Abstract

Replacement of invasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation with noninvasive techniques offers great promise in the management of life-threatening neurologic illnesses including traumatic brain injury. We developed and built an optoacoustic system to noninvasively monitor cerebral venous oxygenation; the system includes a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser and a specially designed optoacoustic probe. We tested the system in vitro in sheep blood with experimentally varied oxygenation. Our results demonstrated that (1) the amplitude and temporal profile of the optoacoustic waves increase with blood oxygenation in the range from 24% to 92%, (2) optoacoustic signals can be detected despite optical and acoustic attenuation by thick bone, and (3) the system is capable of real-time and continuous measurements. These results suggest that the optoacoustic technique is technically feasible for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. S. Prough, V. Yancy, D. J. Deyo, “Brain monitoring: considerations in patients with craniocerebral missile wounds,” in Missile Wounds of the Head and Neck, B. Aarabi, H. H. Kaufman, eds., (The American Association of Neurosurgical Surgeons, Rolling Meadows, Ill., 1999), pp. 221–253.
  2. A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  4. V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  5. S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Deply, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
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  8. B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).
  10. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 272–274.
  12. V. E. Gusev, A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993).
  13. R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Oraevsky, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Karabutov, T. V. Malinsky, “Studies of acoustical and shock waves in the pulsed laser ablation of biotissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 470–484 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, F. K. Tittel, “Laser-based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 122–128 (1994).
  15. A. A. Oraevsky, R. O. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser optoacoustic tomography for breast cancer diagnostics,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Washington, D.C., Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 316–321.
  16. R. O. Esenaliev, H. Alma, F. K. Tittel, A. A. Oraevsky, “Axial resolution of laser opto-acoustic imaging: influence of acoustic attenuation and diffraction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction IX, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE3254, 294–301 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981–988 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 302–310 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution with optoacoustic technique in real time,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 311–321 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).

A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

1994 (2)

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Oraevsky, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Karabutov, T. V. Malinsky, “Studies of acoustical and shock waves in the pulsed laser ablation of biotissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 470–484 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Deply, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alma, H.

R. O. Esenaliev, H. Alma, F. K. Tittel, A. A. Oraevsky, “Axial resolution of laser opto-acoustic imaging: influence of acoustic attenuation and diffraction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction IX, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE3254, 294–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, J.

M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).

Blumenthal, J. A.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bullock, R.

A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. C.

A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contant, C. F.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Deply, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croughwell, N. D.

M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMelo, A. E.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Deply, D. T.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Deply, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deyo, D. J.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. S. Prough, V. Yancy, D. J. Deyo, “Brain monitoring: considerations in patients with craniocerebral missile wounds,” in Missile Wounds of the Head and Neck, B. Aarabi, H. H. Kaufman, eds., (The American Association of Neurosurgical Surgeons, Rolling Meadows, Ill., 1999), pp. 221–253.

Doppenberg, E. M.

A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Oraevsky, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Karabutov, T. V. Malinsky, “Studies of acoustical and shock waves in the pulsed laser ablation of biotissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 470–484 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 272–274.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, F. K. Tittel, “Laser-based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 122–128 (1994).

A. A. Oraevsky, R. O. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser optoacoustic tomography for breast cancer diagnostics,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Washington, D.C., Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 316–321.

R. O. Esenaliev, H. Alma, F. K. Tittel, A. A. Oraevsky, “Axial resolution of laser opto-acoustic imaging: influence of acoustic attenuation and diffraction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction IX, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE3254, 294–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 302–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution with optoacoustic technique in real time,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 311–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, Z.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frasco, P. E.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopinath, S. P.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, R. G.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gusev, V. E.

V. E. Gusev, A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993).

Hayes, C.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurwitz, B. J.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

A. A. Oraevsky, R. O. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser optoacoustic tomography for breast cancer diagnostics,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Washington, D.C., Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 316–321.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, F. K. Tittel, “Laser-based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 122–128 (1994).

Karabutov, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Oraevsky, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Karabutov, T. V. Malinsky, “Studies of acoustical and shock waves in the pulsed laser ablation of biotissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 470–484 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Gusev, A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993).

