Abstract

The mechanism of hologram formation in fixation-free rehalogenating bleaching processes have been treated by different authors. The experiments carried out on Agfa 8E75 HD plates led to the conclusion that material transfer from the exposed to the unexposed zones is the main mechanism under the process. We present a simple model that explains the mechanism of hologram formation inside the emulsion. Also quantitative data obtained using both Agfa 8E75 HD and Slavich PFG-01 fine-grained red-sensitive emulsions are given and good agreement between theory and experiments are found.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. I. Bjelkhagen, H. J. Caulfield, eds. Selected Papers on Fundamental Techniques in Holography, SPIE Milestone Series, MS171 (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash, 2001).
  2. H. J. Coufal, D. Psaltis, G. T. Sincerbox, eds. Holographic Data Storage (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. M. Kim, B. S. Choi, S. I. Kim, J. M. Kim, H. J. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part I. Transmission holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 622–632 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Domingo, I. Arias, A. Garcı́a, “Achromatic Fourier processor with holographic optical lenses,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2267–2274 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. H. McMahon, A. R. Franklin, “Efficient, high-quality, R-10 bleached holographic diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1927–1929 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Upatnieks, C. Leonard, “Diffraction efficiency of bleached, photographically recorded interference patterns,” Appl. Opt. 8, 85–89 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Crespo, A. Fimia, J. A. Quintana, “Fixation-free methods in bleached reflection holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1642–1645 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. K. Kostuk, “Factorial optimization of bleach constituents for silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1611–1616 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Effects of overmodulation in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on BB-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 504–513 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, “Refractive index modulation mechanism in bleached silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 369–371 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: the influence of halide type and concentration on diffraction efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3895–3898 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms 3: Ḿechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–2985 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. L. Van Renesse, F. A. J. Bouts, “Efficiency of bleaching agents for holography,” Optik 38, 156–168 (1973).
  17. R. L. Van Renesse, “Scattering properties of fine-grained bleached emulsions,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 114–119 (1980).
  18. C. Neipp, E. Beronich, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free bleached silver halide transmission holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 red sensitive plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1643–1655 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Bleached silver halide volume holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 emulsion: The influence of the developer,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1479–1494 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Kasprzak, N. Sultanova, H. Pbdbielska, “Nonlinear effects of the recording material on the image quality of a Fourier hologram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 843–846 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. N. J. Phillips, H. Heyworth, T. Hare, “On Lippmann’s photography,” J. Photogr. Sci. 32, 158–169 (1984).
  22. H. D. Thöll, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2405, 76–87 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: spatial frequency effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3852–3854 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [Crossref]

2001 (6)

J. M. Kim, B. S. Choi, S. I. Kim, J. M. Kim, H. J. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part I. Transmission holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 622–632 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Domingo, I. Arias, A. Garcı́a, “Achromatic Fourier processor with holographic optical lenses,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2267–2274 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Effects of overmodulation in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on BB-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 504–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, E. Beronich, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free bleached silver halide transmission holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 red sensitive plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1643–1655 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Bleached silver halide volume holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 emulsion: The influence of the developer,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1479–1494 (2001).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

N. J. Phillips, H. Heyworth, T. Hare, “On Lippmann’s photography,” J. Photogr. Sci. 32, 158–169 (1984).

1980 (1)

R. L. Van Renesse, “Scattering properties of fine-grained bleached emulsions,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 114–119 (1980).

1973 (1)

R. L. Van Renesse, F. A. J. Bouts, “Efficiency of bleaching agents for holography,” Optik 38, 156–168 (1973).

1971 (1)

P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (3)

Arias, I.

Beléndez, A.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Effects of overmodulation in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on BB-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 504–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, E. Beronich, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free bleached silver halide transmission holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 red sensitive plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1643–1655 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Bleached silver halide volume holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 emulsion: The influence of the developer,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1479–1494 (2001).
[Crossref]

Beronich, E.

