Abstract

We describe an instrument for the measurement of surface flatness, parallelism, and size (thickness) of plane-parallel parts in a single measurement to 1σ gauge capability of 0.02, 0.03, and 0.06 µm, respectively. A low-coherence IR profiler viewing both sides of the part simultaneously, believed to be novel, accommodates a wide variety of industrial surface finishes, including machined, ground, or lapped parts, with a 75-mm field of view and 15,000 pixels per side. A heterodyne laser displacement gauge together with an integrated zeroing system allows for a range of part sizes from 0 to 100 mm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. X. Colonna de Lega, P. de Groot, D. Grigg, “Dimensional measurement of engineered parts by combining surface profiling with displacement measuring interferometry,” in Proceedings of Fringe 2001: the Fourth International Workshop on Automated Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.
  2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME Y14.5M-1994: Dimensioning and Tolerancing (ASME, New York, 1994).
  3. D. C. Barnes, M. J. Puttock, “National Physics Laboratory interferometer,” Engineer 196, 763–769 (1953).
  4. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp.76, 259–260.
  5. K. Patorski, M. Kujawinska, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993).
  6. P. de Groot, “Three-color laser-diode interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3612–3616 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. de Groot, X. Colonna de Lega, D. Stephenson, “Geometrically desensitized interferometry for shape measurement of flat surfaces and 3D structures,” Opt. Eng. 39, 86–90 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Dresel, G. Haeusler, H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 919–925 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Häusler, “About the scaling behavior of optical range sensors” in Fringe ’97: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds., Akademic Verlag Series in Optical Metrology (Akademic Verlag, Bremen, Germany, 1997), pp. 147–155.
  10. C. Ai, “IR interferometers using modern cameras,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 461–464 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. R. Munnerlyn, M. Latta, “Rough surface interferometry using a CO2 laser source,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1858–1859 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Colonna de Lega, L. Deck, P. de Groot, “Method and apparatus for the metrology of precision engineered components,” U.S. patent6,195,168 B1 (27February2001).
  13. P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. The Zygo Simetra, including scanning infrared interferometry and techniques for geometric measurements by combining profiles from multiple viewing angles of a part and by use of DMI and profilometry together, is the topic of multiple U.S. and foreign patents pending assigned to the Zygo Corporation.

2000

P. de Groot, X. Colonna de Lega, D. Stephenson, “Geometrically desensitized interferometry for shape measurement of flat surfaces and 3D structures,” Opt. Eng. 39, 86–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

1968

1953

D. C. Barnes, M. J. Puttock, “National Physics Laboratory interferometer,” Engineer 196, 763–769 (1953).

Ai, C.

C. Ai, “IR interferometers using modern cameras,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 461–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, D. C.

D. C. Barnes, M. J. Puttock, “National Physics Laboratory interferometer,” Engineer 196, 763–769 (1953).

Colonna de Lega, X.

P. de Groot, X. Colonna de Lega, D. Stephenson, “Geometrically desensitized interferometry for shape measurement of flat surfaces and 3D structures,” Opt. Eng. 39, 86–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Colonna de Lega, P. de Groot, D. Grigg, “Dimensional measurement of engineered parts by combining surface profiling with displacement measuring interferometry,” in Proceedings of Fringe 2001: the Fourth International Workshop on Automated Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

X. Colonna de Lega, L. Deck, P. de Groot, “Method and apparatus for the metrology of precision engineered components,” U.S. patent6,195,168 B1 (27February2001).

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, X. Colonna de Lega, D. Stephenson, “Geometrically desensitized interferometry for shape measurement of flat surfaces and 3D structures,” Opt. Eng. 39, 86–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, “Three-color laser-diode interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3612–3616 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Colonna de Lega, P. de Groot, D. Grigg, “Dimensional measurement of engineered parts by combining surface profiling with displacement measuring interferometry,” in Proceedings of Fringe 2001: the Fourth International Workshop on Automated Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

X. Colonna de Lega, L. Deck, P. de Groot, “Method and apparatus for the metrology of precision engineered components,” U.S. patent6,195,168 B1 (27February2001).

Deck, L.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Colonna de Lega, L. Deck, P. de Groot, “Method and apparatus for the metrology of precision engineered components,” U.S. patent6,195,168 B1 (27February2001).

Dresel, T.

