Abstract

We report the experimental observation of Raman spatial solitons in a nonlinear planar waveguide. We show that, under certain conditions, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) can stabilize the pump beam propagation and give rise to multifrequency spatial solitons. We present the different Kerr media with which we obtained self-focusing and SRS. The observations can be described in terms of Raman gain versus soliton power.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Blow, G. I. Stegeman, eds., Special Issue on Nonlinear Guided Waves: Physics and Applications, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2950–32531997.
  2. A. D. Boardmann, P. Bontemps, T. Koutoupes, K. Xie, “Temporal and spatial solitons: an overview,” in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, R. Reinich, F. Kajzar, eds., Vol. 369 of NATO ASI Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 183–228.
  3. G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419–1427 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Firth, “Spatial solitons 1,” in Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C.2000), pp. 216.
  5. C. Cambournac, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz, M. Chauvet, J. M. Dudley, “Stable periodic arrays of bright Kerr-like spatial solitons in a planar waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Europe) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2000), pp. 375.
  6. L. Torner, G. I. Stegeman, “Multicolor solitons,” Opt. Photon. News, June2001, pp. 36–39.
  7. C. Claude, J. Leon, “Theory of pump depletion and spike formation in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3479–3482 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Akhmediev, W. Krolikowski, A. J. Lowery, “Influence of the Raman effect on solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 131, 260–266 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Leon, A. V. Mikhailov, “Raman soliton generation from laser inputs SRS,” Phys. Lett. A 253, 33–40 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Boiti, J. G. Caputo, J. Leon, F. Pempinelli, “Raman solitons in transient SRS,” Inverse Probl. 16, 303–314 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Barillé, J. P. Bourdin, G. Rivoire, “Instabilities due to Rayleigh wing scattering in a spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 171, 291–299 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. P. Xuan, J. L. Ferrier, J. Gazengel, G. Rivoire, “Picosecond measurements of the third order susceptibility yensor in liquids,” Opt. Commun. 51, 433–437 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Boucher, X. Nguyen Phu, “Polarization field in optical spatial vector solitons,” Opt. Commun. 199, 223–229 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. T. Tran, R. A. Sammut, W. Samir, ‘Multi-frequency spatial solitons in Kerr media,” Opt. Commun. 113, 292–304 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2001

V. Boucher, X. Nguyen Phu, “Polarization field in optical spatial vector solitons,” Opt. Commun. 199, 223–229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Boiti, J. G. Caputo, J. Leon, F. Pempinelli, “Raman solitons in transient SRS,” Inverse Probl. 16, 303–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Barillé, J. P. Bourdin, G. Rivoire, “Instabilities due to Rayleigh wing scattering in a spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 171, 291–299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Leon, A. V. Mikhailov, “Raman soliton generation from laser inputs SRS,” Phys. Lett. A 253, 33–40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Blow, G. I. Stegeman, eds., Special Issue on Nonlinear Guided Waves: Physics and Applications, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2950–32531997.

1996

N. Akhmediev, W. Krolikowski, A. J. Lowery, “Influence of the Raman effect on solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 131, 260–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Claude, J. Leon, “Theory of pump depletion and spike formation in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3479–3482 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

H. T. Tran, R. A. Sammut, W. Samir, ‘Multi-frequency spatial solitons in Kerr media,” Opt. Commun. 113, 292–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984

N. P. Xuan, J. L. Ferrier, J. Gazengel, G. Rivoire, “Picosecond measurements of the third order susceptibility yensor in liquids,” Opt. Commun. 51, 433–437 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, W. Krolikowski, A. J. Lowery, “Influence of the Raman effect on solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 131, 260–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barillé, R.

R. Barillé, J. P. Bourdin, G. Rivoire, “Instabilities due to Rayleigh wing scattering in a spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 171, 291–299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boardmann, A. D.

A. D. Boardmann, P. Bontemps, T. Koutoupes, K. Xie, “Temporal and spatial solitons: an overview,” in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, R. Reinich, F. Kajzar, eds., Vol. 369 of NATO ASI Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 183–228.

Boiti, M.

