Abstract

Active alignment of a 1 × 8 free-space optical switch was studied experimentally. Optical signals, carried on single-mode fibers, were switched by a ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator. Continuous measurement of the in-coupled power to the fibers provided feedback for the switch control. The switch automatically located and locked to the output fibers. An advantage with adaptive switches of a similar kind is relaxed geometrical tolerances in the switch assembly. Further, such switches can adapt to possible geometrical changes and light wavelength drift during operation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Thylén, “LiNbO3 and semiconductor guided wave optics in switching and interconnects” in Photonic Switching and Interconnects, A. Marrakchi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2000

1999

1998

1995

1994

1961

Barrett, C. P.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Bennett, H. E.

Birch, M. J.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Bonas, I. G.

Brocklehurst, J. R.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Brownjohn, L. A.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Chu, H. H.

Crossland, W. A.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. G. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Holographic optical switching: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1845–1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795–2803 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Holmes, F. P. Payne, P. Dainty, T. J. Hall, W. A. Crossland, “Low crosstalk devices for wavelength-routed networks,” in IEE Colloquium on Guided Wave Optical Signal Processing, Digest 1995/128 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1995).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Croucher, J.

Dainty, P.

M. J. Holmes, F. P. Payne, P. Dainty, T. J. Hall, W. A. Crossland, “Low crosstalk devices for wavelength-routed networks,” in IEE Colloquium on Guided Wave Optical Signal Processing, Digest 1995/128 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1995).

Franklin, R.

Hall, T. J.

M. J. Holmes, F. P. Payne, P. Dainty, T. J. Hall, W. A. Crossland, “Low crosstalk devices for wavelength-routed networks,” in IEE Colloquium on Guided Wave Optical Signal Processing, Digest 1995/128 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1995).

Handerek, V. A.

Henshall, G.

Hino, S.

Hirabayashi, K.

Holmes, M. J.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. G. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Holographic optical switching: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1845–1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Holmes, F. P. Payne, P. Dainty, T. J. Hall, W. A. Crossland, “Low crosstalk devices for wavelength-routed networks,” in IEE Colloquium on Guided Wave Optical Signal Processing, Digest 1995/128 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1995).

Huang, L.

Kim, C.

Lee, S.

Manolis, I. G.

Matsuo, S.

Mears, R. J.

S. T. Warr, R. J. Mears, “Polarization insensitive operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal crossbar devices,” Electron. Lett. 31, 714–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O’Brien, R. J. Mears, T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, “Dynamic holographic interconnects that use ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2795–2803 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Brien, D. C.

Parker, T. R.

Payne, F. P.

M. J. Holmes, F. P. Payne, P. Dainty, T. J. Hall, W. A. Crossland, “Low crosstalk devices for wavelength-routed networks,” in IEE Colloquium on Guided Wave Optical Signal Processing, Digest 1995/128 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1995).

Porteus, J. O.

Proudley, G. M.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks, D. Clarke, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 1998).

Redmond, M. M.

Robertson, B.

Robertson, B. R.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks, D. Clarke, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 1998).

Snook, M.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Normal incidence optical switches using ferroelectric liquid crystals,” U.S. patent4989941 (February5, 1991).

Stace, C.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. G. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Holographic optical switching: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1845–1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Taghizadeh, M. R.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Tan, K. L.

Thylén, L.

L. Thylén, “LiNbO3 and semiconductor guided wave optics in switching and interconnects” in Photonic Switching and Interconnects, A. Marrakchi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994).

Vass, D.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Walker, A. C.

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Warr, S. T.

White, H. J.

W. A. Crossland, I. G. Manolis, M. M. Redmond, K. L. Tan, T. D. Wilkinson, M. J. Holmes, T. R. Parker, H. H. Chu, J. Croucher, V. A. Handerek, S. T. Warr, B. Robertson, I. G. Bonas, R. Franklin, C. Stace, H. J. White, R. A. Woolley, G. Henshall, “Holographic optical switching: the ‘ROSES’ demonstrator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1845–1854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

Wilkinson, T. D.

Woolley, R. A.

Wu, M. C.

Yamaguchi, M.

Yamamoto, T.

Yamazaki, H.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

S. T. Warr, R. J. Mears, “Polarization insensitive operation of ferroelectric liquid crystal crossbar devices,” Electron. Lett. 31, 714–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Other

R. A. Soref, “Normal incidence optical switches using ferroelectric liquid crystals,” U.S. patent4989941 (February5, 1991).

These data are available at http://www.omminc.com/technology/mems.html .

M. J. Holmes, F. P. Payne, P. Dainty, T. J. Hall, W. A. Crossland, “Low crosstalk devices for wavelength-routed networks,” in IEE Colloquium on Guided Wave Optical Signal Processing, Digest 1995/128 (Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, 1995).

L. Thylén, “LiNbO3 and semiconductor guided wave optics in switching and interconnects” in Photonic Switching and Interconnects, A. Marrakchi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994).

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks, D. Clarke, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 1998).

H. J. White, G. M. Proudley, C. Stace, L. A. Brownjohn, A. C. Walker, M. R. Taghizadeh, B. R. Robertson, C. P. Barrett, W. A. Crossland, J. R. Brocklehurst, M. J. Birch, M. Snook, D. Vass, “Development of an optical free-space crossbar,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Optical Computing OC’94, B. S. Wherrett, P. Chavel, eds. (IOP, Bristol, 1995).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic picture of the optics in the 1 × 8 optical free-space switch demonstrator. The figure shows the light paths for the input beam and the central diffraction orders reflected from the SLM when the signal is intended for channel 1. The solid curves show the intended light path, and the dashed curves show unwanted diffraction orders.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the waveguide array. The positions are given in micrometers relative to the position of the zero-order diffraction spot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Wave-front deflection from a modulator with continuous phase modulation, where the modulation takes place at y = 0. The phase variation experienced along the dashed-dotted line shown in (a) is equal to the modulation, ϕ(x), achieved by the modulator at plane y = 0. The phase modulation ϕ(x) is shown in (b), which results in the deflection angle φ t .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Definition of the hologram’s design parameters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic picture of one scrolling step. In this scrolling step only pixels numbers 1, 6, 11, 16, and 21 are switched.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic picture of the feedback system. A/D, analog-to-digital converter board.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurement of the power coupled into the fiber of channel 1 when the beam was scanned across waveguide 1. The estimated 1/e 2-width of the beam incident on the waveguide was 11.4 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sequence of data sampled when the active alignment system was run.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Beam-positioning stability of the switch when active alignment was used.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕx=kφtx,
ϕm=ϕ pm-1/2,
αm=πroundϕm/π,
αm,2π=mod2παm,
Δϕrms=1Nm=0N-11ppmpm+1ϕx-αm2dx1/2,
ηexp-Δϕrms2,

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