Abstract

A method of lidar data collection by simultaneous registration of signals from the anode and several dynodes of the photomultiplier is suggested. The dynamic range of the receiver has been extended as many as 5 orders of magnitude in the case of cloud sensing. The stable operation under strong background illumination is possible without losses in fine signal structure.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Lehmann, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Boesenberg, “Time-dependent attenuator for dynamic range reduction of lidar signals,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3469–3474 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. M. Yoshida, T. M. Jovin, B. G. Barisas, “A high-speed photomultiplier gating circuit for luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2924–2928 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. P. Kokhanenko, V. A. Gladkikh, V. G. Lizogub, V. S. Shamanaev, “Time responses of a FEU-144 photomultiplier in the controlled amplification mode,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 39, 73–76 (1996).
  4. M. P. Bristow, “Lidar signal compression by photomultiplier gain modulation: influence of detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6468–6479 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Tackeuchi, “Large scale laser radar for measuring aerosol distribution over a wide area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617–626 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. P. Bristow, D. H. Bundy, A. G. Wright, “Signal linearity, gain stability, and gating in photomultipliers: application to differential absorption lidars,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4437–4452 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Rosetto, D. Mauzerall, “A simple nanosecond gate for side window photomultipliers and echoes in such photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1244–1246 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. S. Vetokhin, F. A. Ermalitskii, S. M. Melnikov, S. V. Sukhanin, M. A. Shoitov, “Modern photomultipliers for kinetic and single-photon spectroscopy,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 41 (2), 5–12 (1998).
  9. Photomultiplier Handbook. Theory, Design, Application, Publ. TP-136 (Burle Industries, Lancaster, Pa., 1989).
  10. I. I. Anisimova, B. M. Glukhovskoi, Photomultiplier Tubes(in Russian) (Sovetskoye Radio, Moscow, 1974).
  11. “Photomultipliers: space charge effects and transit time spread,” Publ. R/P 064 (Thorn EMI Electron Tubes, Ltd., Ruislip, Middlesex, UK, 1984).
  12. “Design of photomultiplier output circuits for optimum amplitude or time response,” Publ. R/P 065 (Thorn EMI Electron tubes, Ltd., Ruislip, Middlesex, UK, 1987).
  13. G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, Yu. E. Pol’skii, “Time gain control of an optical receiver of a laser rangefinder,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 5, 199–200 (1980).
  14. R. R. Agishev, G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, “Wide-band photoelectron detector,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 4, 199–202 (1981).
  15. R. G. Frehlich, “Estimation of the nonlinearity of a photodetector,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5926–5929 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Yu. Sharonov, “Measuring of the photodetector light characteristic,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 40 (2), 112–114 (1997).
  17. A. I. Abramochkin, V. V. Zanin, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Airborne polarization lidars for investigating the atmosphere and hydrosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 1, 92–96 (1988).
  18. G. P. Kokhanenko, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Lidar studies of maritime cloudiness,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 888–894 (1996).

1998 (2)

S. S. Vetokhin, F. A. Ermalitskii, S. M. Melnikov, S. V. Sukhanin, M. A. Shoitov, “Modern photomultipliers for kinetic and single-photon spectroscopy,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 41 (2), 5–12 (1998).

M. P. Bristow, “Lidar signal compression by photomultiplier gain modulation: influence of detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6468–6479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Lehmann, V. Wulfmeyer, J. Boesenberg, “Time-dependent attenuator for dynamic range reduction of lidar signals,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3469–3474 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yu. Sharonov, “Measuring of the photodetector light characteristic,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 40 (2), 112–114 (1997).

1996 (2)

G. P. Kokhanenko, V. A. Gladkikh, V. G. Lizogub, V. S. Shamanaev, “Time responses of a FEU-144 photomultiplier in the controlled amplification mode,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 39, 73–76 (1996).

G. P. Kokhanenko, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Lidar studies of maritime cloudiness,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 888–894 (1996).

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

T. M. Yoshida, T. M. Jovin, B. G. Barisas, “A high-speed photomultiplier gating circuit for luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2924–2928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. I. Abramochkin, V. V. Zanin, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Airborne polarization lidars for investigating the atmosphere and hydrosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 1, 92–96 (1988).

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

R. R. Agishev, G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, “Wide-band photoelectron detector,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 4, 199–202 (1981).

