Abstract

Straightness measurement is an important technique in the field of mechanical engineering. We previously proposed a novel optical method for measuring straightness of motion using reflection confocal optics. The advantage of this method in comparison with the transmission optical systems of others [Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 166 (1974)] is that the lateral displacements in the two axes perpendicular to the optical axis and the rotation angles around all three axes can be measured simultaneously. We demonstrate straightness measurements using reflection confocal optics and show these measurements to be in good agreement with the theory.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Hewlett-Packard, Laser Precision Measurement System 5526A Operating Manual (Hewlett-Packard, 3000 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, Calif.94304–1185, 1976).
  2. K. Matsuda, K. Tenjinbayashi, T. Kohno, T. Eiju, “Straightness measurement using holographic real time interferometry,” in International Commission for Optics-13Conference Digest, H. Ohzu, ed. (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 1984), pp. 316–317.
  3. M. Yamauchi, K. Matsuda, “Interferometric straightness measurement system using a holographic grating,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1078–1083 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Takada, H. Takeyama, “Accuracy control of machine-tools by means of independent optical axes,” Ann. CIRP 27, 271–276 (1978).
  5. H. H. Sakuma, H. Wada, “Straightness measurement using a heterodyne moire method,” Precis. Eng. 9, 19–22 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Matsuda, M. Roy, J. W. O’Byrne, P. W. Fekete, T. Eiju, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Straightness measurements by use of a reflection confocal optical system,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5310–5318 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Burch, D. C. Williams, “A focal lens system for straightness measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 166–168 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Ikawa, S. Shima, H. Morooka, “Laser beam as a straight datum and its application to straightness measurement at nanometer level,” Ann. CIRP 37, 523–526 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Matsuda, T. H. Barnes, B. F. Oreb, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Position magnifying sensor,” Opt. Commun. 170, 309–318 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999

1998

N. Ikawa, S. Shima, H. Morooka, “Laser beam as a straight datum and its application to straightness measurement at nanometer level,” Ann. CIRP 37, 523–526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Yamauchi, K. Matsuda, “Interferometric straightness measurement system using a holographic grating,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1078–1083 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

H. H. Sakuma, H. Wada, “Straightness measurement using a heterodyne moire method,” Precis. Eng. 9, 19–22 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978

K. Takada, H. Takeyama, “Accuracy control of machine-tools by means of independent optical axes,” Ann. CIRP 27, 271–276 (1978).

1974

J. M. Burch, D. C. Williams, “A focal lens system for straightness measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 166–168 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, T. H.

K. Matsuda, T. H. Barnes, B. F. Oreb, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Position magnifying sensor,” Opt. Commun. 170, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burch, J. M.

J. M. Burch, D. C. Williams, “A focal lens system for straightness measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 166–168 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

K. Matsuda, M. Roy, J. W. O’Byrne, P. W. Fekete, T. Eiju, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Straightness measurements by use of a reflection confocal optical system,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5310–5318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsuda, K. Tenjinbayashi, T. Kohno, T. Eiju, “Straightness measurement using holographic real time interferometry,” in International Commission for Optics-13Conference Digest, H. Ohzu, ed. (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 1984), pp. 316–317.

Fekete, P. W.

Ikawa, N.

N. Ikawa, S. Shima, H. Morooka, “Laser beam as a straight datum and its application to straightness measurement at nanometer level,” Ann. CIRP 37, 523–526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kohno, T.

K. Matsuda, K. Tenjinbayashi, T. Kohno, T. Eiju, “Straightness measurement using holographic real time interferometry,” in International Commission for Optics-13Conference Digest, H. Ohzu, ed. (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 1984), pp. 316–317.

Matsuda, K.

K. Matsuda, M. Roy, J. W. O’Byrne, P. W. Fekete, T. Eiju, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Straightness measurements by use of a reflection confocal optical system,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5310–5318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsuda, T. H. Barnes, B. F. Oreb, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Position magnifying sensor,” Opt. Commun. 170, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamauchi, K. Matsuda, “Interferometric straightness measurement system using a holographic grating,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1078–1083 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsuda, K. Tenjinbayashi, T. Kohno, T. Eiju, “Straightness measurement using holographic real time interferometry,” in International Commission for Optics-13Conference Digest, H. Ohzu, ed. (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 1984), pp. 316–317.

Morooka, H.