C. Neipp, E. Beronich, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free bleached silver halide transmission holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 red sensitive plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1643–1655 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[Crossref]

Bjelkhagen, H. J.

Bouts, F. A. J.

R. L. Van Renesse, F. A. J. Bouts, “Efficiency of bleaching agents for holography,” Optik 38, 156–168 (1973).

Chidley, C. M.

Choi, B. S.

Crespo, J.

Döhmen, M.

H. D. Thöll, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2405, 76–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Domingo, M.

Fimia, A.

Franklin, A. R.

Garci´a, A.

Goodman, J. W.

Hare, T.

N. J. Phillips, H. Heyworth, T. Hare, “On Lippmann’s photography,” J. Photogr. Sci. 32, 158–169 (1984).

Hariharan, P.

Heyworth, H.

N. J. Phillips, H. Heyworth, T. Hare, “On Lippmann’s photography,” J. Photogr. Sci. 32, 158–169 (1984).

Kasprzak, H.

Kaushik, G. S.

P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. M.

Kim, S. I.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kostuk, R. K.

Leonard, C.

McMahon, D. H.

Neipp, C.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Effects of overmodulation in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, E. Beronich, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free bleached silver halide transmission holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 red sensitive plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1643–1655 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Bleached silver halide volume holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 emulsion: The influence of the developer,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1479–1494 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on BB-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 504–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pascual, I.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on BB-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 504–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Bleached silver halide volume holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 emulsion: The influence of the developer,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1479–1494 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, E. Beronich, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free bleached silver halide transmission holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 red sensitive plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1643–1655 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Effects of overmodulation in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pbdbielska, H.

Phillips, N. J.

Quintana, J. A.

Ramanathan, C. S.

P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
[Crossref]

Stojanoff, C. G.

H. D. Thöll, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2405, 76–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sultanova, N.

Thöll, H. D.

H. D. Thöll, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2405, 76–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

Upatnieks, J.

Van Renesse, R. L.

R. L. Van Renesse, “Scattering properties of fine-grained bleached emulsions,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 114–119 (1980).

R. L. Van Renesse, F. A. J. Bouts, “Efficiency of bleaching agents for holography,” Optik 38, 156–168 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (11)

J. M. Kim, B. S. Choi, S. I. Kim, J. M. Kim, H. J. Bjelkhagen, N. J. Phillips, “Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part I. Transmission holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 622–632 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Domingo, I. Arias, A. Garcı́a, “Achromatic Fourier processor with holographic optical lenses,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2267–2274 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Crespo, A. Fimia, J. A. Quintana, “Fixation-free methods in bleached reflection holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1642–1645 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Kostuk, “Factorial optimization of bleach constituents for silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1611–1616 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Effects of overmodulation in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, “Refractive index modulation mechanism in bleached silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 369–371 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: the influence of halide type and concentration on diffraction efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3895–3898 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms 3: Ḿechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–2985 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. McMahon, A. R. Franklin, “Efficient, high-quality, R-10 bleached holographic diffraction gratings,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1927–1929 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Upatnieks, C. Leonard, “Diffraction efficiency of bleached, photographically recorded interference patterns,” Appl. Opt. 8, 85–89 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: spatial frequency effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3852–3854 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

C. Neipp, E. Beronich, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free bleached silver halide transmission holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 red sensitive plates,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1643–1655 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Bleached silver halide volume holograms recorded on Slavich PFG-01 emulsion: The influence of the developer,” J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1479–1494 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on BB-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 3, 504–513 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Photogr. Sci. (1)

N. J. Phillips, H. Heyworth, T. Hare, “On Lippmann’s photography,” J. Photogr. Sci. 32, 158–169 (1984).

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
[Crossref]

Optik (1)

R. L. Van Renesse, F. A. J. Bouts, “Efficiency of bleaching agents for holography,” Optik 38, 156–168 (1973).

Photograph. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. L. Van Renesse, “Scattering properties of fine-grained bleached emulsions,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 24, 114–119 (1980).

