Abstract

An instrument for simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone-photoreceptor directionality is described. The key element is an imaging spectrograph (spectral range of 420–790 nm) with its entrance slit conjugate to the pupil plane of a human eye. A 1.9-deg spot on the retina is sampled in 1 s. Video observation of the retina and the pupil facilitates proper alignment. Measurements were performed on 21 healthy subjects. Model analysis of the spectra provided densities of photostable ocular absorbers. As an example, macular pigment and melanin are discussed in more detail. Spatial profiles exhibited the optical Stiles-Crawford effect, reflecting cone-photoreceptor directionality.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, A. Rothova, “Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 4048–4053 (2000).

1999 (2)

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, “Cone spacing and waveguide properties from cone directionality measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 995–1004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “A comparison of optical Stiles-Crawford effect and retinal densitometry in a clinical setting,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1519–1523 (1998).

1997 (6)

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Scibor, K.-H. Donnerhacke, J. Strobel, “Imaging spectroscopy of the human ocular fundus in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 418–425 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. A. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, “Clinical applications of fundus reflection densitometry,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 37–50 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. DeLint, J. E. Keunen, A. T. Liem, D. van Norren, “Scanning laser densitometry in visual acuity loss of unknown origin,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 1051–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).
[PubMed]

R. W. Knighton, “Quantitative reflectometry of the ocular fundus,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 14, 43–51 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

S. Chinn, “The assessment of methods of measurement,” Stat. Med. 9, 351–362 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (4)

F. C. Delori, K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Retinal densitometer with the size of a fundus camera,” Vision Res. 29, 369–374 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1986 (3)

G. J. van Blokland, D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of the light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors, assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

J. M. Gorrand, “Directional effects of the retina appearing in the aerial image,” J. Opt. 16, 279–287 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

1983 (1)

P. E. Kilbride, J. S. Read, G. A. Fishman, M. Fishman, “Determination of human cone pigment density difference spectra in spatially resolved regions of the fovea,” Vision Res. 23, 1341–1350 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21, 897–905 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 116, 350–356 (1952).

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, K. R.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Beatty, S.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of the Stiles-Crawford effect explained by perception of backscattered light from the choroid,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1445–1451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “A comparison of optical Stiles-Crawford effect and retinal densitometry in a clinical setting,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1519–1523 (1998).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bone, R. A.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulton, M.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 116, 350–356 (1952).

Brown, P. K.

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Burns, S. A.

Chinn, S.

S. Chinn, “The assessment of methods of measurement,” Stat. Med. 9, 351–362 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

DeLint, P. J.

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, A. Rothova, “Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 4048–4053 (2000).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “A comparison of optical Stiles-Crawford effect and retinal densitometry in a clinical setting,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1519–1523 (1998).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. DeLint, J. E. Keunen, A. T. Liem, D. van Norren, “Scanning laser densitometry in visual acuity loss of unknown origin,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 1051–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329–2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, “Spectrophotometer for noninvasive measurement of intrinsic fluorescence and reflectance of the ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7439–7452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, K. P. Pflibsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

Donnerhacke, K.-H.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Scibor, K.-H. Donnerhacke, J. Strobel, “Imaging spectroscopy of the human ocular fundus in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 418–425 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, R. B.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Elsner, A. E.

Fishman, G. A.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Kilbride, J. S. Read, G. A. Fishman, M. Fishman, “Determination of human cone pigment density difference spectra in spatially resolved regions of the fovea,” Vision Res. 23, 1341–1350 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishman, M.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Kilbride, J. S. Read, G. A. Fishman, M. Fishman, “Determination of human cone pigment density difference spectra in spatially resolved regions of the fovea,” Vision Res. 23, 1341–1350 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Pascal (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Goger, D. G.

Goldbohm, R. A.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

Gorrand, J. M.

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Gorrand, “Directional effects of the retina appearing in the aerial image,” J. Opt. 16, 279–287 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Scibor, K.-H. Donnerhacke, J. Strobel, “Imaging spectroscopy of the human ocular fundus in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 418–425 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammond, B. R.

Henson, D.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joa, H.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, E. J.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Keunen, J. E.

P. J. DeLint, J. E. Keunen, A. T. Liem, D. van Norren, “Scanning laser densitometry in visual acuity loss of unknown origin,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 1051–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keunen, J. E. E.

