Abstract

We present a demonstration system under the three-dimensional (3D) optoelectronic stacked processor consortium. The processor combines the advantages of optics in global, high-density, high-speed parallel interconnections with the density and computational power of 3D chip stacks. In particular, a compact and scalable optoelectronic switching system with a high bandwidth is designed. The system consists of three silicon chip stacks, each integrated with a single vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser–metal-semiconductor-metal detector array and an optical interconnection module. Any input signal at one end stack can be switched through the central crossbar stack to any output channel on the opposite end stack. The crossbar bandwidth is designed to be 256 Gb/s. For the free-space optical interconnection, a novel folded hybrid micro–macro optical system with a concave reflection mirror has been designed. The optics module can provide a high resolution, a large field of view, a high link efficiency, and low optical cross talk. It is also symmetric and modular. Off-the-shelf macro-optical components are used. The concave reflection mirror can significantly improve the image quality and tolerate a large misalignment of the optical components, and it can also compensate for the lateral shift of the chip stacks. Scaling of the macrolens can be used to adjust the interconnection length between the chip stacks or make the system more compact. The components are easy to align, and only passive alignment is required. Optics and electronics are separated until the final assembly step, and the optomechanic module can be removed and replaced. By use of 3D chip stacks, commercially available optical components, and simple passive packaging techniques, it is possible to achieve a high-performance optoelectronic switching system.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  36. Optical Research Associates, 3280 East Foothill Boulevard, Suite 300, Pasadena, Calif. 91107.

2000 (3)

Y. Li, J. Ai, J. Popelek, “Board-level 2-D data-capable optical interconnection circuits using polymer fiber-image guides,” Proc. IEEE 88, 794–805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, D. Huang, S. Esener, “Free-space parallel multichip interconnection system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3516–3524 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

B. Webb, A. Louri, “All-optical crossbar switch using wavelength division multiplexing and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6176–6183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, R. Rozier, F. Kiamilev, Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, “Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6190–6200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. McArdle, M. Naruse, M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipeline processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 250–260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

1997 (4)

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Liu, B. Robertson, D. V. Plant, H. S. Hinton, W. M. Robertson, “Design and characterization of a microchannel optical interconnect for optical backplanes,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3127–3141 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, G. I. Yayla, S. C. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: system technology and architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 20–35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).

1996 (5)

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, T. Wang, R. A. Linke, “VCSEL-array-based angle-multiplexed optoelectronic crossbar interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1282–1295 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, M. H. Ayliffe, G. C. Boisset, W. Hsiao, D. Kabal, N. H. Kim, Y. S. Liu, M. R. Otazo, D. Pavlasek, A. Z. Shang, J. Simmons, K. Song, D. A. Thompson, W. M. Robertson, “4 × 4 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) optical backplane demonstrator system,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6365–6368 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

F. B. McCormic, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloon, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Chiou, P. Yeh, “2 × 8 photorefractive reconfigurable interconnect with laser diodes,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5536–5541 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

A. O. Harris, “Multichannel acousto-optic crossbar switch,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4245–4256 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Lohmann, “Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing,” Opt. Commun. 86, 365–370 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Acciai, S.

Ai, J.

Y. Li, J. Ai, J. Popelek, “Board-level 2-D data-capable optical interconnection circuits using polymer fiber-image guides,” Proc. IEEE 88, 794–805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

Bacon, D. D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, B. P.

Benabes, P.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, S. C. Esener, Y. Liu, V. H. Ozguz, “Free-space optical interconnection for three-dimensional stacked VLSI chips,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 144–146.

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat “plug-on-top” optics package,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, G. Li, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “3D optical interconnect distributed crossbar switching architecture,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 141–143.

Bertilsson, K.

Bihari, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blair, P.

Boisset, G. C.

Boyd, A. R.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, K. H.

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrne, D.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chandramani, P.

Chang, W.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P. H.

S. Esener, P. Marchand, “3D optoelectronic stacked processors: design and analysis,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, Proc. SPIE3490, 541–545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, E.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, M. P.

Cloon, T. J.

F. B. McCormic, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloon, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Datta, M.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Desmulliez, M. P. Y.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dines, J. A. B.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, G. I. Yayla, S. C. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: system technology and architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 20–35 (1997).
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Eitel, S.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ekman, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, R. Rozier, F. Kiamilev, Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, “Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6190–6200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat “plug-on-top” optics package,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S.

X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, D. Huang, S. Esener, “Free-space parallel multichip interconnection system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3516–3524 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat “plug-on-top” optics package,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Esener, P. Marchand, “3D optoelectronic stacked processors: design and analysis,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, Proc. SPIE3490, 541–545 (1998).
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Esener, S. C.