M. Boiti, J. G. Caputo, J. Leon, F. Pempinelli, “Raman solitons in transient SRS,” Inverse Probl. 16, 303–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bontemps, P.

A. D. Boardmann, P. Bontemps, T. Koutoupes, K. Xie, “Temporal and spatial solitons: an overview,” in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, R. Reinich, F. Kajzar, eds., Vol. 369 of NATO ASI Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 183–228.

Boucher, V.

V. Boucher, X. Nguyen Phu, “Polarization field in optical spatial vector solitons,” Opt. Commun. 199, 223–229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bourdin, J. P.

R. Barillé, J. P. Bourdin, G. Rivoire, “Instabilities due to Rayleigh wing scattering in a spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 171, 291–299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cambournac, C.

C. Cambournac, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz, M. Chauvet, J. M. Dudley, “Stable periodic arrays of bright Kerr-like spatial solitons in a planar waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Europe) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2000), pp. 375.

Caputo, J. G.

M. Boiti, J. G. Caputo, J. Leon, F. Pempinelli, “Raman solitons in transient SRS,” Inverse Probl. 16, 303–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chauvet, M.

C. Cambournac, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz, M. Chauvet, J. M. Dudley, “Stable periodic arrays of bright Kerr-like spatial solitons in a planar waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Europe) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2000), pp. 375.

Christodoulides, D. N.

G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Claude, C.

C. Claude, J. Leon, “Theory of pump depletion and spike formation in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3479–3482 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

C. Cambournac, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz, M. Chauvet, J. M. Dudley, “Stable periodic arrays of bright Kerr-like spatial solitons in a planar waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Europe) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2000), pp. 375.

Ferrier, J. L.

N. P. Xuan, J. L. Ferrier, J. Gazengel, G. Rivoire, “Picosecond measurements of the third order susceptibility yensor in liquids,” Opt. Commun. 51, 433–437 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Firth, W. J.

W. J. Firth, “Spatial solitons 1,” in Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C.2000), pp. 216.

Gazengel, J.

N. P. Xuan, J. L. Ferrier, J. Gazengel, G. Rivoire, “Picosecond measurements of the third order susceptibility yensor in liquids,” Opt. Commun. 51, 433–437 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Koutoupes, T.

A. D. Boardmann, P. Bontemps, T. Koutoupes, K. Xie, “Temporal and spatial solitons: an overview,” in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, R. Reinich, F. Kajzar, eds., Vol. 369 of NATO ASI Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 183–228.

Krolikowski, W.

N. Akhmediev, W. Krolikowski, A. J. Lowery, “Influence of the Raman effect on solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 131, 260–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lantz, E.

C. Cambournac, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz, M. Chauvet, J. M. Dudley, “Stable periodic arrays of bright Kerr-like spatial solitons in a planar waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Europe) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2000), pp. 375.

Leon, J.

M. Boiti, J. G. Caputo, J. Leon, F. Pempinelli, “Raman solitons in transient SRS,” Inverse Probl. 16, 303–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Leon, A. V. Mikhailov, “Raman soliton generation from laser inputs SRS,” Phys. Lett. A 253, 33–40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Claude, J. Leon, “Theory of pump depletion and spike formation in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3479–3482 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowery, A. J.

N. Akhmediev, W. Krolikowski, A. J. Lowery, “Influence of the Raman effect on solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 131, 260–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maillotte, H.

C. Cambournac, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz, M. Chauvet, J. M. Dudley, “Stable periodic arrays of bright Kerr-like spatial solitons in a planar waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Europe) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2000), pp. 375.

Mikhailov, A. V.

J. Leon, A. V. Mikhailov, “Raman soliton generation from laser inputs SRS,” Phys. Lett. A 253, 33–40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen Phu, X.

V. Boucher, X. Nguyen Phu, “Polarization field in optical spatial vector solitons,” Opt. Commun. 199, 223–229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pempinelli, F.

M. Boiti, J. G. Caputo, J. Leon, F. Pempinelli, “Raman solitons in transient SRS,” Inverse Probl. 16, 303–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, G.

