Abstract

High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 µs to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  33. J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualisation in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.
  34. H. Malm, G. Sparr, J. Hult, C. F. Kaminski, “Nonlinear diffusion filtering of images obtained by planar laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2148–2156 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreizler, S. Lindenmaier, U. Maas, J. Hult, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Characterization of a spark ignition system by planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH at high repetition rates and comparison with chemical kinetic calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 287–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Malm, G. Sparr, J. Hult, C. F. Kaminski, “Nonlinear diffusion filtering of images obtained by planar laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2148–2156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A high-speed all-digital technique for cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and flow visualisation within SI engine cylinders,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 247–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Y. Kang, Je. H. Baek, “Turbulence characteristics of tumble flow in a four-valve engine,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 18, 231–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Wolfrum, “Lasers in combustion: from basic theory to practical devices,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1–41 (1998).

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

H. B. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, P. S. Wyckoff, “On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate,” Combust. Flame 113, 312–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. C. Drake, D. T. French, T. D. Fansler, “Advanced diagnostics for minimizing hydrocarbon emissions from a direct-injection gasoline engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2581–2587 (1996).

1994

B. J. Patrie, J. M. Seizman, R. K. Hanson, “Instantaneous three-dimensional flow visualization by rapid acquisition of multiple planar flow images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 975–980 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Winterbone, D. A. Yates, E. Clough, K. K. Rao, P. Gomes, J.-H. Sun, “Combustion in high-speed direct injection diesel engines—a comprehensive study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 208, 223–240 (1994).

J. M. Seitzman, R. K. Hanson, P. A. DeBarber, C. F. Hess, “Application of quantitative two-line OH planar laser-induced fluorescence for temporally resolved planar thermometry in reacting flows,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4000–4012 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

1937

A. M. Rothrock, R. F. Selden, “Factors controlling diesel engine performance,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 2, 301–312 (1937).

Akishino, K.

T. Kume, Y. Iwamoto, K. Iida, M. Murakami, K. Akishino, H. Ando, “Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 960600 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Aldén, M.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreizler, S. Lindenmaier, U. Maas, J. Hult, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Characterization of a spark ignition system by planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH at high repetition rates and comparison with chemical kinetic calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 287–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “The HCCI combustion process in a single cycle—high-speed fuel tracer LIF and chemiluminescence imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2002).

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualisation in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Andersson, M.

M. Andersson, “Three-dimensional visualization of turbulent flames using shape-based interpolation,” Master’s thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 2000).

Ando, H.

T. Kume, Y. Iwamoto, K. Iida, M. Murakami, K. Akishino, H. Ando, “Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 960600 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Arnold, A.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Axelsson, B.

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

Baek, Je. H.

K. Y. Kang, Je. H. Baek, “Turbulence characteristics of tumble flow in a four-valve engine,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 18, 231–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baum, M.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

Boyle, R.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Bracco, F. V.

J. Mantzaras, P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, “Three-dimensional visualization of premixed-charge engine flames: islands of reactants and products; fractal dimensions; and homogeneity,” SAE Technical Paper 881635 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1988).

Buckberry, C. H.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A high-speed all-digital technique for cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and flow visualisation within SI engine cylinders,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 247–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualisation within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Christensen, M.

A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “The HCCI combustion process in a single cycle—high-speed fuel tracer LIF and chemiluminescence imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2002).

Clough, E.

D. E. Winterbone, D. A. Yates, E. Clough, K. K. Rao, P. Gomes, J.-H. Sun, “Combustion in high-speed direct injection diesel engines—a comprehensive study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 208, 223–240 (1994).

Collin, R.

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

Cruyningen, I. V.

DeBarber, P. A.

Drake, M. C.

M. C. Drake, D. T. French, T. D. Fansler, “Advanced diagnostics for minimizing hydrocarbon emissions from a direct-injection gasoline engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2581–2587 (1996).

Dreizler, A.

A. Dreizler, S. Lindenmaier, U. Maas, J. Hult, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Characterization of a spark ignition system by planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH at high repetition rates and comparison with chemical kinetic calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 287–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, A. Grant, P. Ewart, “Double-pulse PLIF imaging of self-ignition centers in an SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1925 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2001).

Ewart, P.

R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, A. Grant, P. Ewart, “Double-pulse PLIF imaging of self-ignition centers in an SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1925 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2001).

