Abstract

To quantify the effect of ambient temperature on the voltage signal of Solar Light UV-Biometers, spectral response functions of two instruments were determined in the laboratory under various external temperature conditions. Despite the biometer’s internal temperature stabilization, a temperature increase of 20 °C at the outside of an instrument’s housing resulted in a reduction of the instrument’s spectral response by as much as 10% in the UVB range and by as much as a factor of 2 in the UVA range, depending on the individual instrument and on its internal relative humidity. The significance of this effect for outdoor measurements is demonstrated by data from an intercomparison campaign of erythemal radiometers in Thessaloniki, Greece, organized by the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), the Cooperation in Science and Technology (European Commission), and the World Meteorological Organization. On 16 September 1999, 12 of 16 Solar Light Biometers showed significant diurnal variation in their sensitivity (as much as 10% for some individual instruments), which can be explained through a heating of the instruments’ housings due to direct solar radiation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Global Solar UV Index,” a joint recommendation of the World Health Organization, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Environment Program, and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, ICNIRP-1/95 (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim, Germany, 1995).
  2. A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).
  3. K. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. DeLuisi, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).
  5. D. Berger, “The sunburning ultraviolet meter: design and performance,” Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 587–593 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Morys, D. Berger, “The accurate measurements of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2049, 152–161 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Messungen der Temperaturkoeffizienten des Robertson-Berger sunburn meters und des Eppley UV radiometers,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biocl. Ser. B 36, 357–363 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Blumthaler, A. Bais, “Cosine corrections of global sky measurements,” in The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Instruments at Izaña, October 1996, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, eds. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997), pp. 161–172.

2001 (1)

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. DeLuisi, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

1986 (1)

M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Messungen der Temperaturkoeffizienten des Robertson-Berger sunburn meters und des Eppley UV radiometers,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biocl. Ser. B 36, 357–363 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. Berger, “The sunburning ultraviolet meter: design and performance,” Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 587–593 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambach, W.

M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Messungen der Temperaturkoeffizienten des Robertson-Berger sunburn meters und des Eppley UV radiometers,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biocl. Ser. B 36, 357–363 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. Bais, “Cosine corrections of global sky measurements,” in The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Instruments at Izaña, October 1996, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, eds. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997), pp. 161–172.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Berger, D.

D. Berger, “The sunburning ultraviolet meter: design and performance,” Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 587–593 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morys, D. Berger, “The accurate measurements of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2049, 152–161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, G.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, D.

K. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. DeLuisi, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Messungen der Temperaturkoeffizienten des Robertson-Berger sunburn meters und des Eppley UV radiometers,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biocl. Ser. B 36, 357–363 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. Bais, “Cosine corrections of global sky measurements,” in The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Instruments at Izaña, October 1996, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, eds. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997), pp. 161–172.

Brogniez, C.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

K. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. DeLuisi, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diffey, B. L.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Disterhoft, P.

K. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. DeLuisi, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, P.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Groebner, J.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henriques, D.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Huber, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Janouch, M.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Josefsson, W.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazadzis, S.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Kerr, J.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, P.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kjeldstad, B.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koskela, T.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuik, F.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lantz, K.

K. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. DeLuisi, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, K.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McKinlay, A. F.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Morys, M.

M. Morys, D. Berger, “The accurate measurements of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2049, 152–161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Redondas, A.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reinen, H.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmalwieser, A.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Schreder, J.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seckmeyer, G.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slaper, H.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slusser, J.

K. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. DeLuisi, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Svenoe, T.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Topaloglou, C.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

Wardle, D.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, P.

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biocl. Ser. B (1)

M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Messungen der Temperaturkoeffizienten des Robertson-Berger sunburn meters und des Eppley UV radiometers,” Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Biocl. Ser. B 36, 357–363 (1986).
[CrossRef]

CIE J. (1)

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (1)

K. Lantz, P. Disterhoft, J. DeLuisi, D. Bigelow, J. Slusser, “Methodology for deriving clear-sky erythemal calibration factors for UV broadband radiometers of the U.S. Central UV Calibration Facility,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 16, 1736–1752 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

A. Bais, B. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Groebner, J. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, W. Josefsson, C. Brogniez, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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D. Berger, “The sunburning ultraviolet meter: design and performance,” Photochem. Photobiol. 24, 587–593 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

M. Morys, D. Berger, “The accurate measurements of biologically effective ultraviolet radiation,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2049, 152–161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques, M. Janouch, “Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers (Thessaloniki, Greece, 13–23 September 1999),” Global Atmosphere Watch Rep. 141 (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

M. Blumthaler, A. Bais, “Cosine corrections of global sky measurements,” in The Nordic Intercomparison of Ultraviolet and Total Ozone Instruments at Izaña, October 1996, B. Kjeldstad, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, eds. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 1997), pp. 161–172.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Effect of ambient temperature and internal relative humidity on spectral sensitivity of broadband UV detectors,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE4482, 187–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Global Solar UV Index,” a joint recommendation of the World Health Organization, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Environment Program, and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, ICNIRP-1/95 (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim, Germany, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral response functions of Solar Light (SL) Biometer 910 (at 27 °C ambient temperature and 17% internal relative humidity) and of Biometer 1240 (at 21 °C ambient temperature and 17% internal relative humidity). For comparison with the erythemal action spectrum, the spectra have been normalized to a value of 1 at their maxima.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effects of ambient temperature on the spectral response functions of Solar Light Biometer 1240 at 40% and 17% internal relative humidity (INT. rH) and of solar light biometer 910 at 17% internal relative humidity (top), described by ratios relative to the corresponding spectral response functions at room temperature. Bottom, resultant effects on the wavelength integral of global solar irradiance (determined on 16 September 1999 in Thessaloniki, Greece), spectrally weighted with the respective spectral response function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, voltage signals of four Solar Light Biometers in the afternoon relative to voltage signals at the respective solar elevations in the morning, recorded on 16 September 1999 during the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers in Thessaloniki, Greece. Middle and right, Comparison of these ratios under clear-sky conditions (16 September 1999) and under cloudy-sky conditions (17 and 18 September 1999) for two of these instruments. The biometers’ signals have been normalized by spectrally weighted integrals of simultaneously determined global solar irradiance. Instrument No. 1 is identical with Biometer 1240, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory.

Equations (1)

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S=1c Iλrλdλ.

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