G. I. Yayla, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “Speed and energy analysis of digital interconnections: comparison of on-chip, off-chip, and free-space technologies,” Appl. Opt. 37, 205–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, G. I. Yayla, S. C. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: system technology and architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 20–35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, S. C. Esener, Y. Liu, V. H. Ozguz, “Free-space optical interconnection for three-dimensional stacked VLSI chips,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 144–146.

D. Huang, G. Li, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “3D optical interconnect distributed crossbar switching architecture,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 141–143.

Fancey, S. J.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, M. G.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gauggel, H.-P.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, A.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, M.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
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Goodman, J. W.

R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical imaging applied to microelectronic chip-to-chip interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2851–2858 (1985).
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J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
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Goosen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Göttert, J.

Gulden, K.-H.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gutzwiller, J.-Louis

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haney, M. W.

Harris, A. O.

Hegarty, J.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
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Hesselink, L.

Hibbs-Brenner, M.

Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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Hinton, H. S.

Hobson, W. S.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horan, P.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, W.

Huang, D.

X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, D. Huang, S. Esener, “Free-space parallel multichip interconnection system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3516–3524 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, S. C. Esener, Y. Liu, V. H. Ozguz, “Free-space optical interconnection for three-dimensional stacked VLSI chips,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 144–146.

D. Huang, G. Li, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “3D optical interconnect distributed crossbar switching architecture,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 141–143.

Hui, S. P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Ishikawa, M.

N. McArdle, M. Naruse, M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipeline processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 250–260 (1999).
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Jahns, J.

Jan, W. Y.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kabal, D.

Kiamilev, F.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, R. Rozier, F. Kiamilev, Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, “Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6190–6200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat “plug-on-top” optics package,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. H.

Koley, B.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, G. I. Yayla, S. C. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: system technology and architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 20–35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kufner, M.

Kunfer, S.

Kung, S.-Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J.-M.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lawler, B.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
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Leibenguth, R. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. I.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72, 850–866 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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D. Huang, G. Li, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “3D optical interconnect distributed crossbar switching architecture,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 141–143.

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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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S. Esener, P. Marchand, “3D optoelectronic stacked processors: design and analysis,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, Proc. SPIE3490, 541–545 (1998).
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C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat “plug-on-top” optics package,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
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X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, D. Huang, S. Esener, “Free-space parallel multichip interconnection system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3516–3524 (2000).
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G. I. Yayla, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “Speed and energy analysis of digital interconnections: comparison of on-chip, off-chip, and free-space technologies,” Appl. Opt. 37, 205–227 (1998).
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P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, G. I. Yayla, S. C. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: system technology and architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 20–35 (1997).
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D. Huang, G. Li, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “3D optical interconnect distributed crossbar switching architecture,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 141–143.

Masuda, S.

Matsushita, K.

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F. B. McCormic, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloon, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
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H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
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S. Esener, P. Marchand, “3D optoelectronic stacked processors: design and analysis,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, Proc. SPIE3490, 541–545 (1998).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Müller, A.

Naruse, M.

N. McArdle, M. Naruse, M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipeline processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 250–260 (1999).
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Newman, P.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
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Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goosen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
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Otazo, M. R.

Ozguz, V. H.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, S. C. Esener, Y. Liu, V. H. Ozguz, “Free-space optical interconnection for three-dimensional stacked VLSI chips,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 144–146.

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Pennelli, G.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
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Picor, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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Plant, D. V.

Popelek, J.

Y. Li, J. Ai, J. Popelek, “Board-level 2-D data-capable optical interconnection circuits using polymer fiber-image guides,” Proc. IEEE 88, 794–805 (2000).
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Robertson, W. M.

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F. B. McCormic, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloon, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
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Shang, A. Z.

Shen, P.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
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Simonis, G. J.

G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
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Smith, E. C.

Song, K.

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C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat “plug-on-top” optics package,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
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A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
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Taghizadeh, M. R.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
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R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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G. J. Simonis, L. Jiang, B. Koley, M. Dagenais, J. Mait, P. Newman, B. Lawler, W. Chang, P. Shen, M. Taysing-Lara, M. Datta, “Research on VCSEL interconnect and OE processing research at Army Research Laboratory,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IV, K. D. Choquette, C. Lei, eds., Proc. SPIE3946, 172–186 (2000).
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Thibeault, B. J.

Thienpont, H.

S. Esener, P. Marchand, “3D optoelectronic stacked processors: design and analysis,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, Proc. SPIE3490, 541–545 (1998).
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Thompson, G. B.