Fansler, T. D.

M. C. Drake, D. T. French, T. D. Fansler, “Advanced diagnostics for minimizing hydrocarbon emissions from a direct-injection gasoline engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2581–2587 (1996).

Felton, P. G.

J. Mantzaras, P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, “Three-dimensional visualization of premixed-charge engine flames: islands of reactants and products; fractal dimensions; and homogeneity,” SAE Technical Paper 881635 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1988).

Foster, D. E.

P. Najt, D. E. Foster, “Compression-ignited homogeneous charge combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 830264 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1983).

French, D. T.

M. C. Drake, D. T. French, T. D. Fansler, “Advanced diagnostics for minimizing hydrocarbon emissions from a direct-injection gasoline engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2581–2587 (1996).

Gomes, P.

D. E. Winterbone, D. A. Yates, E. Clough, K. K. Rao, P. Gomes, J.-H. Sun, “Combustion in high-speed direct injection diesel engines—a comprehensive study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 208, 223–240 (1994).

Goto, S.

D. Lee, S. Goto, I. Kim, M. Motohashi, “Spectroscopic investigation of the combustion process in an LPG lean-burn SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3510 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Grant, A.

R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, A. Grant, P. Ewart, “Double-pulse PLIF imaging of self-ignition centers in an SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1925 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2001).

Grünefeld, G.

W. Hentschel, A. Homburg, G. Ohmsede, T. Müller, G. Grünefeld, “Investigation of spray formation of DI gasoline hollow-cone injectors inside a pressure chamber and a glass ring engine by multiple optical techniques,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3660 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Hanson, R. K.

Harrington, D. L.

F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hassel, E. P.

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

Hentschel, W.

W. Hentschel, A. Homburg, G. Ohmsede, T. Müller, G. Grünefeld, “Investigation of spray formation of DI gasoline hollow-cone injectors inside a pressure chamber and a glass ring engine by multiple optical techniques,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3660 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Hess, C. F.

Hlavac, V.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Homburg, A.

W. Hentschel, A. Homburg, G. Ohmsede, T. Müller, G. Grünefeld, “Investigation of spray formation of DI gasoline hollow-cone injectors inside a pressure chamber and a glass ring engine by multiple optical techniques,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3660 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Hult, J.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Malm, G. Sparr, J. Hult, C. F. Kaminski, “Nonlinear diffusion filtering of images obtained by planar laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2148–2156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreizler, S. Lindenmaier, U. Maas, J. Hult, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Characterization of a spark ignition system by planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH at high repetition rates and comparison with chemical kinetic calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 287–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

J. Hult, “Development of time resolved laser imaging techniques for studies of turbulent reacting flows,” Ph.D. thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 2002).

A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “The HCCI combustion process in a single cycle—high-speed fuel tracer LIF and chemiluminescence imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2002).

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualisation in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Hultqvist, A.

A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “The HCCI combustion process in a single cycle—high-speed fuel tracer LIF and chemiluminescence imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2002).

Iida, K.

T. Kume, Y. Iwamoto, K. Iida, M. Murakami, K. Akishino, H. Ando, “Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 960600 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Iwamoto, Y.

T. Kume, Y. Iwamoto, K. Iida, M. Murakami, K. Akishino, H. Ando, “Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 960600 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Janica, J.

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

Johansson, B.

A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “The HCCI combustion process in a single cycle—high-speed fuel tracer LIF and chemiluminescence imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2002).

Josefsson, G.

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualisation in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Malm, G. Sparr, J. Hult, C. F. Kaminski, “Nonlinear diffusion filtering of images obtained by planar laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2148–2156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreizler, S. Lindenmaier, U. Maas, J. Hult, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Characterization of a spark ignition system by planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH at high repetition rates and comparison with chemical kinetic calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 287–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualisation in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Kang, K. Y.

K. Y. Kang, Je. H. Baek, “Turbulence characteristics of tumble flow in a four-valve engine,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 18, 231–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kazenwadel, J.

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

Kim, I.

D. Lee, S. Goto, I. Kim, M. Motohashi, “Spectroscopic investigation of the combustion process in an LPG lean-burn SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3510 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Kremer, A.

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

Kume, T.

T. Kume, Y. Iwamoto, K. Iida, M. Murakami, K. Akishino, H. Ando, “Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 960600 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Kychakoff, G.

Lai, M.-C.