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchner, J.

M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).

Larin, K. V.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 272–274.

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution with optoacoustic technique in real time,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 311–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 302–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larina, I. V.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 302–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution with optoacoustic technique in real time,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 311–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 272–274.

Leigh, J. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leone, B. J.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letokhov, V. S.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Oraevsky, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Karabutov, T. V. Malinsky, “Studies of acoustical and shock waves in the pulsed laser ablation of biotissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 470–484 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, J. B.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowry, E.

M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).

Malinsky, T. V.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Oraevsky, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Karabutov, T. V. Malinsky, “Studies of acoustical and shock waves in the pulsed laser ablation of biotissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 470–484 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 272–274.

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution with optoacoustic technique in real time,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 311–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 302–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Narayan, R. K.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newman, M. F.

M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Oraevsky, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Karabutov, T. V. Malinsky, “Studies of acoustical and shock waves in the pulsed laser ablation of biotissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 470–484 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, F. K. Tittel, “Laser-based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 122–128 (1994).

A. A. Oraevsky, R. O. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser optoacoustic tomography for breast cancer diagnostics,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Washington, D.C., Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 316–321.

R. O. Esenaliev, H. Alma, F. K. Tittel, A. A. Oraevsky, “Axial resolution of laser opto-acoustic imaging: influence of acoustic attenuation and diffraction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction IX, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE3254, 294–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

Pollard, V.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, “Cerebral oxygenation: near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Principles and Practice of Intensive Care Monitoring, M. J. Tobin, ed., (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), pp. 1019–1033.

Prough, D. S.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

D. S. Prough, V. Yancy, D. J. Deyo, “Brain monitoring: considerations in patients with craniocerebral missile wounds,” in Missile Wounds of the Head and Neck, B. Aarabi, H. H. Kaufman, eds., (The American Association of Neurosurgical Surgeons, Rolling Meadows, Ill., 1999), pp. 221–253.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, “Cerebral oxygenation: near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Principles and Practice of Intensive Care Monitoring, M. J. Tobin, ed., (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), pp. 1019–1033.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 272–274.

Reves, J. G.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, E. O. R.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Deply, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, C. S.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schell, R. M.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, L. R.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoddart, H. F.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

Thyrum, E. A.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

R. O. Esenaliev, H. Alma, F. K. Tittel, A. A. Oraevsky, “Axial resolution of laser opto-acoustic imaging: influence of acoustic attenuation and diffraction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction IX, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE3254, 294–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, R. O. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser optoacoustic tomography for breast cancer diagnostics,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Washington, D.C., Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 316–321.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, F. K. Tittel, “Laser-based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 122–128 (1994).

Uchida, T.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Van Gemert, M. J. C.

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1981).

Welch, A. J.

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1981).

White, W.

M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).

White, W. D.

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Widman, R.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Woodward, J. J.

A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Deply, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Deply, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yancy, V.

D. S. Prough, V. Yancy, D. J. Deyo, “Brain monitoring: considerations in patients with craniocerebral missile wounds,” in Missile Wounds of the Head and Neck, B. Aarabi, H. H. Kaufman, eds., (The American Association of Neurosurgical Surgeons, Rolling Meadows, Ill., 1999), pp. 221–253.

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, H. F.

A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zauner, A.

A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anesth. Analg. (3)

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82, 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. F. Newman, E. Lowry, N. D. Croughwell, W. White, J. Kirchner, J. BlumenthalThe Neurologic Outcome Research Group, “Near-infrared spectroscopy (INVOS 3100 A) and cognitive outcome after cardiac surgery,” Anesth. Analg. 84(2S), S111 (1997).

Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1)

N. D. Croughwell, M. F. Newman, J. A. Blumenthal, W. D. White, J. B. Lewis, P. E. Frasco, L. R. Smith, E. A. Thyrum, B. J. Hurwitz, B. J. Leone, R. M. Schell, J. G. Reves, “Jugular bulb saturation and cognitive dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 58, 1702–1708 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Deply, J. S. Wyatt, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry (1)

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57, 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Oraevsky, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Karabutov, T. V. Malinsky, “Studies of acoustical and shock waves in the pulsed laser ablation of biotissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 470–484 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosurgery (1)

A. Zauner, E. M. Doppenberg, J. J. Woodward, S. C. Choi, H. F. Young, R. Bullock, “Continuous monitoring of cerebral substrate delivery and clearance: initial experience in 24 patients with severe acute brain injuries,” Neurosurgery 41, 1082–1093 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 302–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, R. O. Esenaliev, “Monitoring of temperature distribution with optoacoustic technique in real time,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics, A. O. Oraevsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3916, 311–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Prough, V. Yancy, D. J. Deyo, “Brain monitoring: considerations in patients with craniocerebral missile wounds,” in Missile Wounds of the Head and Neck, B. Aarabi, H. H. Kaufman, eds., (The American Association of Neurosurgical Surgeons, Rolling Meadows, Ill., 1999), pp. 221–253.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, F. K. Tittel, “Laser-based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction V, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2134A, 122–128 (1994).

A. A. Oraevsky, R. O. Esenaliev, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Laser optoacoustic tomography for breast cancer diagnostics,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Washington, D.C., Optical Society of America, 1996), pp. 316–321.

R. O. Esenaliev, H. Alma, F. K. Tittel, A. A. Oraevsky, “Axial resolution of laser opto-acoustic imaging: influence of acoustic attenuation and diffraction,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction IX, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE3254, 294–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Van Gemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1981).

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, “Cerebral oxygenation: near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Principles and Practice of Intensive Care Monitoring, M. J. Tobin, ed., (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988), pp. 1019–1033.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Postconference Digest, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 272–274.

V. E. Gusev, A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Novel optoacoustic system for cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Irradiation of blood in a cuvette and detection by use of an acoustic transducer of optoacoustic waves induced in blood, (b) layered system with bone (on top) and an absorbing phantom used in the experiment on transmission of optical pulses through bone, (c) layered system with absorbing phantom (on top) and bone used in the experiment on acoustic transmission of optoacoustic waves through bone, (d) irradiation and detection of optoacoustic waves from an absorbing solution simulating venous blood through two bones, (e) layered system with turbid and absorbing gels used in the experiment with optoacoustic probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optoacoustic signals measured from blood with different oxygenation, (b) optoacoustic signal amplitude as a function of blood oxygenation, (c) attenuation coefficient of blood calculated from the optoacoustic signals at different blood oxygenation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optoacoustic signals detected from blood before and after insufflation of air, (b) amplitude of optoacoustic signal detected from blood before and after insufflation of air.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Optical transmission through bone samples of different thickness, (b) transmission of optoacoustic waves through bone samples of different thickness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optoacoustic signal recorded from the absorbing solution simulating venous blood in the SSS.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Optoacoustic signal recorded with the optoacoustic probe from 15-mm turbid uniform gelatin simulating thick tissue; (b) optoacoustic signal recorded with the optoacoustic probe from a layered tissue phantom (9-mm turbid gelatin slab and a slab of absorbing gelatin simulating blood under thick tissue).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Measurement of optoacoustic signals through a turbid tissue phantom with the optoacoustic probe from blood with different oxygenation circulating in the SSS phantom, (b) optoacoustic signals recorded with the optoacoustic probe from the SSS phantom with blood at different oxyhemoglobin saturation (90, 44, 27, and 10% saturation) circulating in a 5-mm tube, (c) optoacoustic signal amplitude as a function of circulating blood oxygenation, (d) optoacoustic signal slope as a function of circulating blood oxygenation.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pz=βcs2/CpμaF=ΓμaFz=ΓμaFo exp-μaz,
z=cst,
Pt=ΓμaFo exp-μacst.
μeff=3μaμa+μs1-g1/2,
μa1064=Coxy×Koxy, 1064+Cdeoxy×Kdeoxy, 1064,
μa750=Coxy×Koxy, 750+Cdeoxy×Kdeoxy, 750,

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