Abstract

We focus on the fabrication and study of controllable holographic gratings based on azo-dye-doped and undoped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films. Experimental results indicate that the next step of photopolymerization of the sample with the illumination of Ar+ laser beams after UV curing causes a latent density grating to be recorded. This grating is formed by a selective secondary photopolymerization. Heating and applying a voltage change the structure of the liquid crystal and induce the appearance of the latent grating. Diffraction efficiencies versus temperature, voltage, and state of polarization are studied for both dye-doped and undoped cells and are found to be quite different. This discrepancy is attributable to the reorientation effect of liquid crystals through their interaction with the photo-induced adsorption of the doped dyes on the surface of polymer balls in the dye-doped cell.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. Collins, H. J. Caulfied, “Optical holographic interconnects: categorization and potential efficient passive resonated holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1568–1577 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. C. Mehta, V. V. Rampal, Lasers and Holography (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  4. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Tanaka, K. Kato, S. Tsuru, S. Sakai, “Holographically formed liquid crystal-polymer device for reflective color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 2, 37–40 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. Bunning, S. M. Kirkpatrick, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, D. W. Tomlin, “Electrically switchable gratings formed using ultrafast holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2842–2844 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1572–1574 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light-scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269–271 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Yamaguchi, H. Ookawara, S. Sato, “Thermally addressed polymer dispersed liquid-crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1093–L1095 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Ko, L.-C. Chien, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films for storing optical holographic images,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1535–1541 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. W. Smith, “Mixing and phase-separation in liquid-crystal matrix systems—determination of the excess specific-heat of mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 198–201 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Liao, C.-Y. Tsai, C.-L. Lu, D.-M. Hsieh, “Fast optical recording in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 26, 447–449 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, T.-S. Mo, P.-M. Liu, “Study of a holographic grating based on dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6868–6871 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Liao, C.-Y. Tsai, C.-L. Lu, D.-M. Hsieh, “Fast optical recording in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 26, 447–449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, T.-S. Mo, P.-M. Liu, “Study of a holographic grating based on dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6868–6871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. J. Bunning, S. M. Kirkpatrick, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, D. W. Tomlin, “Electrically switchable gratings formed using ultrafast holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2842–2844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1572–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Ko, L.-C. Chien, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films for storing optical holographic images,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1535–1541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, S. Tsuru, S. Sakai, “Holographically formed liquid crystal-polymer device for reflective color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 2, 37–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. W. Smith, “Mixing and phase-separation in liquid-crystal matrix systems—determination of the excess specific-heat of mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 198–201 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. Yamaguchi, H. Ookawara, S. Sato, “Thermally addressed polymer dispersed liquid-crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1093–L1095 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light-scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. Bunning, S. M. Kirkpatrick, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, D. W. Tomlin, “Electrically switchable gratings formed using ultrafast holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2842–2844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caulfied, H. J.

Chien, L.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Ko, L.-C. Chien, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films for storing optical holographic images,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1535–1541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. A.

Doane, J. W.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light-scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Liao, C.-Y. Tsai, C.-L. Lu, D.-M. Hsieh, “Fast optical recording in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 26, 447–449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, T.-S. Mo, P.-M. Liu, “Study of a holographic grating based on dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6868–6871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1572–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Ko, L.-C. Chien, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films for storing optical holographic images,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1535–1541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y.-H.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, T.-S. Mo, P.-M. Liu, “Study of a holographic grating based on dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6868–6871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, D.-M.

Huang, C.-Y.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Ko, L.-C. Chien, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films for storing optical holographic images,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1535–1541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.-J.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1572–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, S. Tsuru, S. Sakai, “Holographically formed liquid crystal-polymer device for reflective color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 2, 37–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. M.

