Abstract

We report a high-repetition-rate, compact terawatt Ti:sapphire laser system. The oscillator produces an 82-MHz pulse train consisting of broad-bandwidth pulses of 0.5-nJ/pulse energy and of 9-fs pulse duration. The spectrally shaped, λ/4 regenerative amplifier supports an 80-nm bandwidth. A single 50-Hz repetition-rate pump laser pumps both the regenerative amplifier and a multiple-pass amplifier. The final output from this laser is a 50-Hz pulse train made from pulses of 53 mJ/pulse energy and of 24-fs pulse duration. For generating ultrafast x-ray pulses, 90% of the energy from the final output of a 28-mm-diameter (1/e 2) beam is focused onto an ultrafast x-ray wire target. The energy conversion efficiency from optical (800-nm central wavelength) to x-ray (characteristic lines of K α from Cu at 8 keV) pulses is estimated to be 7 × 10-5. This laser system can also generate a lower-peak-power, dual-pulse output that can excite, simultaneously and coherently, Raman modes within an adjustable bandwidth (up to 700 cm-1) and at a tunable central vibrational frequency. Preliminary results for the generation of dual-pulse output and ultrafast x rays are presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. X. F. Wang, M. Krishnan, N. Saleh, H. W. Wang, D. Umstadter, “Electron acceleration and the propagation of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5324–5327 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, S. E. Harris, “Mev x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. Porter, G. Cheng, F. Shan, T. Guo are preparing a manuscript titled, “Correlation coherent Raman spectroscopy with broadband femtosecond pulses.”
  23. H. Sørum, “The Ka1,2 x-ray spectra of the 3d transition metals Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu,” J. Phys. F. 17, 417–425 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, C. P. J. Barty, “Generation of hard x-rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

X. F. Wang, M. Krishnan, N. Saleh, H. W. Wang, D. Umstadter, “Electron acceleration and the propagation of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5324–5327 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bagnoud, F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Chin, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, W. P. Leemans, C. V. Shank, “Ultrafast structural dynamics in InSb probed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 336–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

M. D. Perry, G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

H. Sørum, “The Ka1,2 x-ray spectra of the 3d transition metals Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu,” J. Phys. F. 17, 417–425 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Albouy, P. A.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bagnoud, V.

V. Bagnoud, F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

A. H. Chin, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, W. P. Leemans, C. V. Shank, “Ultrafast structural dynamics in InSb probed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 336–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, C. P. J. Barty, “Generation of hard x-rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Leblanc, F. Raksi, C. Rosepetruck, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, K. Yamakawa, “Generation of 18-fs, multiterawatt pulses by regenerative pulse shaping and chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 21, 668–670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Lemoff, C. P. J. Barty, “Quintic-phase-limited, spatially uniform expansion and recompression of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1651–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, Y.

Bennett, C. V.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blair, R. J.

Book, L. D.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. S.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, S. E. Harris, “Mev x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, G.

R. Porter, G. Cheng, F. Shan, T. Guo are preparing a manuscript titled, “Correlation coherent Raman spectroscopy with broadband femtosecond pulses.”

Cheng, J. X.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, A. H.

A. H. Chin, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, W. P. Leemans, C. V. Shank, “Ultrafast structural dynamics in InSb probed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 336–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. H. W.

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coe, J. S.

Cote, C. Y.

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ditmire, T.

Durfee, C. G.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elsässer, T.

T. Elsässer, Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, Charleston, S.C., 9–13 July 2000 (Springer, New York, 2001).

Falcone, R. W.

Forster, E.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geindre, J. P.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glover, T. E.

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Chin, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, W. P. Leemans, C. V. Shank, “Ultrafast structural dynamics in InSb probed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 336–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, C. L.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, S. E. Harris, “Mev x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S.

Guo, T.

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, C. P. J. Barty, “Generation of hard x-rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Leblanc, F. Raksi, C. Rosepetruck, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, K. Yamakawa, “Generation of 18-fs, multiterawatt pulses by regenerative pulse shaping and chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 21, 668–670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Porter, G. Cheng, F. Shan, T. Guo are preparing a manuscript titled, “Correlation coherent Raman spectroscopy with broadband femtosecond pulses.”