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F. B. McCormic, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloon, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Optical interconnects using microlens arrays,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 465–477 (1992).
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Tseng, B. J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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Walker, A. C.

A. C. Walker, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, M. G. Forbes, S. J. Fancey, G. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. A. B. Dines, C. R. Stanley, G. Pennelli, A. R. Boyd, P. Horan, D. Byrne, J. Hegarty, S. Eitel, H.-P. Gauggel, K.-H. Gulden, A. Gauthier, P. Benabes, J.-Louis Gutzwiller, M. Goetz, “Design and construction of an optoelectronic crossbar switch containing a Terabit per second free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 236–247 (1999).
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B. P. Barrett, P. Blair, G. S. Buller, D. T. Neilson, B. Robertson, E. C. Smith, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, “Components for the implementation of free-space optical crossbars,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6934–6944 (1996).
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Walker, J. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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Wang, M. M.

D. Huang, G. Li, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “3D optical interconnect distributed crossbar switching architecture,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 141–143.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, S. C. Esener, Y. Liu, V. H. Ozguz, “Free-space optical interconnection for three-dimensional stacked VLSI chips,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 144–146.

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

C. Berger, J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. Kiamilev, S. Esener, “Parallel distributed free-space optoelectronic computer engine using flat “plug-on-top” optics package,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1037–1045 (2000).
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Wickman, R.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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Wu, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88, 780–793 (2000).
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Wynn, J. D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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Yayla, G. I.

G. I. Yayla, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “Speed and energy analysis of digital interconnections: comparison of on-chip, off-chip, and free-space technologies,” Appl. Opt. 37, 205–227 (1998).
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P. J. Marchand, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, G. I. Yayla, S. C. Esener, U. Efron, “Optically augmented 3-D computer: system technology and architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 20–35 (1997).
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Yeh, P.

Yuceturk, E.

D. Huang, G. Li, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “3D optical interconnect distributed crossbar switching architecture,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 141–143.

G. Li, D. Huang, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, S. C. Esener, Y. Liu, V. H. Ozguz, “Free-space optical interconnection for three-dimensional stacked VLSI chips,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 144–146.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, D. Huang, S. Esener, “Free-space parallel multichip interconnection system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3516–3524 (2000).
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D. Huang, G. Li, E. Yuceturk, M. M. Wang, C. Berger, X. Zheng, P. J. Marchand, S. C. Esener, “3D optical interconnect distributed crossbar switching architecture,” in Technical Digest of Optics in Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 141–143.

Zydzik, G. J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibenguth, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Goosen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the 3D optoelectronic processor with 3D chip stacks and free-space optical interconnects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mapping between two neighbor VCSEL–MSM detector arrays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Prototype cubic device by integration of a silicon chip stack and a VCSEL–MSM detector array. (a) 3D view. A flexible cable is wire bonded onto the top cap chip. (b) Top view of the optoelectronic array with five VCSELs on. (c) L–I curve of one VCSEL.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cube corner bonded to a flexible cable. (a) 3D view. (b) Top view of the chip stack. (c) Bottom view of the chip stack. (d) VCSELs operating at threshold current.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the folded hybrid optical system with a top concave mirror for the interconnect. The inset depicts a magnified view of the beam focused on the detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Prism design. (a) Alignment of the two prisms with knife edges facing each other causes the loss of optical I/O channels. (b) New prism design without bevel. (c) The new design can avoid the loss of optical channels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between the use of a concave mirror and the use of a flat mirror in terms of the spot size at the detector plane. Simulation results are shown in (a) for the concave mirror and (b) for the flat mirror.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Alignment marks on (a) the aluminum plate and (b) the photomask.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cube alignment setup.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optomechanic module. 1, main aluminum plate; 2, chip stack; 3, rigid part of the flexible cable; 4, thin aluminum plate; 5, aluminum cube; 6, glass; 7, UV-cured epoxy.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Assembled optoelectronic system.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simulation of the encircled energy versus spot size after the misalignment values in Table 2 are taken into account.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Simulation of the encircled energy versus spot size after the misalignment values in Table 3 are taken into account.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Output signal from the detector when the data rate is 2 K/s.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental results for the top mirror tolerance. (a) Tolerance for lateral shift in the x direction. (b) Tolerance for lateral shift in the y direction. (c) Tolerance for vertical shift in the z direction. (d) Tolerance for tilt along the x axis. (e) Tolerance for tilt along the y axis.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Longitudinal Misalignment of the Microlens Can Be Compensated for by Adjustment of the Top Concave Mirror

Tables Icon

Table 2 Misalignment Values for Devices and Components in the Systema

Tables Icon

Table 3 Misalignment Values for Devices and Components in the Systema

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