F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lam, J. K.

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, “Time resolved 3D concentration measurements in a gas jet,” Science 235, 1209–1211 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landenfeld, T.

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

Lee, D.

D. Lee, S. Goto, I. Kim, M. Motohashi, “Spectroscopic investigation of the combustion process in an LPG lean-burn SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3510 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Lindenmaier, S.

A. Dreizler, S. Lindenmaier, U. Maas, J. Hult, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Characterization of a spark ignition system by planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH at high repetition rates and comparison with chemical kinetic calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 287–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

B. Yip, R. L. Schmitt, M. B. Long, “Instantaneous three-dimensional concentration measurements in turbulent jets and flames,” Opt. Lett. 13, 96–98 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, “Time resolved 3D concentration measurements in a gas jet,” Science 235, 1209–1211 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maas, U.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreizler, S. Lindenmaier, U. Maas, J. Hult, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Characterization of a spark ignition system by planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH at high repetition rates and comparison with chemical kinetic calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 287–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, A. Grant, P. Ewart, “Double-pulse PLIF imaging of self-ignition centers in an SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1925 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2001).

Malm, H.

Maly, R.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mantzaras, J.

J. Mantzaras, P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, “Three-dimensional visualization of premixed-charge engine flames: islands of reactants and products; fractal dimensions; and homogeneity,” SAE Technical Paper 881635 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1988).

Monkhouse, P.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Motohashi, M.

D. Lee, S. Goto, I. Kim, M. Motohashi, “Spectroscopic investigation of the combustion process in an LPG lean-burn SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3510 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Mueller, C. J.

H. B. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, P. S. Wyckoff, “On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate,” Combust. Flame 113, 312–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müller, T.

W. Hentschel, A. Homburg, G. Ohmsede, T. Müller, G. Grünefeld, “Investigation of spray formation of DI gasoline hollow-cone injectors inside a pressure chamber and a glass ring engine by multiple optical techniques,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3660 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Murakami, M.

T. Kume, Y. Iwamoto, K. Iida, M. Murakami, K. Akishino, H. Ando, “Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 960600 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Najm, H. B.

H. B. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, P. S. Wyckoff, “On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate,” Combust. Flame 113, 312–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Najt, P.

P. Najt, D. E. Foster, “Compression-ignited homogeneous charge combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 830264 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1983).

Neij, H.

H. Neij, “Development of laser-induced fluorescence for precombustion diagnostics in spark-ignition engines,” Ph.D. thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1998).

Nygren, J.

A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “The HCCI combustion process in a single cycle—high-speed fuel tracer LIF and chemiluminescence imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2002).

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

Ohmsede, G.

W. Hentschel, A. Homburg, G. Ohmsede, T. Müller, G. Grünefeld, “Investigation of spray formation of DI gasoline hollow-cone injectors inside a pressure chamber and a glass ring engine by multiple optical techniques,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3660 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

Omrane, A.

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

Patrie, B. J.

B. J. Patrie, J. M. Seizman, R. K. Hanson, “Instantaneous three-dimensional flow visualization by rapid acquisition of multiple planar flow images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 975–980 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

H. B. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, P. S. Wyckoff, “On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate,” Combust. Flame 113, 312–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Kychakoff, P. H. Paul, I. V. Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, “Movies and 3-D images of flowfields using planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2498–2500 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfister, W.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rao, K. K.

D. E. Winterbone, D. A. Yates, E. Clough, K. K. Rao, P. Gomes, J.-H. Sun, “Combustion in high-speed direct injection diesel engines—a comprehensive study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 208, 223–240 (1994).

Reeves, M.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A high-speed all-digital technique for cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and flow visualisation within SI engine cylinders,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 247–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualisation within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Richter, M.

A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “The HCCI combustion process in a single cycle—high-speed fuel tracer LIF and chemiluminescence imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2002).

Rothrock, A. M.

A. M. Rothrock, R. F. Selden, “Factors controlling diesel engine performance,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 2, 301–312 (1937).

Schäfer, T.

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

Schiessl, R.

R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, A. Grant, P. Ewart, “Double-pulse PLIF imaging of self-ignition centers in an SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1925 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2001).

Schmitt, R. L.

Schulz, C.

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

Seitzman, J. M.

Seizman, J. M.