Hamster, H.

Harris, S. E.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, S. E. Harris, “Mev x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartemann, F. V.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, P. A.

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, C. H.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J. R.

Ikhlef, A.

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. M.

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, R.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, H. Nathel, R. J. Blair, R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt, 100-fs laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406–1408 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kmetec, J. D.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, S. E. Harris, “Mev x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnan, M.

X. F. Wang, M. Krishnan, N. Saleh, H. W. Wang, D. Umstadter, “Electron acceleration and the propagation of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5324–5327 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landahl, E. C.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lau, W. K.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, L. L.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, C.

Leemans, W. P.

A. H. Chin, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, W. P. Leemans, C. V. Shank, “Ultrafast structural dynamics in InSb probed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 336–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lemoff, B. E.

B. E. Lemoff, C. P. J. Barty, “Quintic-phase-limited, spatially uniform expansion and recompression of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1651–1653 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, S. E. Harris, “Mev x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeSage, G. P.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luhmann, N. C.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macklin, J. J.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, S. E. Harris, “Mev x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. L.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Murnane, M. M.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nathel, H.

Pawley, J. B.

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (PlenumNew York, 1995).

Perry, M. D.

Porter, R.

R. Porter, G. Cheng, F. Shan, T. Guo are preparing a manuscript titled, “Correlation coherent Raman spectroscopy with broadband femtosecond pulses.”

Raksi, F.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Leblanc, F. Raksi, C. Rosepetruck, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, K. Yamakawa, “Generation of 18-fs, multiterawatt pulses by regenerative pulse shaping and chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 21, 668–670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rischel, C.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosepetruck, C.

Rose-Petruck, C.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, N.

X. F. Wang, M. Krishnan, N. Saleh, H. W. Wang, D. Umstadter, “Electron acceleration and the propagation of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5324–5327 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

V. Bagnoud, F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Chin, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, W. P. Leemans, C. V. Shank, “Ultrafast structural dynamics in InSb probed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 336–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shan, F.

R. Porter, G. Cheng, F. Shan, T. Guo are preparing a manuscript titled, “Correlation coherent Raman spectroscopy with broadband femtosecond pulses.”

Shank, C. V.

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Chin, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, W. P. Leemans, C. V. Shank, “Ultrafast structural dynamics in InSb probed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 336–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Siders, C. W.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sørum, H.

H. Sørum, “The Ka1,2 x-ray spectra of the 3d transition metals Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu,” J. Phys. F. 17, 417–425 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, C. P. J. Barty, “Generation of hard x-rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Squier, J. A.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

Tapie, J. L.

Umstadter, D.

X. F. Wang, M. Krishnan, N. Saleh, H. W. Wang, D. Umstadter, “Electron acceleration and the propagation of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5324–5327 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uschmann, I.

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vanwoerkom, L.

Volkmer, A.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, B. C.

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, C. P. J. Barty, “Generation of hard x-rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. W.

X. F. Wang, M. Krishnan, N. Saleh, H. W. Wang, D. Umstadter, “Electron acceleration and the propagation of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5324–5327 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. F.

X. F. Wang, M. Krishnan, N. Saleh, H. W. Wang, D. Umstadter, “Electron acceleration and the propagation of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5324–5327 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W.

White, W. E.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. White, J. R. Hunter, L. Vanwoerkom, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, “120-Fs terawatt Ti:Al2O3/Cr:LiSrAlF6 laser system,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1067–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, K. R.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. J. Barty, T. Guo, C. Leblanc, F. Raksi, C. Rosepetruck, J. Squier, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, K. Yamakawa, “Generation of 18-fs, multiterawatt pulses by regenerative pulse shaping and chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 21, 668–670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. V.

Yamakawa, K.

Yang, T. T.

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zholents, A. A.

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zolotorev, M. S.