T. J. Bunning, S. M. Kirkpatrick, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, D. W. Tomlin, “Electrically switchable gratings formed using ultrafast holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2842–2844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Ko, L.-C. Chien, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films for storing optical holographic images,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1535–1541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-R.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, T.-S. Mo, P.-M. Liu, “Study of a holographic grating based on dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6868–6871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

Liu, P.-M.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, T.-S. Mo, P.-M. Liu, “Study of a holographic grating based on dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6868–6871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1572–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-L.

Mehta, P. C.

P. C. Mehta, V. V. Rampal, Lasers and Holography (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Mo, T.-S.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, T.-S. Mo, P.-M. Liu, “Study of a holographic grating based on dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6868–6871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. Bunning, S. M. Kirkpatrick, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, D. W. Tomlin, “Electrically switchable gratings formed using ultrafast holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2842–2844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ookawara, H.

R. Yamaguchi, H. Ookawara, S. Sato, “Thermally addressed polymer dispersed liquid-crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1093–L1095 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rampal, V. V.

P. C. Mehta, V. V. Rampal, Lasers and Holography (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, S. Tsuru, S. Sakai, “Holographically formed liquid crystal-polymer device for reflective color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 2, 37–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

R. Yamaguchi, H. Ookawara, S. Sato, “Thermally addressed polymer dispersed liquid-crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1093–L1095 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. W.

G. W. Smith, “Mixing and phase-separation in liquid-crystal matrix systems—determination of the excess specific-heat of mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 198–201 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. L.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, S. Tsuru, S. Sakai, “Holographically formed liquid crystal-polymer device for reflective color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 2, 37–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tomlin, D. W.

T. J. Bunning, S. M. Kirkpatrick, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, D. W. Tomlin, “Electrically switchable gratings formed using ultrafast holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2842–2844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. Bunning, S. M. Kirkpatrick, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, D. W. Tomlin, “Electrically switchable gratings formed using ultrafast holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2842–2844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-Y.

Tsai, M.-S.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1572–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Ko, L.-C. Chien, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films for storing optical holographic images,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1535–1541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuru, S.

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, S. Tsuru, S. Sakai, “Holographically formed liquid crystal-polymer device for reflective color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 2, 37–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light-scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Wu, B.-G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light-scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, R.

R. Yamaguchi, H. Ookawara, S. Sato, “Thermally addressed polymer dispersed liquid-crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1093–L1095 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light-scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, L.-J. Huang, T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1572–1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light-scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

T. J. Bunning, S. M. Kirkpatrick, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, D. W. Tomlin, “Electrically switchable gratings formed using ultrafast holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization,” Chem. Mater. 12, 2842–2844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

K. Tanaka, K. Kato, S. Tsuru, S. Sakai, “Holographically formed liquid crystal-polymer device for reflective color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 2, 37–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. Yamaguchi, H. Ookawara, S. Sato, “Thermally addressed polymer dispersed liquid-crystal displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1093–L1095 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, Y.-H. Ho, T.-S. Mo, P.-M. Liu, “Study of a holographic grating based on dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6868–6871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, M.-S. Tsai, C.-Y. Huang, T.-C. Ko, L.-C. Chien, “Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films for storing optical holographic images,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1535–1541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. W. Smith, “Mixing and phase-separation in liquid-crystal matrix systems—determination of the excess specific-heat of mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 198–201 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. C. Mehta, V. V. Rampal, Lasers and Holography (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for writing gratings. (b) The gratings were placed in a temperature chamber to undergo thermal switching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variations of the first-order diffraction intensities with temperature for the s- and p-polarized probe beams for an azo-dye- (a) undoped and (b) doped PBT-PDLC grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top-view SEM images of the polymer-ball morphologies in the (a) high- and (b) low-intensity regions of the interference light pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations of the first- and the zeroth-order diffraction intensities of the probe beam for a doped PBT-PDLC grating at ∼27 °C with respect to the polarization angle ϕ made between the polarization of the probe beam and the direction of the stripes in the grating. The grating was written by use of two s-polarized pump beams.

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