Abstract

Bleaching is one of the key processes in the production of phase holograms with fine grain silver halide emulsions. This step was widely studied for discontinued Kodak, Agfa, and Ilford emulsions, and most of those results have been optimized with small changes for presently available holographic emulsions. A study of the different bleaching techniques with BB-640 holographic emulsions is presented. Some interesting new features found are the high-diffraction efficiencies achieved with direct rehalogenating bleaching and with reversal bleaching, with higher values and better sensitivities than those of classical fixation-free rehalogenating bleaching. In particular, we have found that the highest diffraction efficiency and the lowest scattering is obtained with AAC developer and reversal bleach R-9, with diffraction efficiency values of 82%.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 134–145 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 10, 1671–1679 (2000).
  11. Note: Plates type BB-640 and BB-520 formerly manufactured by HRTgmbh of Germany are currently being manufactured by Colourholographics Ltd. of England.
  12. H. D. Tholl, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed. Proc. SPIE2405 pp.76–87 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Black-and-White Processing Using KODAK Chemicals (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., 1985).
  15. C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process, (Macmillan, New York, 1966).

2000 (2)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 10, 1671–1679 (2000).

1996 (1)

H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 134–145 (1996).

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

1965 (1)

Beléndez, A.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 10, 1671–1679 (2000).

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 134–145 (1996).

H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, “Recording and processing of silver-halide color holograms,” in Holographic materials, T. J. Trout, ed. Proc. SPIE2405, 100–107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Cathey, W. T.

Chidley, C. M.

Crespo, J.

Cullen, R.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Döhmen, M.

H. D. Tholl, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed. Proc. SPIE2405 pp.76–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fimia, A.

Hariharan, P.

Harper, J. S.

James, T. H.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process, (Macmillan, New York, 1966).

Jeong, T. H.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 134–145 (1996).

H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, “Recording and processing of silver-halide color holograms,” in Holographic materials, T. J. Trout, ed. Proc. SPIE2405, 100–107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, C. N.

Lamberts, R. L.

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process, (Macmillan, New York, 1966).

Neipp, C.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 10, 1671–1679 (2000).

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pascual, I.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 10, 1671–1679 (2000).

Pennington, K. S.

Phillips, N. J.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Porter, D.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Quintana, J. A.

Stojanoff, C. G.

H. D. Tholl, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed. Proc. SPIE2405 pp.76–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tholl, H. D.

H. D. Tholl, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed. Proc. SPIE2405 pp.76–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vukicevic, D.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 134–145 (1996).

Ward, A. A.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, D. Vukicevic, “Color reflection holograms recorded in a panchromatic ultrahigh-resolution single-layer,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 40, 134–145 (1996).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 10, 1671–1679 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Photograph. Sci. Eng. (1)

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–124 (1980).

Other (6)

H. I. Bjelkhagen, T. H. Jeong, “Recording and processing of silver-halide color holograms,” in Holographic materials, T. J. Trout, ed. Proc. SPIE2405, 100–107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Note: Plates type BB-640 and BB-520 formerly manufactured by HRTgmbh of Germany are currently being manufactured by Colourholographics Ltd. of England.

H. D. Tholl, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed. Proc. SPIE2405 pp.76–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Black-and-White Processing Using KODAK Chemicals (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., 1985).

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process, (Macmillan, New York, 1966).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction efficiency (DE) as a function of exposure energy (E) of BB-640 plates processed with AAC and bleached with direct (dots), fixation-free rehalogenating (asterisks), and reversal bleaches (dotted open circles).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency (DE) plus 0 order at the Bragg angle with the symbolic notation the same as Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

D-Log E curves of BB640 plates processed with AAC (dotted open circles), PAAC (dots), CW-C2 (solid squares), and Pyrogallol (dotted open squares) developers, and fixed with nonhardening fix Kodak F24.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency (DE) as a function of exposure energy (E) of BB-640 plates processed with AAC (dotted open circles), PAAC (dots), CW-C2 (solid squares), and Pyrogallol (dotted open squares) developers and bleached with R-9 reversal bleach.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency (DE) plus 0 order at the Bragg angle with the symbolic rotation the same as Fig. 4.

Tables (5)

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Table 2 Reversal Bleach

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Table 3 Fixation Free-Rehalogenating Bleach

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Table 4 Results for AAC Developed Plates

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Table 5 Results for R-9 Bleached Plates

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