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. Bagnoud, F. Salin, “Amplifying laser pulses to the terawatt level at a 1-kilohertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S165–S170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Raksi, K. R. Wilson, Z. M. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, C. Y. Cote, J. C. Kieffer, “Ultrafast x-ray absorption probing of a chemical reaction,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6066–6069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, “An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. F. (1)

H. Sørum, “The Ka1,2 x-ray spectra of the 3d transition metals Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu,” J. Phys. F. 17, 417–425 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. Rischel, A. Rousse, I. Uschmann, P. A. Albouy, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, E. Forster, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction from laser-heated organic films,” Nature 390, 490–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Raksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast x-ray diffraction,” Nature 398, 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

G. P. LeSage, C. V. Bennett, W. E. White, E. C. Landahl, L. L. Laurent, N. C. Luhmann, F. V. Hartemann, C. H. Ho, W. K. Lau, T. T. Yang, “High brightness X-band photoinjector for the production of coherent synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 2048–2054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, S. E. Harris, “Mev x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527–1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Wang, M. Krishnan, N. Saleh, H. W. Wang, D. Umstadter, “Electron acceleration and the propagation of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5324–5327 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Chin, R. W. Schoenlein, T. E. Glover, P. Balling, W. P. Leemans, C. V. Shank, “Ultrafast structural dynamics in InSb probed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 336–339 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

T. Guo, C. Spielmann, B. C. Walker, C. P. J. Barty, “Generation of hard x-rays by ultrafast terawatt lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 41–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. D. Perry, G. Mourou, “Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers,” Science 264, 917–924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Schoenlein, S. Chattopadhyay, H. H. W. Chong, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, C. V. Shank, A. A. Zholents, M. S. Zolotorev, “Generation of femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation,” Science 287, 2237–2240 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

T. Elsässer, Ultrafast Phenomena XII: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, Charleston, S.C., 9–13 July 2000 (Springer, New York, 2001).

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (PlenumNew York, 1995).

R. Porter, G. Cheng, F. Shan, T. Guo are preparing a manuscript titled, “Correlation coherent Raman spectroscopy with broadband femtosecond pulses.”

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the 50-Hz terawatt laser system. Notice that the frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser 9050 is used to pump both the regenerative amplifier and the multiple-pass amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of pulses from the oscillator. The FWHM is greater than 110 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of scanning autocorrelation measurement of the pulses from the oscillator. Each optical cycle corresponds to 2.64 fs at 800-nm central wavelength. The FWHM of envelope includes eight optical cycles, and the pulse duration is determined to be 9 ± 0.5 fs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the regenerative amplifier. The seed beam (p polarized) from the oscillator passes through the first TFP and the polarizer–Faraday rotator combination. The voltage on the Pockels cell (PC) is raised to V λ/4 to trap the pulse in the cavity after the pulse passes the Pockels cell the second time. Ejection is achieved by lowering of the voltage to zero after 14 round trips. Both gain narrowing and the voltage dispersion of the Pockels cell are corrected by the inserted pellicle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum of pulses from the regenerative amplifier. The FWHM is greater than 80 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of the single-shot autocorrelation measurements of the compressed pulses. The pulse shape is assumed to be sech2, and a 1.5 deconvolution factor is used to produce the FWHM of the pulse from that of the autocorrelation trace.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Arrangement of the dual-pulse output compressor. The broad spectrum from the regenerative amplifier is separated into two portions, with one passing through the slit consisting of two beam blocks and the other passing through the F-P etalon. The retroreflected beams through two separate roof mirrors then overlap in space and time after compression.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dual-pulse output from the compressor with the slit and the F-P etalon in place. The peak near 755 nm is the one that passes through the etalon. The main peak between 810 and 860 is determined by the position and the width of the slit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Layout of the x-ray apparatus.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) X-ray diffraction pattern of GaAs single crystal (111) from x rays generated by the laser-driven electron x-ray sources and (b) simulated diffraction pattern from a 60-µm source for FWHMs of 2.28 and 2.78 eV for single Lorentzian component spectral profiles of K α1 and K α2.

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