3, 167–171 (1973).

Torzynski, M.

Trolinger, J. D.

W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.

Vikram, C. S.

C. S. Vikram, W. K. Witherow, “Critical needs of fringe-order accuracy in two-color holographic interferometry,” Exp. Mech., March1992, 74–77.

W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.

Vukicevic, D.

J. Harthong, J. Sadi, M. Torzynski, D. Vukicevic, “Speckle phase averaging in high resolution color holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 405–410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer silver halide emulsion,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40-2, 134–146 (1996).

H. J. Bjelkhagen, D. Vukicevic, “Lippmann color holography in single-layer silver-halide emulsion,” in Fifth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong ed., Proc. SPIE2333, 34–48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters spectrally modulate light,” Laser Focus World, August1992, 173–178.

Weber, D.

W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.

Witherow, W. K.

C. S. Vikram, W. K. Witherow, “Critical needs of fringe-order accuracy in two-color holographic interferometry,” Exp. Mech., March1992, 74–77.

W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.

Wuerker, R. F.

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, “Double exposure holographic interferometry,” Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. II 10, 1187–1190 (1965).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. II (1)

L. O. Heflinger, R. F. Wuerker, R. E. Brooks, “Double exposure holographic interferometry,” Bul. Am. Phys. Soc. II 10, 1187–1190 (1965).

Exp. Fluid (2)

J. M. Desse, “Instantaneous density measurement in two-dimensional gas flow by high speed differential interferometry,” Exp. Fluid 9, 85–91 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Desse, “Recording and processing of interferograms by spectral characterization of the interferometric setup,” Exp. Fluid 23, 256–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Mech. (1)

C. S. Vikram, W. K. Witherow, “Critical needs of fringe-order accuracy in two-color holographic interferometry,” Exp. Mech., March1992, 74–77.

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

H. J. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer silver halide emulsion,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40-2, 134–146 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

K. Stetson, R. L. Powell, “Interferometric hologram evaluation and real-time vibration analysis of diffuse objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1694–1695 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Powell, K. Stetson, “Interferometric vibration analysis of three-dimensional objects by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 612 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Focus World (1)

X. Wang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters spectrally modulate light,” Laser Focus World, August1992, 173–178.

Rech. Aérosp. (1)

J. Surget, “Etude quantitative d’un écoulement aérodynamique,” Rech. Aérosp. 3, 167–171 (1973).

Other (7)

H. J. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing, Vol. 66 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasomov, P. Kumonko, D. Ratcliffe, G. Skokov, M. Grichine, “Recent advances in holographic materials from Slavich,” in Holographic Materials V, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE3638, 42–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hubel, “Recent advances in color reflection holography,” in Practical Holography V, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 167–174 (1991).

H. J. Bjelkhagen, D. Vukicevic, “Lippmann color holography in single-layer silver-halide emulsion,” in Fifth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong ed., Proc. SPIE2333, 34–48 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Witherow, J. R. Rogers, B. R. Facemire, S. D. Armstrong, J. D. Trolinger, D. Weber, C. S. Vikram, “Methods to detect and measure gradients in fluids and materials processing,” in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Experimental Methods for Microgravity Materials Science, R. A. Schiffman, J. B. Andrews, eds. (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, Pa., 1994), pp. 33–37.

P. K. Rastogi, ed., Holographic Interferometry, Principles and Methods, Vol. 68 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Smigielski, H. Fagot, F. Albe, “Application de l’holographie ultra rapide à référence arrière à l’étude de déformations dynamiques,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of High-Speed Photography (1976).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real-time color holographic interferometry setup (transmission mode).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Parasitic images in the focal plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Uniform background color and (b) straight-fringe interferograms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical setup implanted around the wind tunnel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interferograms obtained in wind tunnel experiments. (a) Interferogram recorded with circular fringes. (b) Interferogram recorded at Mach 0.55, exposure time = 750 ns.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

High-speed interferograms recorded in uniform background color, Mach = 0.37, Δt = 100 µs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Interferogram analysis: Vortex position and velocity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vortex analysis: gas density.

Equations (3)

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E=n-1e,
K=n-1ρ/ρs,
Δρρo=ΔEeKρsρo,

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