B. J. Patrie, J. M. Seizman, R. K. Hanson, “Instantaneous three-dimensional flow visualization by rapid acquisition of multiple planar flow images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 975–980 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Selden, R. F.

A. M. Rothrock, R. F. Selden, “Factors controlling diesel engine performance,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 2, 301–312 (1937).

Sonka, M.

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Sparr, G.

Sun, J.-H.

D. E. Winterbone, D. A. Yates, E. Clough, K. K. Rao, P. Gomes, J.-H. Sun, “Combustion in high-speed direct injection diesel engines—a comprehensive study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 208, 223–240 (1994).

Suntz, R.

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tavender, B.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A high-speed all-digital technique for cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and flow visualisation within SI engine cylinders,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 247–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualisation within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Thring, R. H.

R. H. Thring, “Homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines,” SAE Technical Paper 892068 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989).

Towers, D. P.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A high-speed all-digital technique for cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and flow visualisation within SI engine cylinders,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 247–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualisation within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

Winter, M.

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, “Time resolved 3D concentration measurements in a gas jet,” Science 235, 1209–1211 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winterbone, D. E.

D. E. Winterbone, D. A. Yates, E. Clough, K. K. Rao, P. Gomes, J.-H. Sun, “Combustion in high-speed direct injection diesel engines—a comprehensive study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 208, 223–240 (1994).

Wolfrum, J.

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

J. Wolfrum, “Lasers in combustion: from basic theory to practical devices,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1–41 (1998).

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wyckoff, P. S.

H. B. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, P. S. Wyckoff, “On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate,” Combust. Flame 113, 312–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yates, D. A.

D. E. Winterbone, D. A. Yates, E. Clough, K. K. Rao, P. Gomes, J.-H. Sun, “Combustion in high-speed direct injection diesel engines—a comprehensive study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 208, 223–240 (1994).

Yip, B.

B. Yip, R. L. Schmitt, M. B. Long, “Instantaneous three-dimensional concentration measurements in turbulent jets and flames,” Opt. Lett. 13, 96–98 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, “Time resolved 3D concentration measurements in a gas jet,” Science 235, 1209–1211 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, F.

F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

A. Dreizler, S. Lindenmaier, U. Maas, J. Hult, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Characterization of a spark ignition system by planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH at high repetition rates and comparison with chemical kinetic calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 287–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame structure,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 757–760 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame

H. B. Najm, P. H. Paul, C. J. Mueller, P. S. Wyckoff, “On the adequacy of certain experimental observables as measurements of flame burning rate,” Combust. Flame 113, 312–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.

K. Y. Kang, Je. H. Baek, “Turbulence characteristics of tumble flow in a four-valve engine,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 18, 231–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

B. J. Patrie, J. M. Seizman, R. K. Hanson, “Instantaneous three-dimensional flow visualization by rapid acquisition of multiple planar flow images,” Opt. Eng. 33, 975–980 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A high-speed all-digital technique for cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and flow visualisation within SI engine cylinders,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 31, 247–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Combust. Inst.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Aldén, S. Lindenmaier, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, M. Baum, “Complex turbulence/chemistry interactions revealed by time resolved fluorescence and direct numerical simulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 399–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Landenfeld, A. Kremer, E. P. Hassel, J. Janica, T. Schäfer, J. Kazenwadel, C. Schulz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser-diagnostic and numerical study of strongly swirling natural gas flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1023–1029 (1998).

M. C. Drake, D. T. French, T. D. Fansler, “Advanced diagnostics for minimizing hydrocarbon emissions from a direct-injection gasoline engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 26, 2581–2587 (1996).

A. M. Rothrock, R. F. Selden, “Factors controlling diesel engine performance,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 2, 301–312 (1937).

J. Wolfrum, “Lasers in combustion: from basic theory to practical devices,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 27, 1–41 (1998).

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.

D. E. Winterbone, D. A. Yates, E. Clough, K. K. Rao, P. Gomes, J.-H. Sun, “Combustion in high-speed direct injection diesel engines—a comprehensive study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 208, 223–240 (1994).

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.

F. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, “Time resolved 3D concentration measurements in a gas jet,” Science 235, 1209–1211 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Neij, “Development of laser-induced fluorescence for precombustion diagnostics in spark-ignition engines,” Ph.D. thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1998).

