Abstract

A series of three mathematical procedures is derived to discriminate the light absorption by phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter, and nonpigmented particulates in waters in which absorption is dominated by factors other than phytoplankton (i.e., case 2 waters). The procedures utilize normalized absorption cross-sectional spectra of the absorption components and matrix inversion to solve for the coefficients that scale the normalized spectra. The procedures differ in the amount of ancillary measurements incorporated to reduce the variability of the estimates. The procedure that incorporates no ancillary information is expected to be unbiased only over long time periods. Application of the procedures to a 15-day time series of continuously monitored data from the Rhode River, Maryland, revealed the presence of large (approximately twofold) changes in absorption at 440 nm over periods of a few hours. Hourly sampling over a 24-h period confirmed that the changes in measured optical coefficients corresponded to changes in water quality. Errors in estimates of absorption components were of a magnitude consistent with those observed in development of the procedures and confirmed the progressive improvement achieved by incorporation of additional information. Over the time period observed, changes in optical properties appeared to be driven by advective processes.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2001

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Gallegos, “Calculating optical water quality targets to restore and protect submersed aquatic vegetation: overcoming problems in partitioning the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation,” Estuaries 24, 381–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1649–1660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, “Seasonal progression of factors limiting phytoplankton pigment biomass in the Rhode River estuary, Maryland (USA). II. Modeling N versus P limitation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 199–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, D. E. Correll, “Interannual variability in spring bloom timing and magnitude in the Rhode River, Maryland (USA): observations and modeling,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 154, 27–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, M. Mingazzini, “Optical properties of the water in a deltaic environment: prospective tool to analyze satellite data in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 69–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. A. Gallie, P. A. Murtha, “Specific absorption and backscattering spectra for suspended minerals and chlorophyll-a in Chilko Lake, British Columbia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 39, 103–118 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo modeling of the performance of a reflective tube absorption meter,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6463–6468 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Long-term trends in estuarine nutrients and chlorophyll, and short-term effects of variation in watershed discharge,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 75, 121–132 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, “Estimation of organic and inorganic matter in inland waters: optical cross sections of Lakes Ontario and Ladoga,” J. Great Lakes Res. 17, 461–469 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Nutrients and chlorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, D. L. Correll, J. W. Pierce, “Modeling spectral diffuse attenuation, absorption, and scattering coefficients in a turbid estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1486–1502 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Oceanic primary production: estimation by remote sensing at local and regional scales,” Science 241, 1613–1620 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

1983

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975

S. W. Jeffrey, G. F. Humphrey, “New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophyll a, b, c1, and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton,” Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 167, 191–194 (1975).

C. H. Southwick, F. W. Pine, “Abundance of submerged vascular vegetation in the Rhode River from 1966 to 1973,” Chesapeake Sci. 16, 147–151 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Batiuk, R. A.

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergstrom, P. W.

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, E.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bukata, R. P.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, “Estimation of organic and inorganic matter in inland waters: optical cross sections of Lakes Ontario and Ladoga,” J. Great Lakes Res. 17, 461–469 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carter, V.

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. C.

Claustre, H.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Correll, D. E.

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, D. E. Correll, “Interannual variability in spring bloom timing and magnitude in the Rhode River, Maryland (USA): observations and modeling,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 154, 27–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Correll, D. L.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Nutrients and chlorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Long-term trends in estuarine nutrients and chlorophyll, and short-term effects of variation in watershed discharge,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 75, 121–132 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, D. L. Correll, J. W. Pierce, “Modeling spectral diffuse attenuation, absorption, and scattering coefficients in a turbid estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1486–1502 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dennison, W. C.

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

Doerffer, R.

H. Hakvoort, R. Doerffer, “Estimation of specific absorption coefficients of turbid coastal water constituents using the AC-9 and asymptotic attenuation coefficients,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., SPIE2963, 435–439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falkowski, P. G.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, G. C.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fell, F.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G. M.

G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, M. Mingazzini, “Optical properties of the water in a deltaic environment: prospective tool to analyze satellite data in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 69–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Field, C. B.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frouin, R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frye, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gallegos, C. L.

C. L. Gallegos, “Calculating optical water quality targets to restore and protect submersed aquatic vegetation: overcoming problems in partitioning the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation,” Estuaries 24, 381–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, “Seasonal progression of factors limiting phytoplankton pigment biomass in the Rhode River estuary, Maryland (USA). II. Modeling N versus P limitation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 199–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, D. E. Correll, “Interannual variability in spring bloom timing and magnitude in the Rhode River, Maryland (USA): observations and modeling,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 154, 27–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, D. L. Correll, J. W. Pierce, “Modeling spectral diffuse attenuation, absorption, and scattering coefficients in a turbid estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1486–1502 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, “Impact of the Spring 2000 phytoplankton bloom in Chesapeake Bay on optical properties and light penetration in the Rhode River, Maryland,” Estuaries, accepted for publication.

Gallie, E. A.

