Abstract

A number of gating schemes to minimize the long-term afterpulse signal in photomultipliers have been evaluated. Blocking the excitation pulse by gating the photocathode was found to reduce the gate-on afterpulse background by a factor of 230 over that for nongated operation. This afterpulse or signal-induced background (SIB), which is particularly troublesome in stratospheric lidar measurements, appears as a weak exponentially decaying signal extending into the millisecond region after the photomultiplier tube (PMT) is exposed to an intense submicrosecond optical pulse. Photocathode gating is not feasible in PMTs with semitransparent bialkali photocathodes because of their slow gate response time, but is easily implemented in PMTs with opaque bialkali or semitransparent multialkali (S-20) photocathodes that can be gated with nanosecond response. In those PMTs with semitransparent bialkali photocathodes, a gated (adjacent) focus grid (if available) also produces a significant reduction in the SIB.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. R. Krall, “Extraneous light emission from photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-14, 455–459 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Zhao, “Signal-induced fluorescence in photomultipliers in differential absorption lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4639–4648 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent advances in photomultipliers for low level applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368–372 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. S. McDermid, T. D. Walsh, A. Deslis, M. L. White, “Optical systems design for a stratospheric lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6201–6210 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. A. Voronin, I. F. Yaroshenko, “Afterpulses in an electron multiplier,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 40, 49–51 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. B. H. Candy, “Photomultiplier characteristics and practice relevant to photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 183–193 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. R. W. Simpson, Y. Talmi, “Medium speed gating of ISIT tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1295–1297 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  23. “Gated operation of OMA-2 detectors,” Electro-Optical Instrument Application Note, TN 181 (EG&G Princeton Applied Research, Princeton, N. J., 1981).
  24. M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and time distribution of afterpulses in GaP first dynode photomultiplier tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 196, 199–202 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, “Response of end-window photomultiplier tubes as a function of temperature,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80–86 (1960).
  26. H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

M. P. Bristow, “Lidar-signal compression by photomultiplier gain modulation: influence of detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6468–6469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1992 (2)

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, B. G. Barisas, “Normally-on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifacts for use in transient luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454–5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Campbell, “Afterpulse measurement and correction,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5794–5798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

M. R. Sené, “A simple gating system for the Hamamatsu R1250 photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 278, 503–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

B. H. Candy, “Photomultiplier characteristics and practice relevant to photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 183–193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and time distribution of afterpulses in GaP first dynode photomultiplier tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 196, 199–202 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent advances in photomultipliers for low level applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368–372 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. W. Simpson, Y. Talmi, “Medium speed gating of ISIT tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1295–1297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

B. L. Elphick, “A method of applying an avalanche transistor generated 70ns gating pulse to a focused photomultiplier,” J. Phys. E 2, 953–955 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

H. R. Krall, “Extraneous light emission from photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-14, 455–459 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1960 (1)

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, “Response of end-window photomultiplier tubes as a function of temperature,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80–86 (1960).

1958 (1)

U. Farinelli, R. Malvano, “Pulsing of photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 29, 699–701 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, H. M.

H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

Barisas, B. G.

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, B. G. Barisas, “Normally-on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifacts for use in transient luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454–5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, M. P.

Bundy, D. H.

Campbell, L.

L. Campbell, “Afterpulse measurement and correction,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5794–5798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Candy, B. H.

B. H. Candy, “Photomultiplier characteristics and practice relevant to photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 183–193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Carney, K. P.

Chepel, V. Y.

H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

De Young, R. J.

Deslis, A.

Elphick, B. L.

B. L. Elphick, “A method of applying an avalanche transistor generated 70ns gating pulse to a focused photomultiplier,” J. Phys. E 2, 953–955 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Engstrom, R. W.

R. W. Engstrom, RCA Photomultiplier Handbook, Pub. PMT-62 (RCA Corp., Princeton, N.J., 1980); available from Burle Industries Inc., Lancaster, Pa., as Pub. TP-136, 1989.

Farinelli, U.

U. Farinelli, R. Malvano, “Pulsing of photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 29, 699–701 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira Marques, R.

H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

Goldberg, J. M.

Hanselman, D. S.

Hearing, R.

R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent advances in photomultipliers for low level applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368–372 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, B. G. Barisas, “Normally-on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifacts for use in transient luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454–5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hieftje, G. M.

Hunt, W. H.

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, Y.

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and time distribution of afterpulses in GaP first dynode photomultiplier tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 196, 199–202 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Krall, H. R.