1980 (1)

G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, Yu. E. Pol’skii, “Time gain control of an optical receiver of a laser rangefinder,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 5, 199–200 (1980).

1972 (1)

M. Rosetto, D. Mauzerall, “A simple nanosecond gate for side window photomultipliers and echoes in such photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1244–1246 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abramochkin, A. I.

A. I. Abramochkin, V. V. Zanin, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Airborne polarization lidars for investigating the atmosphere and hydrosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 1, 92–96 (1988).

Agishev, R. R.

R. R. Agishev, G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, “Wide-band photoelectron detector,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 4, 199–202 (1981).

Anisimova, I. I.

I. I. Anisimova, B. M. Glukhovskoi, Photomultiplier Tubes(in Russian) (Sovetskoye Radio, Moscow, 1974).

Barisas, B. G.

T. M. Yoshida, T. M. Jovin, B. G. Barisas, “A high-speed photomultiplier gating circuit for luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2924–2928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boesenberg, J.

Bristow, M. P.

Bundy, D. H.

Ermalitskii, F. A.

S. S. Vetokhin, F. A. Ermalitskii, S. M. Melnikov, S. V. Sukhanin, M. A. Shoitov, “Modern photomultipliers for kinetic and single-photon spectroscopy,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 41 (2), 5–12 (1998).

Frehlich, R. G.

Gladkikh, V. A.

G. P. Kokhanenko, V. A. Gladkikh, V. G. Lizogub, V. S. Shamanaev, “Time responses of a FEU-144 photomultiplier in the controlled amplification mode,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 39, 73–76 (1996).

Glukhovskoi, B. M.

I. I. Anisimova, B. M. Glukhovskoi, Photomultiplier Tubes(in Russian) (Sovetskoye Radio, Moscow, 1974).

Il’in, G. I.

R. R. Agishev, G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, “Wide-band photoelectron detector,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 4, 199–202 (1981).

G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, Yu. E. Pol’skii, “Time gain control of an optical receiver of a laser rangefinder,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 5, 199–200 (1980).

Jovin, T. M.

T. M. Yoshida, T. M. Jovin, B. G. Barisas, “A high-speed photomultiplier gating circuit for luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2924–2928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kokhanenko, G. P.

G. P. Kokhanenko, V. A. Gladkikh, V. G. Lizogub, V. S. Shamanaev, “Time responses of a FEU-144 photomultiplier in the controlled amplification mode,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 39, 73–76 (1996).

G. P. Kokhanenko, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Lidar studies of maritime cloudiness,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 888–894 (1996).

Lehmann, S.

Lizogub, V. G.

G. P. Kokhanenko, V. A. Gladkikh, V. G. Lizogub, V. S. Shamanaev, “Time responses of a FEU-144 photomultiplier in the controlled amplification mode,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 39, 73–76 (1996).

Matsui, I.

Mauzerall, D.

M. Rosetto, D. Mauzerall, “A simple nanosecond gate for side window photomultipliers and echoes in such photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1244–1246 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, S. M.

S. S. Vetokhin, F. A. Ermalitskii, S. M. Melnikov, S. V. Sukhanin, M. A. Shoitov, “Modern photomultipliers for kinetic and single-photon spectroscopy,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 41 (2), 5–12 (1998).

Nakane, H.

Penner, I. E.

G. P. Kokhanenko, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Lidar studies of maritime cloudiness,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 888–894 (1996).

A. I. Abramochkin, V. V. Zanin, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Airborne polarization lidars for investigating the atmosphere and hydrosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 1, 92–96 (1988).

Pikulev, A. N.

R. R. Agishev, G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, “Wide-band photoelectron detector,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 4, 199–202 (1981).

G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, Yu. E. Pol’skii, “Time gain control of an optical receiver of a laser rangefinder,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 5, 199–200 (1980).

Pol’skii, Yu. E.

G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, Yu. E. Pol’skii, “Time gain control of an optical receiver of a laser rangefinder,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 5, 199–200 (1980).

Rosetto, M.

M. Rosetto, D. Mauzerall, “A simple nanosecond gate for side window photomultipliers and echoes in such photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1244–1246 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

Shamanaev, V. S.

G. P. Kokhanenko, V. A. Gladkikh, V. G. Lizogub, V. S. Shamanaev, “Time responses of a FEU-144 photomultiplier in the controlled amplification mode,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 39, 73–76 (1996).

