Abstract

A system for automatic null ellipsometric measurement, which uses a new kind of achromatic rhomb-type λ/4 retarder, is designed and constructed. By use of terbium glass as the modulator’s material, a magneto-optical modulator and its driving circuit are constructed. The polarized light is modulated by dc and ac. Combined with an ultra-low noise frequency-selective amplifier and a lock-in amplifier, the null time of the mechanical and photoelectric automatic null system can be less than 15 s. After the error of the mechanical parts is excluded, the repeatability standard deviation S 4 of nulling angles can be less than 0.00025 deg.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 255–265.
  2. H. Reisinger, “Minimization of errors in ellipsometric measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 35, 333–344 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. M. Bennett, H. E. Bennett, “Polarization,” in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughn, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Chap. 10, p. 120.
  4. H. Zhu etc., “A new rhomb-type λ/4 retarder,” Laser Infrared 30, 247–249 (2000).

2000 (1)

H. Zhu etc., “A new rhomb-type λ/4 retarder,” Laser Infrared 30, 247–249 (2000).

1992 (1)

H. Reisinger, “Minimization of errors in ellipsometric measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 35, 333–344 (1992).
[Crossref]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 255–265.

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 255–265.

Bennett, H. E.

J. M. Bennett, H. E. Bennett, “Polarization,” in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughn, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Chap. 10, p. 120.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, H. E. Bennett, “Polarization,” in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughn, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Chap. 10, p. 120.

Reisinger, H.

H. Reisinger, “Minimization of errors in ellipsometric measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 35, 333–344 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu etc., “A new rhomb-type λ/4 retarder,” Laser Infrared 30, 247–249 (2000).

Laser Infrared (1)

H. Zhu etc., “A new rhomb-type λ/4 retarder,” Laser Infrared 30, 247–249 (2000).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. Reisinger, “Minimization of errors in ellipsometric measurements,” Solid-State Electron. 35, 333–344 (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. M. Bennett, H. E. Bennett, “Polarization,” in Handbook of Optics, W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughn, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), Chap. 10, p. 120.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 255–265.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of the automatic null ellipsometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure of the achromatic rhomb-type λ/4 retarder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure of the magneto-optical modulator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modulated dc correlated with the magneto-optical deflection angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

System of measuring the precision of the nulling angle.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Data of Nulling Angles with Polaroid

Tables Icon

Table 2 Data of Nulling Angles with Polarizing Prism

Equations (11)

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ρ=tanψexpjΔ=Rp/RS.
ID=I0 cos2 θ,
ID=I0 cos2θ+α sin ωt,
ID=I0121+cos 2θ+α sin ωt=I02+I02cos 2θ cos2α sin ωt-sin 2θ sin2α sin ωt=I02+I02cos 2θJ02α+2 n=1 J2n2αcos 2nωt-sin 2θ×2 n=0 J2N+12αsin2n+1ωt.
IR=β,n<t<n+T/2-β,n+T/2<t<n+T,
IR=n=14βnπsin2nπ2sin nωt n=1, 2,
U0=1T0T IRIDdt =-I0Tsin 2θn=00T4β2n+1πsin2n+0.5π×J2n+12αsin22n+1ωtdt
=-I02βπsin 2θn=012n+1 J2n+12α,
U0=-2I0J12αβπsin 2θ.
Δ=4 tan-1cos θn2 sin2 θ-11/2n sin2 θ+2 tan-1×cos2θ-90°n2 sin22θ-90°-11/2n sin22θ-90°,
ϕ=VHL,

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