A. T. A. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, “Clinical applications of fundus reflection densitometry,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 37–50 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilbride, P. E.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Kilbride, J. S. Read, G. A. Fishman, M. Fishman, “Determination of human cone pigment density difference spectra in spatially resolved regions of the fovea,” Vision Res. 23, 1341–1350 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilburn, M. D.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klöpping, W. A. A.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

Knighton, R. W.

R. W. Knighton, “Quantitative reflectometry of the ocular fundus,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 14, 43–51 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koh, H. H.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, “Some experiments with a photoelectric ophthalmoscope,” in Performance of the Eye at Low Luminances, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1966), pp. 171–181.

Krinsky, N. I.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Landrum, J. T.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lardenoye, C. W. T. A.

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, A. Rothova, “Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 4048–4053 (2000).

Leistritz, L.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Scibor, K.-H. Donnerhacke, J. Strobel, “Imaging spectroscopy of the human ocular fundus in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 418–425 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lide, D. R.

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

Liem, A. T.

P. J. DeLint, J. E. Keunen, A. T. Liem, D. van Norren, “Scanning laser densitometry in visual acuity loss of unknown origin,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 1051–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liem, A. T. A.

A. T. A. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, “Clinical applications of fundus reflection densitometry,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 37–50 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutze, M.

Marcos, S.

Moore, L. L.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, I. J.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflibsen, K. P.

Pokorny, J.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Pascal (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Probst, K.

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, A. Rothova, “Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 4048–4053 (2000).

Read, J. S.

P. E. Kilbride, J. S. Read, G. A. Fishman, M. Fishman, “Determination of human cone pigment density difference spectra in spatially resolved regions of the fovea,” Vision Res. 23, 1341–1350 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothova, A.

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, A. Rothova, “Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 4048–4053 (2000).

Russell, R. M.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Schweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Scibor, K.-H. Donnerhacke, J. Strobel, “Imaging spectroscopy of the human ocular fundus in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 418–425 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scibor, M.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Scibor, K.-H. Donnerhacke, J. Strobel, “Imaging spectroscopy of the human ocular fundus in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 418–425 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

Snodderly, D. M.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

B. R. Hammond, B. R. Wooten, D. M. Snodderly, “Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187–1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).
[PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Sprague, K. E.

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Strobel, J.

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Scibor, K.-H. Donnerhacke, J. Strobel, “Imaging spectroscopy of the human ocular fundus in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 418–425 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Pascal (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Tiemeijer, L. F.

D. van Norren, L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Blokland, G. J.

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors, assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. van Blokland, D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of the light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van de Kraats, J.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of the Stiles-Crawford effect explained by perception of backscattered light from the choroid,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1445–1451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Retinal densitometer with the size of a fundus camera,” Vision Res. 29, 369–374 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21, 897–905 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Norel, J.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

van Norren, D.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of the Stiles-Crawford effect explained by perception of backscattered light from the choroid,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1445–1451 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “A comparison of optical Stiles-Crawford effect and retinal densitometry in a clinical setting,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1519–1523 (1998).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. DeLint, J. E. Keunen, A. T. Liem, D. van Norren, “Scanning laser densitometry in visual acuity loss of unknown origin,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 1051–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. A. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, “Clinical applications of fundus reflection densitometry,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 37–50 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Retinal densitometer with the size of a fundus camera,” Vision Res. 29, 369–374 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. van Blokland, D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of the light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21, 897–905 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Pascal (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

Willmer, E. N.

G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 116, 350–356 (1952).

Wooten, B. R.

Wu, S.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yeum, K. J.

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

Adv. Pharmacol. (1)

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, M. D. Kilburn, “The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration,” Adv. Pharmacol. 38, 537–556 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1)

D. M. Snodderly, “Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448S–1461S (1995).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

P. J. DeLint, J. E. Keunen, A. T. Liem, D. van Norren, “Scanning laser densitometry in visual acuity loss of unknown origin,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 1051–1054 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, K. E. Sprague, “A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,” Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57–62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

R. W. Knighton, “Quantitative reflectometry of the ocular fundus,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 14, 43–51 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (6)

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322–3326 (2000).

B. R. Hammond, E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, D. M. Snodderly, “Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795–1801 (1997).

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “A comparison of optical Stiles-Crawford effect and retinal densitometry in a clinical setting,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1519–1523 (1998).

C. W. T. A. Lardenoye, K. Probst, P. J. DeLint, A. Rothova, “Photoreceptor function in eyes with macular edema,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 4048–4053 (2000).