M. Reeves, D. P. Towers, B. Tavender, C. H. Buckberry, “A technique for routine, cycle-resolved 2-D flow measurement and visualisation within SI engine cylinders in an engine development environment,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, A. Grant, P. Ewart, “Double-pulse PLIF imaging of self-ignition centers in an SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1925 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2001).

D. Lee, S. Goto, I. Kim, M. Motohashi, “Spectroscopic investigation of the combustion process in an LPG lean-burn SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3510 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

W. Hentschel, A. Homburg, G. Ohmsede, T. Müller, G. Grünefeld, “Investigation of spray formation of DI gasoline hollow-cone injectors inside a pressure chamber and a glass ring engine by multiple optical techniques,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3660 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

P. Najt, D. E. Foster, “Compression-ignited homogeneous charge combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 830264 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1983).

R. H. Thring, “Homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines,” SAE Technical Paper 892068 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989).

A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, M. Aldén, “The HCCI combustion process in a single cycle—high-speed fuel tracer LIF and chemiluminescence imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2002).

T. Kume, Y. Iwamoto, K. Iida, M. Murakami, K. Akishino, H. Ando, “Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine,” SAE Technical Paper 960600 0424 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

J. Hult, B. Axelsson, A. Omrane, R. Collin, J. Nygren, P.-E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Exp. Fluids (to be published).

J. Mantzaras, P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco, “Three-dimensional visualization of premixed-charge engine flames: islands of reactants and products; fractal dimensions; and homogeneity,” SAE Technical Paper 881635 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1988).

M. Sonka, V. Hlavac, R. Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, “Development of time resolved laser imaging techniques for studies of turbulent reacting flows,” Ph.D. thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 2002).

M. Andersson, “Three-dimensional visualization of turbulent flames using shape-based interpolation,” Master’s thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 2000).

J. Hult, G. Josefsson, M. Aldén, C. F. Kaminski, “Flame front tracking and simultaneous flow field visualisation in turbulent combustion,” presented at the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic overview of the Nd:YAG laser cluster, consisting of four individual laser units and beam-combining optics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output energies from the dye laser oscillator when pumped by a burst of three pulses from the Nd:YAG cluster, with varying time separation. The dotted curve corresponds to the dye-solution exchange time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic overview of the high-speed camera, consisting of eight individual CCD units.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Timing diagram of the arm-and-fire trigger option.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-dimensional LIF imaging setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic overview of the optical access of the three IC engines studied: a 0.2 l/cylinder Briggs & Stratton SI engine, a 0.5 l/cylinder Volvo DISC engine, and a 1.95 l/cylinder Scania HCCI engine.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cycle-resolved fuel tracer PLIF sequence recorded in a SI engine. The time separation between consecutive images corresponds to 100 µs (0.72 CAD); time of ignition: -10 CAD. The imaged region was 50 mm × 25 mm, and is shown to the left.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Local flame-front propagation velocity, evaluated from flame-front contours extracted from the images shown at the top. The calculation is performed on the data corresponding to the two images in the upper right of Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OH PLIF sequence recorded in the SI engine; the time separation between consecutive images corresponds to 100 µs.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fuel tracer PLIF sequence of fuel injection in the DISC engine; time of ignition: -23 CAD. The fuel distribution in a plane 1 mm behind the spark plug is viewed through a side window. The imaged region corresponds to 61 mm × 45 mm and is shown to the right; the piston position is indicated by a dashed line in each image. The relative gain amplification factors of the individual cameras are indicated to the lower right in the images.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Four fuel tracer PLIF sequences showing fuel transport and flame propagation in four cycles in the DISC engine. The fuel distribution in a plane 1 mm below the spark plug is viewed through the piston; the imaged region was 26 mm × 13 mm and is shown above the sequences.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fuel tracer PLIF sequence recorded in the HCCI engine. The fuel distribution in a plane in the center of the combustion chamber was imaged through the piston. The imaged region corresponds to 95 mm × 50 mm and is shown to the left.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Simultaneously recorded fuel tracer PLIF (upper row) and chemiluminescence light (bottom row) in the HCCI engine.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Three-dimensional fuel tracer LIF, eight equidistant and parallel 2-D cuts of the fuel distribution in the HCCI engine cylinder are shown. The image separation corresponds to 0.5 mm. The 3-D data were recorded at 6 CAD ATDC.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Three-dimensional fuel isoconcentration surface, calculated from data shown in Fig. 14.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nd:YAG Laser Cluster Pulse Energies

Metrics