E. A. Gallie, P. A. Murtha, “Specific absorption and backscattering spectra for suspended minerals and chlorophyll-a in Chilko Lake, British Columbia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 39, 103–118 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Haardt, H.

H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hakvoort, H.

H. Hakvoort, R. Doerffer, “Estimation of specific absorption coefficients of turbid coastal water constituents using the AC-9 and asymptotic attenuation coefficients,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., SPIE2963, 435–439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. R.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, M. Mingazzini, “Optical properties of the water in a deltaic environment: prospective tool to analyze satellite data in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 69–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, G. F.

S. W. Jeffrey, G. F. Humphrey, “New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophyll a, b, c1, and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton,” Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 167, 191–194 (1975).

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Jannasch, H.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeffrey, S. W.

S. W. Jeffrey, G. F. Humphrey, “New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophyll a, b, c1, and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton,” Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 167, 191–194 (1975).

Jerome, J. H.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, “Estimation of organic and inorganic matter in inland waters: optical cross sections of Lakes Ontario and Ladoga,” J. Great Lakes Res. 17, 461–469 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, T. E.

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, “Seasonal progression of factors limiting phytoplankton pigment biomass in the Rhode River estuary, Maryland (USA). II. Modeling N versus P limitation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 199–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, D. E. Correll, “Interannual variability in spring bloom timing and magnitude in the Rhode River, Maryland (USA): observations and modeling,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 154, 27–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Nutrients and chlorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Long-term trends in estuarine nutrients and chlorophyll, and short-term effects of variation in watershed discharge,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 75, 121–132 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, “Impact of the Spring 2000 phytoplankton bloom in Chesapeake Bay on optical properties and light penetration in the Rhode River, Maryland,” Estuaries, accepted for publication.

Kirk, J. T. O.

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knap, A.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kolber, D. D.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollar, S.

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kondratyev, K. Y.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, “Estimation of organic and inorganic matter in inland waters: optical cross sections of Lakes Ontario and Ladoga,” J. Great Lakes Res. 17, 461–469 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Los, S. O.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manov, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maske, H.

H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNeil, J.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, A.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miklas, J.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Long-term trends in estuarine nutrients and chlorophyll, and short-term effects of variation in watershed discharge,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 75, 121–132 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Nutrients and chlorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mingazzini, M.

G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, M. Mingazzini, “Optical properties of the water in a deltaic environment: prospective tool to analyze satellite data in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 69–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water. Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).

Moore, C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moore, K. A.

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Morris, F. W. I.

F. W. I. Morris, “Volume 3 of the lower St. Johns River basin reconnaissance: hydrodynamics and salinity of surface water” Tech. Rep. SJ95-9 (St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, Florida, 1995).

Murtha, P. A.

E. A. Gallie, P. A. Murtha, “Specific absorption and backscattering spectra for suspended minerals and chlorophyll-a in Chilko Lake, British Columbia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 39, 103–118 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Orth, R. J.

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ortner, P. B.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oubelkheir, K.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J. W.

C. L. Gallegos, D. L. Correll, J. W. Pierce, “Modeling spectral diffuse attenuation, absorption, and scattering coefficients in a turbid estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1486–1502 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pine, F. W.

C. H. Southwick, F. W. Pine, “Abundance of submerged vascular vegetation in the Rhode River from 1966 to 1973,” Chesapeake Sci. 16, 147–151 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Oceanic primary production: estimation by remote sensing at local and regional scales,” Science 241, 1613–1620 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollack, N. H.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pozdnyakov, D. V.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, “Estimation of organic and inorganic matter in inland waters: optical cross sections of Lakes Ontario and Ladoga,” J. Great Lakes Res. 17, 461–469 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Prieur, L.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Randerson, J. T.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1649–1660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Oceanic primary production: estimation by remote sensing at local and regional scales,” Science 241, 1613–1620 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sciandra, A.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sigurdson, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Southwick, C. H.

C. H. Southwick, F. W. Pine, “Abundance of submerged vascular vegetation in the Rhode River from 1966 to 1973,” Chesapeake Sci. 16, 147–151 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, J. C.

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Tucker, C. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. O. Los, C. J. Tucker, P. G. Falkowski, C. B. Field, R. Frouin, W. E. Esaias, D. D. Kolber, N. H. Pollack, “Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition,” Science 291, 2594–2597 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weller, D. E.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Long-term trends in estuarine nutrients and chlorophyll, and short-term effects of variation in watershed discharge,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 75, 121–132 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Nutrients and chlorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz.

S. W. Jeffrey, G. F. Humphrey, “New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophyll a, b, c1, and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton,” Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 167, 191–194 (1975).

BioScience

W. C. Dennison, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore, J. C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. W. Bergstrom, R. A. Batiuk, “Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation,” BioScience 43, 86–94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol.

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mar. Sci.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Chesapeake Sci.

C. H. Southwick, F. W. Pine, “Abundance of submerged vascular vegetation in the Rhode River from 1966 to 1973,” Chesapeake Sci. 16, 147–151 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res.