Grigg, D.

X. Colonna de Lega, P. de Groot, D. Grigg, “Dimensional measurement of engineered parts by combining surface profiling with displacement measuring interferometry,” in Proceedings of Fringe 2001: the Fourth International Workshop on Automated Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

Haeusler, G.

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler, “About the scaling behavior of optical range sensors” in Fringe ’97: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds., Akademic Verlag Series in Optical Metrology (Akademic Verlag, Bremen, Germany, 1997), pp. 147–155.

Kujawinska, M.

K. Patorski, M. Kujawinska, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993).

Latta, M.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp.76, 259–260.

Munnerlyn, C. R.

Patorski, K.

K. Patorski, M. Kujawinska, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993).

Puttock, M. J.

D. C. Barnes, M. J. Puttock, “National Physics Laboratory interferometer,” Engineer 196, 763–769 (1953).

Stephenson, D.

P. de Groot, X. Colonna de Lega, D. Stephenson, “Geometrically desensitized interferometry for shape measurement of flat surfaces and 3D structures,” Opt. Eng. 39, 86–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Venzke, H.

Appl. Opt.

Engineer

D. C. Barnes, M. J. Puttock, “National Physics Laboratory interferometer,” Engineer 196, 763–769 (1953).

J. Mod. Opt.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. de Groot, X. Colonna de Lega, D. Stephenson, “Geometrically desensitized interferometry for shape measurement of flat surfaces and 3D structures,” Opt. Eng. 39, 86–90 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Häusler, “About the scaling behavior of optical range sensors” in Fringe ’97: Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Jüptner, W. Osten, eds., Akademic Verlag Series in Optical Metrology (Akademic Verlag, Bremen, Germany, 1997), pp. 147–155.

C. Ai, “IR interferometers using modern cameras,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, H. Stahl, ed., Proc. SPIE3134, 461–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Colonna de Lega, L. Deck, P. de Groot, “Method and apparatus for the metrology of precision engineered components,” U.S. patent6,195,168 B1 (27February2001).

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), pp.76, 259–260.

K. Patorski, M. Kujawinska, Handbook of the Moiré Fringe Technique (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993).

X. Colonna de Lega, P. de Groot, D. Grigg, “Dimensional measurement of engineered parts by combining surface profiling with displacement measuring interferometry,” in Proceedings of Fringe 2001: the Fourth International Workshop on Automated Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME Y14.5M-1994: Dimensioning and Tolerancing (ASME, New York, 1994).

The Zygo Simetra, including scanning infrared interferometry and techniques for geometric measurements by combining profiles from multiple viewing angles of a part and by use of DMI and profilometry together, is the topic of multiple U.S. and foreign patents pending assigned to the Zygo Corporation.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-sided three-dimensional image generated from the optical profiler data of a precision-engineered plane-parallel part. Diameter, 32 mm; size (thickness), 5 mm; flatness, 5 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Common GDT definitions including flatness, size, and parallelism.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Conceptual diagram illustrating the combination of two profilers with a displacement-measuring interferometer (DMI) for the measurement of geometric dimensions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Low-coherence IR scanning interferometer. The filament provides broadband radiation to which the microbolometer camera is sensitive. When the equal-path condition is satisfied, high-quality localized fringes appear even on rough-surface objects.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical layout for a dual-profiler version of the IR scanning interferometer, including DMI instrumentation to monitor optical path lengths within the system. The camera receives two images, A and B, corresponding to nominally parallel part surfaces. PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example data showing the A and B surface profiles of a metal part.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Detail of the optics for one of the two DMI paths. After traversing the system in double pass to compensate small-angle errors, the DMI beams recombine and generate a 4-MHz beat signal at the detector, the phase of which is monitored for displacement measurement. PBS, polarizing beam splitter.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Example Data Analysis

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Table 2 Zero-Gauge Sequence

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Table 3 Measurement Sequence

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Table 4 Example Repeatability Data (in Micrometers) for Size of a Machined Metal Part

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Table 5 Example Accuracy Data for Measurement of NIST Certified Gauge Block Size

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DDMI=D1DMI+D2DMI/2,
tanα=D1DMI-D2DMI/L,
hAx, y=hoptAx, y-hsysAx, y,
hBx, y=hoptBx, y-hsysBx, y+DZ+DDMI+x tanα.

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