R. Barillé, J. P. Bourdin, G. Rivoire, “Instabilities due to Rayleigh wing scattering in a spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 171, 291–299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Xuan, J. L. Ferrier, J. Gazengel, G. Rivoire, “Picosecond measurements of the third order susceptibility yensor in liquids,” Opt. Commun. 51, 433–437 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Samir, W.

H. T. Tran, R. A. Sammut, W. Samir, ‘Multi-frequency spatial solitons in Kerr media,” Opt. Commun. 113, 292–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sammut, R. A.

H. T. Tran, R. A. Sammut, W. Samir, ‘Multi-frequency spatial solitons in Kerr media,” Opt. Commun. 113, 292–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Torner, G. I. Stegeman, “Multicolor solitons,” Opt. Photon. News, June2001, pp. 36–39.

Torner, L.

L. Torner, G. I. Stegeman, “Multicolor solitons,” Opt. Photon. News, June2001, pp. 36–39.

Tran, H. T.

H. T. Tran, R. A. Sammut, W. Samir, ‘Multi-frequency spatial solitons in Kerr media,” Opt. Commun. 113, 292–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xie, K.

A. D. Boardmann, P. Bontemps, T. Koutoupes, K. Xie, “Temporal and spatial solitons: an overview,” in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, R. Reinich, F. Kajzar, eds., Vol. 369 of NATO ASI Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 183–228.

Xuan, N. P.

N. P. Xuan, J. L. Ferrier, J. Gazengel, G. Rivoire, “Picosecond measurements of the third order susceptibility yensor in liquids,” Opt. Commun. 51, 433–437 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons: historical perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1419–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl.

M. Boiti, J. G. Caputo, J. Leon, F. Pempinelli, “Raman solitons in transient SRS,” Inverse Probl. 16, 303–314 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

K. Blow, G. I. Stegeman, eds., Special Issue on Nonlinear Guided Waves: Physics and Applications, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2950–32531997.

Opt. Commun.

N. Akhmediev, W. Krolikowski, A. J. Lowery, “Influence of the Raman effect on solitons in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 131, 260–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Barillé, J. P. Bourdin, G. Rivoire, “Instabilities due to Rayleigh wing scattering in a spatial soliton,” Opt. Commun. 171, 291–299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Xuan, J. L. Ferrier, J. Gazengel, G. Rivoire, “Picosecond measurements of the third order susceptibility yensor in liquids,” Opt. Commun. 51, 433–437 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. Boucher, X. Nguyen Phu, “Polarization field in optical spatial vector solitons,” Opt. Commun. 199, 223–229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Tran, R. A. Sammut, W. Samir, ‘Multi-frequency spatial solitons in Kerr media,” Opt. Commun. 113, 292–304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A

J. Leon, A. V. Mikhailov, “Raman soliton generation from laser inputs SRS,” Phys. Lett. A 253, 33–40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Claude, J. Leon, “Theory of pump depletion and spike formation in stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3479–3482 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. D. Boardmann, P. Bontemps, T. Koutoupes, K. Xie, “Temporal and spatial solitons: an overview,” in Beam Shaping and Control with Nonlinear Optics, R. Reinich, F. Kajzar, eds., Vol. 369 of NATO ASI Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1998), pp. 183–228.

W. J. Firth, “Spatial solitons 1,” in Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C.2000), pp. 216.

C. Cambournac, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz, M. Chauvet, J. M. Dudley, “Stable periodic arrays of bright Kerr-like spatial solitons in a planar waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Europe) in Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2000), pp. 375.

L. Torner, G. I. Stegeman, “Multicolor solitons,” Opt. Photon. News, June2001, pp. 36–39.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for simultaneous spatial and spectral analyzer: λ/2, half-wave plate; G, Glan prism; Wg, nonlinear waveguide; W, Wollaston prism; BS, beam splitter; F1, calibrated neutral-density filter; L1, L2, L3, L4, lenses; Dc, control photodiode; CCD, camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output waveguide images for different input power’s. (a) Laser beam at P = 5 kW and (b) its spatial profile. (c) Laser beam at P = 30 kW and (d) its spatial profile. (e) Raman beam at P = 45 kW and (f) its spatial profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam waists of laser and Raman beams versus input power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrometer output image in the Raman soliton regime (P = 80 kW).

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