G. P. Kokhanenko, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Lidar studies of maritime cloudiness,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 888–894 (1996).

A. I. Abramochkin, V. V. Zanin, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Airborne polarization lidars for investigating the atmosphere and hydrosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 1, 92–96 (1988).

Sharonov, M. Yu.

M. Yu. Sharonov, “Measuring of the photodetector light characteristic,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 40 (2), 112–114 (1997).

Shimizu, H.

Shoitov, M. A.

S. S. Vetokhin, F. A. Ermalitskii, S. M. Melnikov, S. V. Sukhanin, M. A. Shoitov, “Modern photomultipliers for kinetic and single-photon spectroscopy,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 41 (2), 5–12 (1998).

Sugimoto, N.

Sukhanin, S. V.

S. S. Vetokhin, F. A. Ermalitskii, S. M. Melnikov, S. V. Sukhanin, M. A. Shoitov, “Modern photomultipliers for kinetic and single-photon spectroscopy,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 41 (2), 5–12 (1998).

Tackeuchi, N.

Vetokhin, S. S.

S. S. Vetokhin, F. A. Ermalitskii, S. M. Melnikov, S. V. Sukhanin, M. A. Shoitov, “Modern photomultipliers for kinetic and single-photon spectroscopy,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 41 (2), 5–12 (1998).

Wright, A. G.

Wulfmeyer, V.

Yoshida, T. M.

T. M. Yoshida, T. M. Jovin, B. G. Barisas, “A high-speed photomultiplier gating circuit for luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2924–2928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zanin, V. V.

A. I. Abramochkin, V. V. Zanin, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Airborne polarization lidars for investigating the atmosphere and hydrosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 1, 92–96 (1988).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Atmos. Oceanic Opt. (1)

G. P. Kokhanenko, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Lidar studies of maritime cloudiness,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 9, 888–894 (1996).

Atmos. Opt. (1)

A. I. Abramochkin, V. V. Zanin, I. E. Penner, V. S. Shamanaev, “Airborne polarization lidars for investigating the atmosphere and hydrosphere,” Atmos. Opt. 1, 92–96 (1988).

Instrum. Exp. Tech. (3)

S. S. Vetokhin, F. A. Ermalitskii, S. M. Melnikov, S. V. Sukhanin, M. A. Shoitov, “Modern photomultipliers for kinetic and single-photon spectroscopy,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 41 (2), 5–12 (1998).

G. P. Kokhanenko, V. A. Gladkikh, V. G. Lizogub, V. S. Shamanaev, “Time responses of a FEU-144 photomultiplier in the controlled amplification mode,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 39, 73–76 (1996).

M. Yu. Sharonov, “Measuring of the photodetector light characteristic,” Instrum. Exp. Tech. 40 (2), 112–114 (1997).

Prib. Tekh. Eksp. (2)

G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, Yu. E. Pol’skii, “Time gain control of an optical receiver of a laser rangefinder,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 5, 199–200 (1980).

R. R. Agishev, G. I. Il’in, A. N. Pikulev, “Wide-band photoelectron detector,” Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 4, 199–202 (1981).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

T. M. Yoshida, T. M. Jovin, B. G. Barisas, “A high-speed photomultiplier gating circuit for luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2924–2928 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Rosetto, D. Mauzerall, “A simple nanosecond gate for side window photomultipliers and echoes in such photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 1244–1246 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Photomultiplier Handbook. Theory, Design, Application, Publ. TP-136 (Burle Industries, Lancaster, Pa., 1989).

I. I. Anisimova, B. M. Glukhovskoi, Photomultiplier Tubes(in Russian) (Sovetskoye Radio, Moscow, 1974).

“Photomultipliers: space charge effects and transit time spread,” Publ. R/P 064 (Thorn EMI Electron Tubes, Ltd., Ruislip, Middlesex, UK, 1984).

“Design of photomultiplier output circuits for optimum amplitude or time response,” Publ. R/P 065 (Thorn EMI Electron tubes, Ltd., Ruislip, Middlesex, UK, 1987).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Output PMT stages in the dynode-signal collection regime for a FÉU-84 PMT: A, anode; Dy, dynodes; RL, load resistors; OS, signal to oscilloscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FÉU-84 anode and dynode-light characteristics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Adjusting signals from the anode and dynodes in the case of cloud sensing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional mapping of cloud layers: left, anode signals only; right, joined signals from the anode and dynodes.

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