Abstract

With tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses, waveguides are fabricated in fused silica. The guiding and attenuation properties of these waveguides at wavelengths of 514 nm and 1.5 µm are studied. We demonstrate that by changing only the writing speed, waveguides with a controllable mode number can be produced.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, C. Smith, “Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1311–1313 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Korte, S. Adams, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, M. Will, J.-P. Ruske, B. N. Chichkov, A. Tünnermann, “Sub-diffraction limited structuring of solid targets with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 7, 41–49 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. Streltsov, N. F. Borrelli, “Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 42–43 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2023–2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 646–648 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, K. Itoh, “Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1669–1671 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

1997

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Adams, S.

Borrelli, N. F.

Brodeur, A.

Callan, J. P.

Chichkov, B. N.

Davis, K. M.

Egbert, A.

Fallnich, C.

Finlay, R. J.

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, J. F.

Glezer, E. N.

Hayashi, K.

Her, T.-H.

Hirao, K.

Homoelle, D.

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kondo, Y.

Korte, F.

Mazur, E.

Milosavljevic, M.

Mitsuyu, T.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

Nouchi, K.

Ostendorf, A.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qui, J.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, J.-P.

Schaffer, C. B.

Smith, C.

Streltsov, A. M.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Toma, T.

Tünnermann, A.

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, W.

Wielandy, S.

Will, M.

Yamada, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qui, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171, 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured refractive index profiles in (a) z and (b) x directions of a waveguide fabricated in fused silica (500 µm below the surface) at a writing speed of 25 µm/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of (a) calculated and (b) measured guided light intensity distributions at 514 nm. For the calculations the measured refractive-index profile (Fig. 2) was used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the writing speed on the waveguiding properties at a wavelength of 514 nm. Only the highest-order guided modes are shown for a writing speed of (a) 1000 µm/s, (b) 500 µm/s, (c) 80 µm/s, and (d) 25 µm/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of (a) calculated and (b) measured near-field intensity distributions at 1.54 µm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

w0=M2fλ/πws, b=2M2f2λ/πws2,
2πr/λNA2.4.

Metrics