Abstract

The optics of head-mounted displays (HMDs) is designed from the pupil of the eye to the miniature display, and the optics is thus commonly solely assessed in the plane of the miniature display. Such assessment does not provide information that usefully interfaces with task-based performance metrics. We present a comprehensive framework for the assessment of the optics of HMDs in visual space, which applies to nonrotationally symmetric systems as well. Four key measures of visual performance are presented, and macro files were implemented to validate the framework. We illustrate the methods using an Erfle eyepiece.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environments 4, 24–49 (1995).
  2. M. Shenker, “Image quality considerations for head-mounted displays,” in Digest of the International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 334–338.
  3. J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Mouroulis, J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997).
  5. J. P. Rolland, V. Shaoulov, F. J. Gonzalez, “The art of back-of-the-envelope paraxial raytracing,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 44, 365–372 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Rolland, M. W. Krueger, A. Goon, “Multifocal planes head-mounted displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3209–3215 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. P. Thompson, “Aberration fields in nonsymmetric optical systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1980).
  8. J. R. Rogers, “Techniques and tools for obtaining symmetrical performance from tilted-component systems,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1776–1787 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Mouroulis, Visual Instrumentation: Optical Design and Engineering Principles (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999).

2001 (1)

J. P. Rolland, V. Shaoulov, F. J. Gonzalez, “The art of back-of-the-envelope paraxial raytracing,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 44, 365–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. R. Rogers, “Techniques and tools for obtaining symmetrical performance from tilted-component systems,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1776–1787 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, M. W. Krueger, A. Goon, “Multifocal planes head-mounted displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3209–3215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environments 4, 24–49 (1995).

Ariely, D.

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environments 4, 24–49 (1995).

Gibson, W.

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environments 4, 24–49 (1995).

Gonzalez, F. J.

J. P. Rolland, V. Shaoulov, F. J. Gonzalez, “The art of back-of-the-envelope paraxial raytracing,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 44, 365–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goon, A.

Krueger, M. W.

Macdonald, J.

P. Mouroulis, J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997).

Mouroulis, P.

P. Mouroulis, J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997).

P. Mouroulis, Visual Instrumentation: Optical Design and Engineering Principles (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999).

Rogers, J. R.

J. R. Rogers, “Techniques and tools for obtaining symmetrical performance from tilted-component systems,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1776–1787 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

J. P. Rolland, V. Shaoulov, F. J. Gonzalez, “The art of back-of-the-envelope paraxial raytracing,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 44, 365–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, M. W. Krueger, A. Goon, “Multifocal planes head-mounted displays,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3209–3215 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environments 4, 24–49 (1995).

Shaoulov, V.

J. P. Rolland, V. Shaoulov, F. J. Gonzalez, “The art of back-of-the-envelope paraxial raytracing,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 44, 365–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shenker, M.

M. Shenker, “Image quality considerations for head-mounted displays,” in Digest of the International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 334–338.

Thompson, K. P.

K. P. Thompson, “Aberration fields in nonsymmetric optical systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1980).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Educ. (1)

J. P. Rolland, V. Shaoulov, F. J. Gonzalez, “The art of back-of-the-envelope paraxial raytracing,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 44, 365–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. R. Rogers, “Techniques and tools for obtaining symmetrical performance from tilted-component systems,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1776–1787 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland, “Wide-angle, off-axis, see-through head-mounted display,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1760–1767 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environments (1)

J. P. Rolland, D. Ariely, W. Gibson, “Towards quantifying depth and size perception in virtual environments,” Presence Teleoper. Virtual Environments 4, 24–49 (1995).

Other (4)

M. Shenker, “Image quality considerations for head-mounted displays,” in Digest of the International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 334–338.

P. Mouroulis, J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997).

P. Mouroulis, Visual Instrumentation: Optical Design and Engineering Principles (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999).

K. P. Thompson, “Aberration fields in nonsymmetric optical systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1980).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of imaging of the eye and the corresponding depth of field. I, image of the eye lens; O, nominal object plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional layout of the Erfle eyepiece.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distortion of the Erfle eyepiece.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polychromatic MTF in cycles per millimeter with a 3-mm pupil.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two-dimensional layout of the Erfle eyepiece after inversion and insertion of a perfect lens into the pupil.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polychromatic MTF for a 3-mm pupil as a function of the spatial frequency in cycles per arcminute.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Accommodation shift in diopters for a centered 3-mm pupil. (b) Residual accommodation blur in arcminutes for a centered 3-mm pupil.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Astigmatism in diopters for a centered 3-mm pupil. (b) Astigmatism in arcminutes for a centered 3-mm pupil.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Transverse lateral color in arcminutes. (b) Transverse secondary color in arcminutes.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Three Steps to Compute the MTF in Visual Space

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Table 2 Ten Steps to Compute Astigmatism and Accommodation Shift in Visual Space

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Table 3 Four Steps to Compute Transverse Color Smear in Visual Space

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Table 4 List of Available Macro Files at http://odalab.ucf.edu/macro

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Table 5 Design Specifications

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Table 6 Prescription Data for the Erfle Eyepiece

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f=1tan θ-1/L,
DD=1-LD=-d+ηLOLOd,DP=1-LP=-d-ηLOLOd,
D=-1L+Δ-1f,
TLC=tan-1XC2+YC21/2L-tan-1XF2+YF21/2L×18060π,
TSC=tan-1XR2+YR21/2L-tan-1XC+XF22+YC+YF221/2L×18060π,

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