Abstract

We present a new technique—photon folding—for imaging in nonfocusing telescopes. Inspired by the epoch-folding method in timing analysis, the photon-folding technique directly provides the statistical significance of signals in images, by use of projection matrices. The technique is robust against common imaging problems such as aspect errors and a nonuniform background. The technique provides a deterministic recursive algorithm for improving images, which can be implemented on line. The higher-order photon-folding technique allows a systematic correction for coding noises, which is suitable for studying weak sources in the presence of highly variable strong sources. The technique can be applied to various types of nonfocusing telescopes such as coded-aperture optics, rotational collimators, or Fourier grid telescopes.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. E. Fenimore, “Coded aperture imaging: predicted performance of uniformly redundant arrays,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3562–3570 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.
  3. N. E. White, H. Tananbaum, “The Constellation X-ray mission,” in International Astronomical Union Symposium 195: Highly Energetic Physical Processes and Mechanisms for Emission from Astrophysical Plasmas, P. C. H. Martens, S. Tsuruta, M. A. Weber, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2000), Vol. 195, pp. 61–68.
  4. J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).
  5. F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Gehrels, Swift ScienceTeam, “Swift—The next GRB MIDEX mission,” in American Astronomical Society Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D. C., 1999), Vol. 195, #92.08.
  7. R. C. Puetter, A. Yahil, “The Pixon method of image reconstruction,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems VIII, Vol. 172 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 307–316.
  8. T. R. Metcalf, D. Alexander, N. Nitta, T. Kosugi, “A comparison of the MEM and Pixon algorithms for HXT image reconstruction,” in American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997), Vol. 28, #02.17.
  9. D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Larsson, “Parameter estimation in epoch folding analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 117, 197–201 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Hammersley, T. Ponman, G. Skinner, “Reconstruction of images from a coded-aperture box camera,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 311, 585–594 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. K. Skinner, J. E. Grindlay, “Coded masks with two spatial scales,” Astron. Astrophys. 276, 673–681 (1993).

1999 (1)

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Larsson, “Parameter estimation in epoch folding analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 117, 197–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. K. Skinner, J. E. Grindlay, “Coded masks with two spatial scales,” Astron. Astrophys. 276, 673–681 (1993).

1992 (1)

A. Hammersley, T. Ponman, G. Skinner, “Reconstruction of images from a coded-aperture box camera,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 311, 585–594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Abdali, S.

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.

Alexander, D.

T. R. Metcalf, D. Alexander, N. Nitta, T. Kosugi, “A comparison of the MEM and Pixon algorithms for HXT image reconstruction,” in American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997), Vol. 28, #02.17.

Amati, L.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Axelrod, T.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balthazor, R. L.

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barthelmy, S. D.

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, L. M.

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bildsten, L.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Bloom, J. S.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarty, D.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Christensen, F. E.

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.

Craig, W. W.

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.

Darbro, W.

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Decker, T. R.

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.

Djorgovski, S. G.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, R. F.

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Elvis, M.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Fabian, A.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Fenimore, E. E.

Fiore, F.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Firth, E.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frail, D. A.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gehrels, N.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

N. Gehrels, Swift ScienceTeam, “Swift—The next GRB MIDEX mission,” in American Astronomical Society Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D. C., 1999), Vol. 195, #92.08.

Grindlay, J. E.

G. K. Skinner, J. E. Grindlay, “Coded masks with two spatial scales,” Astron. Astrophys. 276, 673–681 (1993).

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Hailey, C.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Hailey, C. J.

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.

Hammersley, A.

A. Hammersley, T. Ponman, G. Skinner, “Reconstruction of images from a coded-aperture box camera,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 311, 585–594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, F.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Harrison, F. A.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.

Hartmann, D.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Herring, J. R. H.

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez-Garate, M.

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.

Kahn, S.

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

T. R. Metcalf, D. Alexander, N. Nitta, T. Kosugi, “A comparison of the MEM and Pixon algorithms for HXT image reconstruction,” in American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997), Vol. 28, #02.17.

Kulkarni, S. R.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, S.

S. Larsson, “Parameter estimation in epoch folding analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 117, 197–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leahy, D. A.

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Markze, R. O.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, P. J.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, D.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, R. G.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, T. R.

T. R. Metcalf, D. Alexander, N. Nitta, T. Kosugi, “A comparison of the MEM and Pixon algorithms for HXT image reconstruction,” in American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997), Vol. 28, #02.17.

Mould, J.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, N.

T. R. Metcalf, D. Alexander, N. Nitta, T. Kosugi, “A comparison of the MEM and Pixon algorithms for HXT image reconstruction,” in American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997), Vol. 28, #02.17.

Ponman, T.

A. Hammersley, T. Ponman, G. Skinner, “Reconstruction of images from a coded-aperture box camera,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 311, 585–594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prince, T.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Puetter, R. C.

R. C. Puetter, A. Yahil, “The Pixon method of image reconstruction,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems VIII, Vol. 172 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 307–316.

Ramsey, B.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Rideout, R. M.