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. I

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda testbed mooring program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Estuaries

C. L. Gallegos, “Calculating optical water quality targets to restore and protect submersed aquatic vegetation: overcoming problems in partitioning the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation,” Estuaries 24, 381–397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Great Lakes Res.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, D. V. Pozdnyakov, “Estimation of organic and inorganic matter in inland waters: optical cross sections of Lakes Ontario and Ladoga,” J. Great Lakes Res. 17, 461–469 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Nutrients and chlorophyll at the interface of a watershed and an estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 251–267 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Maske, H. Haardt, “Quantitative in vivo absorption spectra of phytoplankton: detrital absorption and comparison with fluorescence excitation spectra,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 620–633 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, D. L. Correll, J. W. Pierce, “Modeling spectral diffuse attenuation, absorption, and scattering coefficients in a turbid estuary,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1486–1502 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, “Theoretical and experimental approaches to improve the accuracy of particulate absorption coefficients derived from the quantitative filter technique,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1649–1660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

T. E. Jordan, D. L. Correll, J. Miklas, D. E. Weller, “Long-term trends in estuarine nutrients and chlorophyll, and short-term effects of variation in watershed discharge,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 75, 121–132 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, “Seasonal progression of factors limiting phytoplankton pigment biomass in the Rhode River estuary, Maryland (USA). II. Modeling N versus P limitation,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 199–212 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Gallegos, T. E. Jordan, D. E. Correll, “Interannual variability in spring bloom timing and magnitude in the Rhode River, Maryland (USA): observations and modeling,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 154, 27–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

E. A. Gallie, P. A. Murtha, “Specific absorption and backscattering spectra for suspended minerals and chlorophyll-a in Chilko Lake, British Columbia,” Remote Sens. Environ. 39, 103–118 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, M. Mingazzini, “Optical properties of the water in a deltaic environment: prospective tool to analyze satellite data in turbid waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 69–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, “Oceanic primary production: estimation by remote sensing at local and regional scales,” Science 241, 1613–1620 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Eigenvectors of the principal components of normalized absorption and scattering spectra that entered significantly into the linear regression for the absorption-to-scattering ratio ρ for data from the Rhode River. First (squares) and third (triangles) principal components for absorption (left y axis) and the first (circles) principal component for scattering (right y axis) entered the regression for ρ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average absorption spectra normalized to absorption at a reference wavelength for (squares) CDOM [g(λ)], (circles) phytoplankton pigment [ϕ(λ)], and (triangles) nonpigmented particulate matter [p(λ)]: (a) Rhode River, Maryland; (b) St. Johns River, Florida. Error bars are ±2 standard errors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of optical parameters calculated by the three solution with measurements made in the laboratory for Rhode River, Maryland: (a) backscatter correction factor ∊; (b) absorption by CDOM at 440 nm, a g (440); (c) absorption by phytoplankton pigment at 676 nm, a ϕ(676); (d) absorption by nonpigmented particulates at 440 nm, a p(440).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

As in Fig. 3, but for the St. Johns River, Florida. Triangles denote measurements omitted from statistical evaluation (see text): solid triangles, estimated by unconstrained procedure; open triangles, estimated by statistically augmented procedure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Application of the unconstrained solution to a 15-day time series of continuously monitored data from the Rhode River, Maryland. (a) Absorption coefficient at 440 nm before and after correction for drift and backscatter. Vertical dotted curves indicate timing and magnitudes of drift corrections. (b) Estimates of components of a t-w (440) by factors indicated to the right of the graph.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of optical parameters estimated by the three solution procedures with water quality measurements made at hourly intervals 7–8 March 2000. (a) Turbidity, b(440), and depth; (b) measured and estimated a g (440); (c) measured and estimated a ϕ(676); (d) measured and estimated a p(440). NTU, nephelometric turbidity units.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Statistics of Parameter Values Estimated from Laboratory Measurements of Inherent Optical Properties with Eqs. (12) and (13)

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Table 2 Normalized Absorption Coefficients for Absorption by CDOM [g(λ)], Phytoplankton Pigments [ϕ(λ)], and All Other Particulates [p(λ)]

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Table 3 Statistical Comparison between Measured and Calculated Absorption Parameters

Equations (15)

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atλ=awλ+agλ+apλ,
at-wλ=amλ-wbλ,
at-wλ=amλ-bmλ,
amλ=agλ+aϕλ+ap-ϕλ+bmλ.
gλ=agλag440,
ϕλ=aϕλaϕ676,
pλ=ap-ϕλap-ϕ440,
a0=N0-1am,
N0= gλ1ϕλ1pλ1bmλ1····gλ4ϕλ4pλ4bmλ4.
ap-ϕ440=ρb 440=ρbm4401+,
a1=N1-1am-p,
N1= gλ1ϕλ1bmλ1+ρbm440pλ1gλ3ϕλ3bmλ3+ρbm440pλ3.
a2=N2-1 · am-g,
amλ-bmλ=agλ+1β ap λ.
ρ=ap-ϕ440βbm4401+,

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