N. Ikawa, S. Shima, H. Morooka, “Laser beam as a straight datum and its application to straightness measurement at nanometer level,” Ann. CIRP 37, 523–526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Byrne, J. W.

Oreb, B. F.

K. Matsuda, T. H. Barnes, B. F. Oreb, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Position magnifying sensor,” Opt. Commun. 170, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, M.

Sakuma, H. H.

H. H. Sakuma, H. Wada, “Straightness measurement using a heterodyne moire method,” Precis. Eng. 9, 19–22 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shima, S.

N. Ikawa, S. Shima, H. Morooka, “Laser beam as a straight datum and its application to straightness measurement at nanometer level,” Ann. CIRP 37, 523–526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, H. Takeyama, “Accuracy control of machine-tools by means of independent optical axes,” Ann. CIRP 27, 271–276 (1978).

Takeyama, H.

K. Takada, H. Takeyama, “Accuracy control of machine-tools by means of independent optical axes,” Ann. CIRP 27, 271–276 (1978).

Tenjinbayashi, K.

K. Matsuda, K. Tenjinbayashi, T. Kohno, T. Eiju, “Straightness measurement using holographic real time interferometry,” in International Commission for Optics-13Conference Digest, H. Ohzu, ed. (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 1984), pp. 316–317.

Wada, H.

H. H. Sakuma, H. Wada, “Straightness measurement using a heterodyne moire method,” Precis. Eng. 9, 19–22 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. C.

J. M. Burch, D. C. Williams, “A focal lens system for straightness measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 166–168 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, M.

M. Yamauchi, K. Matsuda, “Interferometric straightness measurement system using a holographic grating,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1078–1083 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ann. CIRP

K. Takada, H. Takeyama, “Accuracy control of machine-tools by means of independent optical axes,” Ann. CIRP 27, 271–276 (1978).

N. Ikawa, S. Shima, H. Morooka, “Laser beam as a straight datum and its application to straightness measurement at nanometer level,” Ann. CIRP 37, 523–526 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Commun.

K. Matsuda, T. H. Barnes, B. F. Oreb, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Position magnifying sensor,” Opt. Commun. 170, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Yamauchi, K. Matsuda, “Interferometric straightness measurement system using a holographic grating,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1078–1083 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

J. M. Burch, D. C. Williams, “A focal lens system for straightness measurement,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 166–168 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng.

H. H. Sakuma, H. Wada, “Straightness measurement using a heterodyne moire method,” Precis. Eng. 9, 19–22 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

Hewlett-Packard, Laser Precision Measurement System 5526A Operating Manual (Hewlett-Packard, 3000 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, Calif.94304–1185, 1976).

K. Matsuda, K. Tenjinbayashi, T. Kohno, T. Eiju, “Straightness measurement using holographic real time interferometry,” in International Commission for Optics-13Conference Digest, H. Ohzu, ed. (Organizing Committee of ICO-13, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, 1984), pp. 316–317.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical arrangement for straightness measurements: (a) top view and (b) side view. The position sensors are PS1, PS2, and PS3, and each point source (P 01 or P 02) is imaged onto each position sensor to make point images (P, P′, and P″) after reflection from a concave (M c ) or convex (M v ) mirror. BS, beam splitter; HL, He–Ne laser; GW, guideway; MT, moving table.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calibration curve showing the relationship between lateral stage displacements calculated from the position sensor data (PSD) and measurements of lateral displacement data obtained by reading a micrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the stage displacement in the direction of the x axis (from position sensor measurements) and the stage movement in the direction of the z axis: (a) including the guideway inclination relative to the z axis and (b) residuals when the guideway inclination was removed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the stage displacement in the direction of the y axis (from position sensor measurements) and the stage movement in the direction of the z axis: (a) including the guideway inclination relative to the z axis and (b) residuals when the guideway inclination was removed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between the stage rotation about the x axis (from position sensor measurements) and the stage movement along the z axis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the stage rotation about the y axis (from position sensor measurements) and the stage movement along the z axis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relationship between the stage rotation about the z axis (from position sensor measurements) and the stage movement along the z axis.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δx=δx2-δx1/2+δx1P01A1/z0.
Δy=δy1-δy2/2+δy3P01A1/z0.
Δθx=δy3/z0.
Δθy=δx1/z0.
Δθz=δy2-δy3/h.

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