H. R. Krall, “Extraneous light emission from photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-14, 455–459 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Londo, T. R.

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, B. G. Barisas, “Normally-on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifacts for use in transient luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454–5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lopes, M. I.

H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

Malvano, R.

U. Farinelli, R. Malvano, “Pulsing of photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 29, 699–701 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Manning, J. J.

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, “Response of end-window photomultiplier tubes as a function of temperature,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80–86 (1960).

McDermid, I. S.

Minami, S.

Murray, R. B.

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, “Response of end-window photomultiplier tubes as a function of temperature,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80–86 (1960).

Nishikawa, K.

Policarpo, A J P L.

H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

Poultney, S. K.

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, N. A.

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, B. G. Barisas, “Normally-on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifacts for use in transient luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454–5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sené, M. R.

M. R. Sené, “A simple gating system for the Hamamatsu R1250 photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 278, 503–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R. W.

R. W. Simpson, Y. Talmi, “Medium speed gating of ISIT tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1295–1297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Talmi, Y.

R. W. Simpson, Y. Talmi, “Medium speed gating of ISIT tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1295–1297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

van der Marel, J.

H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

Voronin, A. A.

A. A. Voronin, I. F. Yaroshenko, “Afterpulses in an electron multiplier,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 40, 49–51 (1995).

Walsh, T. D.

Wardle, R.

R. Wardle, “Gating photomultipliers,” Pub. R/P061 (Thorn EMI Electron Tubes Ltd., Ruislip, Middlesex, UK, 1982).

White, M. L.

Williamson, C. K.

Withnell, R.

Wright, A. G.

Yamashita, M.

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and time distribution of afterpulses in GaP first dynode photomultiplier tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 196, 199–202 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshenko, I. F.

A. A. Voronin, I. F. Yaroshenko, “Afterpulses in an electron multiplier,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 40, 49–51 (1995).

Yura, O.

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and time distribution of afterpulses in GaP first dynode photomultiplier tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 196, 199–202 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (5)

H. R. Krall, “Extraneous light emission from photomultipliers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-14, 455–459 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. Hearing, A. G. Wright, “Recent advances in photomultipliers for low level applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-26, 368–372 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the linearity of response of gated photomultipliers in wide dynamic range laser radar systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116–120 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, “Response of end-window photomultiplier tubes as a function of temperature,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80–86 (1960).

H. M. Araújo, V. Y. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, J. van der Marel, R. Ferreira Marques, A J P L. Policarpo, “Low temperature performance of photomultiplier tubes illuminated in pulsed mode by visible and vacuum ultraviolet light,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 542–549 (1998).

J. Commun. Technol. Electron. (1)

A. A. Voronin, I. F. Yaroshenko, “Afterpulses in an electron multiplier,” J. Commun. Technol. Electron. 40, 49–51 (1995).

J. Phys. E (1)

B. L. Elphick, “A method of applying an avalanche transistor generated 70ns gating pulse to a focused photomultiplier,” J. Phys. E 2, 953–955 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. (1)

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and time distribution of afterpulses in GaP first dynode photomultiplier tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 196, 199–202 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

M. R. Sené, “A simple gating system for the Hamamatsu R1250 photomultiplier,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 278, 503–506 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (5)

L. Campbell, “Afterpulse measurement and correction,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5794–5798 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Candy, “Photomultiplier characteristics and practice relevant to photon counting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 183–193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Simpson, Y. Talmi, “Medium speed gating of ISIT tubes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1295–1297 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Herman, T. R. Londo, N. A. Rahman, B. G. Barisas, “Normally-on photomultiplier gating circuit with reduced post-gate artifacts for use in transient luminescence measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5454–5458 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Farinelli, R. Malvano, “Pulsing of photomultipliers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 29, 699–701 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. W. Engstrom, RCA Photomultiplier Handbook, Pub. PMT-62 (RCA Corp., Princeton, N.J., 1980); available from Burle Industries Inc., Lancaster, Pa., as Pub. TP-136, 1989.

Photomultiplier Tubes: Principles and Applications, D-PMT-AB/USA (Philips Photonics, Slaterville, R.I., 1994).

R. Wardle, “Gating photomultipliers,” Pub. R/P061 (Thorn EMI Electron Tubes Ltd., Ruislip, Middlesex, UK, 1982).

“Gated operation of OMA-2 detectors,” Electro-Optical Instrument Application Note, TN 181 (EG&G Princeton Applied Research, Princeton, N. J., 1981).

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