Other (4)

H. D. Thöll, M. Döhmen, C. G. Stojanoff, “Determination of the mean refractive index and the thickness of dichromated gelatin holographic films using the thin film resonance method,” in Holographic Materials, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2405, 76–87 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[Crossref]

H. I. Bjelkhagen, H. J. Caulfield, eds. Selected Papers on Fundamental Techniques in Holography, SPIE Milestone Series, MS171 (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash, 2001).

H. J. Coufal, D. Psaltis, G. T. Sincerbox, eds. Holographic Data Storage (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DlogE curves for absorption holograms recorded on Agfa 8E75 HD and Slavich PFG-01 plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two zones of the emulsion before and after the exposure and development.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two zones of the emulsion after the bleach bath.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption and scattering as a function of the optical density for transmission diffraction gratings recorded on Agfa 8E75 HD emulsion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency as a function of the optical density for transmission diffraction gratings recorded on Agfa 8E75 HD emulsion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance as a function of the angle of reconstruction for transmission diffraction gratings recorded on PFG-01 emulsion developed with D-19 and bleached with a B/A ratio of 60.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive index modulation, n, as a function of the optical density for transmission diffraction gratings recorded on Agfa 8E75 HD emulsion.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Refractive index modulation, n, as a function of the optical density for transmission diffraction gratings recorded on PFG-01 emulsion.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Slopes, ω, of the regression lines of Fig. 4 as a function of the B/A ratio.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Slopes, ω, of the regression lines of Fig. 5 as a function of the B/A ratio.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Schedule for Exposed Plates

Tables Icon

Table 2 Energetic Sensitivity Values

Tables Icon

Table 3 Values Given by Manufacturer

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Table 4 Values of m and n

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Table 5 Values for Different B/A Ratios

Tables Icon

Table 6 Theoretical Fitting Values for Agfa 8E75 HD

Tables Icon

Table 7 Theoretical Fitting Values for Slavich 8E75-PFG01

Equations (40)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D=log101T,
D=D1+expa-b log E+expc-d log E,
a=21+2χ log EiD
b=4χD,
c=lnDD12log Ei-1+exp2+2χ log EiD2DDlog Ei-1+e2,
d=c-lnDDlog Ei-1+e2log Ei.
N=6mAgBrdπδ3ρ,
D=aNsdrcos θ,
Ns=Nd2qd=N0-Nd1qd.
mr=drd0
6 Ag+Cr2O7-2+14 H+  6 Ag++Cr+3+7H2O.
Ag++KBr  Ag Br+K-
Nb=Nsqb.
Ns1 > Ns2  Nsi1 > Nsi2.
Nsid=γtNsi1-Nsi2.
Nb=Nsiqb.
Nh1=Nd11+Nb1-γtNb1-Nb2
Nh2=Nd21+Nb2+γtNb1-Nb2.
mb=dbd0
m=dbdr=mbmr
Φ2-Φ1=2πdb2n2-db1n1-Δdbnaλ cos θ.
n=ci αiNi+n0
Φ2-Φ1=2πλacαhm2D21-γt-γt/Lqb-qr-m1D11-γt-γt/Lqb-qr++2πλ cos θ Δdbn0-na+cαhN0,
L=db2db1.
L=1,
m2=m1=m=mbmr.
Φ2-Φ1=2πλacαhm1-2γtqb-qrD2-D1
ΔΦ=- 4πλacαhmγtΔD.
η=sin2ΔΦ4,
η=sin2πλacαhmγtΔD.
V=2IrIoIr+Io=1.
ΔD=Dmax-Dmin=Dmax-0.
ΔD=D-D0.
η=sin2πλacαhmγtD-D0.
A&S=mD+n.
η=f1-A&Ssin2hD-D0,
h=πλacαhmγt,
Δn=-2cαhγtcos θ ΔDa dr.
Δn=ωD-D0,
ω=2cαhγt cos θadr.

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