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rothschild, R.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Sari, R.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, B. E.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. P.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science, Swift

N. Gehrels, Swift ScienceTeam, “Swift—The next GRB MIDEX mission,” in American Astronomical Society Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D. C., 1999), Vol. 195, #92.08.

Skinner, G.

A. Hammersley, T. Ponman, G. Skinner, “Reconstruction of images from a coded-aperture box camera,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 311, 585–594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Skinner, G. K.

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Skinner, J. E. Grindlay, “Coded masks with two spatial scales,” Astron. Astrophys. 276, 673–681 (1993).

Soffitta, P.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Subrahmanyan, R.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, P. G.

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tananbaum, H.

N. E. White, H. Tananbaum, “The Constellation X-ray mission,” in International Astronomical Union Symposium 195: Highly Energetic Physical Processes and Mechanisms for Emission from Astrophysical Plasmas, P. C. H. Martens, S. Tsuruta, M. A. Weber, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2000), Vol. 195, pp. 61–68.

Tueller, J.

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wark, R. M.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weisskopf, M. C.

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

White, N. E.

N. E. White, H. Tananbaum, “The Constellation X-ray mission,” in International Astronomical Union Symposium 195: Highly Energetic Physical Processes and Mechanisms for Emission from Astrophysical Plasmas, P. C. H. Martens, S. Tsuruta, M. A. Weber, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2000), Vol. 195, pp. 61–68.

Wieringa, M. H.

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woosley, S.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

Yahil, A.

R. C. Puetter, A. Yahil, “The Pixon method of image reconstruction,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems VIII, Vol. 172 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 307–316.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

G. K. Skinner, J. E. Grindlay, “Coded masks with two spatial scales,” Astron. Astrophys. 276, 673–681 (1993).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

S. Larsson, “Parameter estimation in epoch folding analysis,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 117, 197–201 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

F. A. Harrison, J. S. Bloom, D. A. Frail, R. Sari, S. R. Kulkarni, S. G. Djorgovski, T. Axelrod, J. Mould, B. P. Schmidt, M. H. Wieringa, R. M. Wark, R. Subrahmanyan, D. McConnell, P. J. McCarthy, B. E. Schaefer, R. G. McMahon, R. O. Markze, E. Firth, P. Soffitta, L. Amati, “Optical and radio observations of the afterglow from GRB 990510: evidence for a jet,” Astrophys. J. 523, L121–L124 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leahy, W. Darbro, R. F. Elsner, M. C. Weisskopf, S. Kahn, P. G. Sutherland, J. E. Grindlay, “On searches for pulsed emission with application to four globular cluster X-ray sources—NGC 1851, 6441, 6624, and 6712,” Astrophys. J. 266, 160–170 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

A. Hammersley, T. Ponman, G. Skinner, “Reconstruction of images from a coded-aperture box camera,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 311, 585–594 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Skinner, R. L. Balthazor, J. R. H. Herring, R. M. Rideout, J. Tueller, S. D. Barthelmy, L. M. Bartlett, “A balloon flight test of a coded-mask telescope with a multi-element germanium detector,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 580–587 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

C. J. Hailey, S. Abdali, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. R. Decker, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, “Substrates and mounting techniques for the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT),” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3114, pp. 535–543.

N. E. White, H. Tananbaum, “The Constellation X-ray mission,” in International Astronomical Union Symposium 195: Highly Energetic Physical Processes and Mechanisms for Emission from Astrophysical Plasmas, P. C. H. Martens, S. Tsuruta, M. A. Weber, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2000), Vol. 195, pp. 61–68.

J. E. Grindlay, L. Bildsten, D. Chakrabarty, M. Elvis, A. Fabian, F. Fiore, N. Gehrels, C. Hailey, F. Harrison, D. Hartmann, T. Prince, B. Ramsey, R. Rothschild, G. Skinner, S. Woosley, “EXIST: a high sensitivity hard x-ray imaging sky survey mission for ISS,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Compton Symposium, M. L. McConnell, J. M. Ryan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.510, 784–788 (1999).

N. Gehrels, Swift ScienceTeam, “Swift—The next GRB MIDEX mission,” in American Astronomical Society Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D. C., 1999), Vol. 195, #92.08.

R. C. Puetter, A. Yahil, “The Pixon method of image reconstruction,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems VIII, Vol. 172 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1999), pp. 307–316.