D. M. Snodderly, P. K. Brown, F. C. Delori, J. D. Auran, “The macular pigment. I. Absorbance spectra, localization, and discrimination from other yellow pigments in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 660–673 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, F. C. Delori, “The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Scibor, K.-H. Donnerhacke, J. Strobel, “Imaging spectroscopy of the human ocular fundus in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 418–425 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

J. M. Gorrand, “Directional effects of the retina appearing in the aerial image,” J. Opt. 16, 279–287 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

G. S. Brindley, E. N. Willmer, “The reflexion of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 116, 350–356 (1952).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “The luminous efficiency of rays entering the eye pupil at different points,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428–450 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Stat. Med. (1)

S. Chinn, “The assessment of methods of measurement,” Stat. Med. 9, 351–362 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. T. A. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, “Clinical applications of fundus reflection densitometry,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 41, 37–50 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (11)

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229–2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. van Blokland, D. van Norren, “Intensity and polarization of the light scattered at small angles from the human fovea,” Vision Res. 26, 485–494 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. J. van Blokland, “Directionality and alignment of the foveal receptors, assessed with light scattered from the human fundus in vivo,” Vision Res. 26, 495–500 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Gorrand, F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999–1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. DeLint, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, D. van Norren, “Local photoreceptor alignment measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 37, 243–248 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Imaging retinal densitometry with a confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Vision Res. 29, 1825–1830 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “Retinal densitometer with the size of a fundus camera,” Vision Res. 29, 369–374 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 313–320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren, J. van de Kraats, “A continuously recording retinal densitometer,” Vision Res. 21, 897–905 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Kilbride, J. S. Read, G. A. Fishman, M. Fishman, “Determination of human cone pigment density difference spectra in spatially resolved regions of the fovea,” Vision Res. 23, 1341–1350 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, G. A. Fishman, “Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. Krauskopf, “Some experiments with a photoelectric ophthalmoscope,” in Performance of the Eye at Low Luminances, M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1966), pp. 171–181.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Pascal (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1989).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the apparatus; drawing not to scale. P, pupil plane; R, retinal plane; P′ and R′, planes conjugate to P and R; Lamp, 30-W halogen lamp; L1–L11, lenses; F, spectral filters; Mh, mirror with central hole; Lf, ophthalmic front lens; Mi, insertable mirror; Li, insertable lens; V, video camera; Slit, slit conjugate to P; Prism, direct vision prism; CCD, cooled CCD camera. (b) Pupil and retinal plane configuration. Left: The disk represents the dilated pupil. The entrance pupil and bar-shaped exit pupil are drawn to scale. Right: The illuminated field, with cross hairs for fixation, and the concentric sampled field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of foveal spectral reflectance (female subject, age 20). Surface height represents the equivalent reflectance of the fovea, expressed as a percentage on a logarithmic scale, versus wavelength and position in the pupil plane. Temporal (T) and nasal (N) side are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectral intersections at the pupil position with maximum reflectance at 540 nm. Five subjects spanning the full age range are presented; gender and age are indicated. Vertical bars indicate the error associated with each point (hardly discernable and absent for most points). The solid curves represent model fits. (b) Mean reflectance spectrum (solid curve), together with data from Delori and Pflibsen (1989)15 and van de Kraats et al. (1996).2 In the mean spectrum, small dips that are due to macular pigment are present at 460 and 490 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Macular pigment (D mac) and (b) melanin density (D mela) estimates for all 25 measurements per subject. For macular pigment, both between- and within-subject variations are large. For melanin they are much smaller. Macular pigment for the within-subject variation is markedly different between subjects; e.g., subject 11 has little variation, whereas for subject 9 the data are highly scattered. The latter subject had difficulties maintaining rigid fixation during alignment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Profiles at 540 nm demonstrating individual differences in the optical SCE. Data are for the same subjects as in Fig. 3(a); gender and age are given. Solid curves represent fits to the data. Nasal (N) and temporal (T) side are indicated. Pupil edges are recognizable as the sharp drops in the region of 3–4 mm. Maximum reflectance shows up near the center of the pupil, with a tendency toward the nasal side.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral Reflectance Data

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectral Model and Stiles-Crawford Parameters

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CMλ, x=Rλ, xγPhλtMAMSλ, x/2πdeye2+CMDλ, x,
CWλ, x=0.99γPhλtWAWSλ, x/2πdref2+CWDλ, x,
Rλ, x=0.99tW/tMdeye/dref2AW/AM×CMλ, x-CMDλ, x/CWλ, x-CWDλ, x.
σ=RN2+N-B/31/2,
Rx=B+A10-ρx-xC2,

Metrics