Abstract

A method of designing polarization rotators with double-liquid-crystal (LC) cells is presented. When placed between a polarizer and an analyzer, the polarization rotator becomes a polarizing color filter. Any required color can be generated by optimization of the parameters of the double-LC layers. One specific example of a green filter is given. This filter is analyzed in terms of the optical performance, including transmission spectrum, color coordinates, and viewing angle. A sample green polarizing color filter was made and compared with the theoretical results.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  2. R. W. Sabnis, “Color filter technology for liquid crystal displays,” Displays 20, 119–129 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. D. Sharp, J. R. Birge, “Retarder stack technology for color manipulation,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, San Jose, 1999), pp. 1072–1075.
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. J. Yu, Y. B. He, J. Y. Xiong, F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Design of a polarization interference filter,” Displays 23, 145–149 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. C. Yip, H. C. Huang, H. S. Kwok, “Efficient polarization converter for projection displays,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6453–6457 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. H. Kang, J. M. Moon, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, G.-D. Lee, E. S. Lee, “Design of a reflective multicolor STN-LCD on the Poincare sphere,” in International Display Research Conference Proceedings (Euro Display), (IDRC, Birmingham, 1996), pp. 383–386.
  7. S. T. Tang, H. S. Kwok, “3 × 3 matrix for unitary optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2138–2145 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Vermeirsch, B. Maximus, “Design method for a fast switching color filter based on ECB cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 351, 79–86 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. S. Kwok, “Parameter space representation of liquid crystal display operating modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3687–3693 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Comparison of extended Jones matrices for twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays at oblique angles of incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2772–2780 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. See the following URL: http//www.cdr.ust.hk .

2002

X. J. Yu, Y. B. He, J. Y. Xiong, F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Design of a polarization interference filter,” Displays 23, 145–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

K. Vermeirsch, B. Maximus, “Design method for a fast switching color filter based on ECB cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 351, 79–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

1996

H. S. Kwok, “Parameter space representation of liquid crystal display operating modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3687–3693 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birge, J. R.

G. D. Sharp, J. R. Birge, “Retarder stack technology for color manipulation,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, San Jose, 1999), pp. 1072–1075.
[CrossRef]

He, Y. B.

X. J. Yu, Y. B. He, J. Y. Xiong, F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Design of a polarization interference filter,” Displays 23, 145–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. C.

Kang, K. H.

K. H. Kang, J. M. Moon, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, G.-D. Lee, E. S. Lee, “Design of a reflective multicolor STN-LCD on the Poincare sphere,” in International Display Research Conference Proceedings (Euro Display), (IDRC, Birmingham, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

K. H. Kang, J. M. Moon, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, G.-D. Lee, E. S. Lee, “Design of a reflective multicolor STN-LCD on the Poincare sphere,” in International Display Research Conference Proceedings (Euro Display), (IDRC, Birmingham, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Kwok, H. S.

Lee, E. S.

K. H. Kang, J. M. Moon, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, G.-D. Lee, E. S. Lee, “Design of a reflective multicolor STN-LCD on the Poincare sphere,” in International Display Research Conference Proceedings (Euro Display), (IDRC, Birmingham, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Lee, G.-D.

K. H. Kang, J. M. Moon, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, G.-D. Lee, E. S. Lee, “Design of a reflective multicolor STN-LCD on the Poincare sphere,” in International Display Research Conference Proceedings (Euro Display), (IDRC, Birmingham, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Maximus, B.

K. Vermeirsch, B. Maximus, “Design method for a fast switching color filter based on ECB cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 351, 79–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. M.

K. H. Kang, J. M. Moon, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, G.-D. Lee, E. S. Lee, “Design of a reflective multicolor STN-LCD on the Poincare sphere,” in International Display Research Conference Proceedings (Euro Display), (IDRC, Birmingham, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Sabnis, R. W.

R. W. Sabnis, “Color filter technology for liquid crystal displays,” Displays 20, 119–129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, G. D.

G. D. Sharp, J. R. Birge, “Retarder stack technology for color manipulation,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, San Jose, 1999), pp. 1072–1075.
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. T.

Vermeirsch, K.

K. Vermeirsch, B. Maximus, “Design method for a fast switching color filter based on ECB cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 351, 79–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, J. Y.

X. J. Yu, Y. B. He, J. Y. Xiong, F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Design of a polarization interference filter,” Displays 23, 145–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Yip, W. C.

Yoon, T.-H.

K. H. Kang, J. M. Moon, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, G.-D. Lee, E. S. Lee, “Design of a reflective multicolor STN-LCD on the Poincare sphere,” in International Display Research Conference Proceedings (Euro Display), (IDRC, Birmingham, 1996), pp. 383–386.

Yu, F. H.

X. J. Yu, Y. B. He, J. Y. Xiong, F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Design of a polarization interference filter,” Displays 23, 145–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Comparison of extended Jones matrices for twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays at oblique angles of incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2772–2780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. J.

X. J. Yu, Y. B. He, J. Y. Xiong, F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Design of a polarization interference filter,” Displays 23, 145–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Displays

R. W. Sabnis, “Color filter technology for liquid crystal displays,” Displays 20, 119–129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Yu, Y. B. He, J. Y. Xiong, F. H. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Design of a polarization interference filter,” Displays 23, 145–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. S. Kwok, “Parameter space representation of liquid crystal display operating modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3687–3693 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

K. Vermeirsch, B. Maximus, “Design method for a fast switching color filter based on ECB cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 351, 79–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. D. Sharp, J. R. Birge, “Retarder stack technology for color manipulation,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Digest (Society for Information Display, San Jose, 1999), pp. 1072–1075.
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kang, J. M. Moon, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, G.-D. Lee, E. S. Lee, “Design of a reflective multicolor STN-LCD on the Poincare sphere,” in International Display Research Conference Proceedings (Euro Display), (IDRC, Birmingham, 1996), pp. 383–386.

See the following URL: http//www.cdr.ust.hk .

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the double-LC-layer color filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated transmission spectrum of the PCF1 and the PCF2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complementary transmission spectrum of the PCF1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Color separation system to obtain red, green, and blue.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Color coordinates of color separation systems using PCF1 and PCF2 as compared with the SMPTE-C standard.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission contour of (a) PCF1 and (b) PCF2 with respect to the viewing angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Green color coordinates of (a) PCF1 and (b) PCF2. There are three sets of points for incident angles of 5°, 10°, and 15°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission of the polarizer and analyzer for parallel and cross geometry.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental transmission spectrum of PCF1 and PCF2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured transmission as a function of polar angle for various azimuthal angles for (a) PCF1 and (b) PCF2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured color coordinates of (a) PCF1 and (b) PCF2 for incident angles of 5°, 10°, and 15°.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Ranges of the Input Variables

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of the Seven Parameters for Two Good Designs

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T=cos γ sin γR-1MLC2RMLC1cos αsin α2,
MLCi=a-ib-c-idc-ida+ib
a=cos φi cos χi+φi/χisin φi sin χi,
b=δi/χicos φi sin χi
c=sin φi cos χi-φi/χicos φi sin χi,
d=φiχisin φi sin χi,
χi=φi2+δi21/2.
R=cos θsin θ-sin θcos θ.
Δn=A+B/λ2,

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