T. R. Metcalf, D. Alexander, N. Nitta, T. Kosugi, “A comparison of the MEM and Pixon algorithms for HXT image reconstruction,” in American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division Meeting (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997), Vol. 28, #02.17.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of photon folding: For a given direction in the sky, the detected photons are folded into two regions—shadowed and unshadowed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of steady sources: The upper plots are the true sky image, simulated total counts, and background counts in the detector. The lower plots show the reconstructed images by regular photon folding, recursive folding, and second-order folding. The orientation of the telescope relative to the sky has changed 90 deg from the first to the second half of the observation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation of variable sources: The upper plots show the true sky image in the first and second half of the observation. The orientation of the telescope relative to the sky has changed 90 deg from the first to the second half. Reconstructed images by regular photon folding, recursive folding, and second-order photon folding are shown in the lower plots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SNRs in various cases: Within the FOV, there is (a) a steady point source, (b) a variable point source, (c) five steady point sources, and (d) five variable point sources. The overall intensity of each source in multiple-source cases are the same.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Recursive versus second-order photon folding: (a) a steady source (b) a variable source, (c) five steady sources, and (d) five variable sources. The x axis is the SNR by second-order photon folding relative to the simulated SNR, and the y axis is the SNR by recursive folding relative to the simulated SNR. Each shaded region represents each of the four cases of simulations in Fig. 4 in which the simulated SNR is between 50 and 1000.

Equations (40)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

hi=j Pijsj+bi,
sˆj=i Gjihi,
ξ2=ihi-h¯2h¯,
ρρj=i:Pij=11M=iPijM,
αj=i:Pij=1hiH=ihiPijH.
ξj2=Hαj-Hρj2Hρj+H1-αj-H1-ρj2H1-ρj=H αj-ρj21-ρjρj.
Q1χ12  η=η p1χ2dχ2,
1-C100=KQ1χ12  η,
sˆj=Hαj-ρjM1-ρjρj=sj.
Gji=Pij-ρ1-ρ.
ξj2M21-ρjρj=sˆj2H,
Pijt=0  δ  1,
hit=j Pijtsjt+bit,Ht=i hit,
Xt=i xit,λj1jn:l1lnxit, t=1Xti:Pij1tδ,Pijn(t)δxit×Pilnt  Pilnt,λj1jn:l1lnxit, t=1Xti:Pij1t<δ,Pijntδxit× Pil1t  Pilnt,
λjk:lxit, t+λjk:lxit, t=λk:lxit, t.
αj1jnt=λj1jn:hit, tλj1jn-1:hit, t,βj1jnt=λj1jn:b¯it, tλj1jn-1:b¯it, t,ρj1jn:l1lnt=λj1jn:l1ln1, tλj1jn-1:1, t.
X=t Xt.
ξj2=Hαj-Hβj2Hβj+Hαj-Hβj2Hβj=HHαj-βj2HβjH1-βj.
sˆjT=Hαj-βjMρj:j-ρ:jβj.
sˆjT=sjρj:j-ρ:jβjρj:j-ρ:jβj+kjskρj:k-ρ:kβjρj:j-ρj:jβj.
hihi-hˆi,
hˆi=j{sˆjPij}/T,
Hlt=Htαlt,Mlt=i:Pilt<δ 1.
ξlj2jl=Hlαlj-Hlβlj2Hlβlj+Hlαlj-Hlβlj2Hlβlj=HlHlαlj-βlj2HlβljHl1-βlj.
sˆljjlT=Hlαlj-βljMlρlj:j-ρl:jβlj.
sˆljjlT=sjρlj:j-ρl:jβljρlj:j-ρlj:jβlj+kj,lskρlj:k-ρl:kβljρlj:j-ρl:jβlj+slρlj:l-ρl:lβljρlj:j-ρl:jβlj.
γsˆlj+1-γsˆlj.
hˆi={sˆlPil}/T,
γsˆlj0+1-γsˆlj0.
sˆj=Oτjsj+kj Oτksk,γsˆlj+1-γsˆlj=Oτjsj+kj,l Oτksk+Oτl2sl,
ljξl2>ηγsˆlj+1-γsˆlj-L-1sˆj=Oτjsj+kj Oτk2sk,
ljξl2>η γsˆlj0+1-γsˆlj0.
αjt=λj:hit, tλ:hit, t=1Hti:Pijtδ hit,
βjt=λj:b¯it, tλ:b¯it, t=1B¯ti:Pijtδ b¯it,
ρj:t=λj:1, tλ:1, t=1Mti:Pijtδ 1,ρj:jt=λj:j1, tλ:1, t=1Mti:Pijtδ Pijt,ρ:jt=λ:j1, t1=1Mti Pijt.
αljt=λlj:hit, tλl:hit, t=1Hti:Piltδ,Pijtδ hit1Hti:Piltδ hit-1=1Htαlti:Piltδ,Pijtδ hit=1Hlti:Pijtδ,Pijtδ hit.
βljt=1B¯lti:Piltδ,Pijtδb¯itρlj:t=1Mlti:Piltδ,Pijtδ 1,ρlj:jt=1Mlti:Piltδ,Pijtδ Pijt,ρl:jt=1Mlti:PiltδPijt,
B¯lt=B¯tβlt,Mlt=i:Piltδ 1.
αljt+αljt=1,βljt+lβjt=1.
ξl1lnj2|jl1ln=Hl1lnHl1lnαl1lnj-βl1lnj2Hl1lnβl1lnjHl1ln1-βl1lnj,Sˆl1lnjjl1lnT=Hl1lnαl1lnj-βl1lnjMl1lnρl1lnj:j-ρl1ln:jβl1lnj.

Metrics