Abstract

The effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the refractive-index change in optical fibers is investigated by measuring the interference fringe shift formed by a long-period fiber grating pair. The refractive-index decrease on CO2 laser irradiation was due to relaxation of the residual stress, which was formed in optical fibers during the drawing process, and the refractive-index decrease was found to increase linearly with the drawing force. The effect of the CO2 laser output power on residual-stress relaxation, and fiber elongation was also studied.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Self-interference of long-period fiber grating and its application as temperature sensor,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2059–2060 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, K. Shima, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “A novel long-period fiber grating using periodically released stress of pure-silica core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper ThG1.
  5. C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive-index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, “Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330–335 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Aben, C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), Chap. 11.
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W.-T. Han, “Residual stress relaxation in core of optical fibers by CO2 laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1657–1659 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, M. Horiguchi, “Drawing-induced residual stress effects on optical characteristics in pure-silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 30–34 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Interuniversity Microelectronics Center, Ghent, Belgium, 1996), paper MoB.3.6.
  12. B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3450–3459 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T.-J. Ahn, B. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W-.T. Han, “Measurement of refractive-index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair,” in Technical Digest of 5th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2000), paper 12P-45.
  14. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, “Measurement method for profiling the residual stress and the strain-optic coefficient of an optical fiber.” Appl. Opt. 41, 21–36 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. L. Chu, T. Whitbread, “Measurement of stresses in optical fiber and preform,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4241–4245 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. W. McLellan, E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984), Chap. 2.

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive-index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Self-interference of long-period fiber grating and its application as temperature sensor,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2059–2060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, M. Horiguchi, “Drawing-induced residual stress effects on optical characteristics in pure-silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 30–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1975 (1)

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, “Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Aben, H.

H. Aben, C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), Chap. 11.
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T.-J.

Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, “Measurement method for profiling the residual stress and the strain-optic coefficient of an optical fiber.” Appl. Opt. 41, 21–36 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W.-T. Han, “Residual stress relaxation in core of optical fibers by CO2 laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1657–1659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Ahn, B. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W-.T. Han, “Measurement of refractive-index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair,” in Technical Digest of 5th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2000), paper 12P-45.

Akiyama, M.

M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, K. Shima, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “A novel long-period fiber grating using periodically released stress of pure-silica core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper ThG1.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Chung, Y.

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W.-T. Han, “Residual stress relaxation in core of optical fibers by CO2 laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1657–1659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive-index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Ahn, B. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W-.T. Han, “Measurement of refractive-index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair,” in Technical Digest of 5th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2000), paper 12P-45.

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Interuniversity Microelectronics Center, Ghent, Belgium, 1996), paper MoB.3.6.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillemet, C.

H. Aben, C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), Chap. 11.
[CrossRef]

Han, W-.T.

T.-J. Ahn, B. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W-.T. Han, “Measurement of refractive-index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair,” in Technical Digest of 5th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2000), paper 12P-45.

Han, W.-T.

Han, Y. G.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive-index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanawa, F.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, M. Horiguchi, “Drawing-induced residual stress effects on optical characteristics in pure-silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 30–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, M. Horiguchi, “Drawing-induced residual stress effects on optical characteristics in pure-silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 30–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, M.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, M. Horiguchi, “Drawing-induced residual stress effects on optical characteristics in pure-silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 30–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W.-T. Han, “Residual stress relaxation in core of optical fibers by CO2 laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1657–1659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Ahn, B. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W-.T. Han, “Measurement of refractive-index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair,” in Technical Digest of 5th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2000), paper 12P-45.

Kim, C. S.

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive-index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, Y. H.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurkjian, C. R.

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, “Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kurkov, A. S.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Interuniversity Microelectronics Center, Ghent, Belgium, 1996), paper MoB.3.6.

Lee, B. H.

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W.-T. Han, “Residual stress relaxation in core of optical fibers by CO2 laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1657–1659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive-index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3450–3459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Self-interference of long-period fiber grating and its application as temperature sensor,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2059–2060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Ahn, B. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W-.T. Han, “Measurement of refractive-index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair,” in Technical Digest of 5th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2000), paper 12P-45.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McLellan, G. W.

G. W. McLellan, E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984), Chap. 2.

Medvedkov, O. I.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Interuniversity Microelectronics Center, Ghent, Belgium, 1996), paper MoB.3.6.

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishide, K.

M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, K. Shima, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “A novel long-period fiber grating using periodically released stress of pure-silica core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper ThG1.

Nishii, J.

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3450–3459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Self-interference of long-period fiber grating and its application as temperature sensor,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2059–2060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W.-T. Han, “Residual stress relaxation in core of optical fibers by CO2 laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1657–1659 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive-index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, “Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Ahn, B. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W-.T. Han, “Measurement of refractive-index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair,” in Technical Digest of 5th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2000), paper 12P-45.

Paek, U.-C.

Park, Y.

Post, D.

W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Primak, W.

W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Protopopov, V. N.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Interuniversity Microelectronics Center, Ghent, Belgium, 1996), paper MoB.3.6.

Shand, E. B.

G. W. McLellan, E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984), Chap. 2.

Shima, K.

M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, K. Shima, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “A novel long-period fiber grating using periodically released stress of pure-silica core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper ThG1.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, S. A.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Interuniversity Microelectronics Center, Ghent, Belgium, 1996), paper MoB.3.6.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wada, A.

M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, K. Shima, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “A novel long-period fiber grating using periodically released stress of pure-silica core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper ThG1.

Whitbread, T.

Yamauchi, R.

M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, K. Shima, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “A novel long-period fiber grating using periodically released stress of pure-silica core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper ThG1.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (2)

B. H. Lee, J. Nishii, “Self-interference of long-period fiber grating and its application as temperature sensor,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2059–2060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 302–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, “Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, M. Horiguchi, “Drawing-induced residual stress effects on optical characteristics in pure-silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 30–34 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Primak, D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30, 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave. Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, “Induction of the refractive-index change in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress,” Opt. Commun. 185, 337–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

G. W. McLellan, E. B. Shand, Glass Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984), Chap. 2.

H. Aben, C. Guillemet, Photoelasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993), Chap. 11.
[CrossRef]

M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, K. Shima, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, “A novel long-period fiber grating using periodically released stress of pure-silica core fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper ThG1.

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (Interuniversity Microelectronics Center, Ghent, Belgium, 1996), paper MoB.3.6.

T.-J. Ahn, B. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, W-.T. Han, “Measurement of refractive-index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair,” in Technical Digest of 5th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 2000), paper 12P-45.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of the measurement of refractive-index change by using an LPG pair on CO2 laser irradiation: d, axial position of the fiber that is the distance from the center of the CO2 laser-irradiated region; C.L., length of the connected fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference fringe shift of an LPG pair after CO2 laser irradiation with output power of 27.7 W for 35 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized interference fringe shift by CO2 laser irradiation with different output power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized interference fringe shift by sequential CO2 laser irradiation with output power of 22.5 W for 15 min.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Axial stress profiles of the fibers drawn with drawing forces of (a) 0.53 N (Sample C) and (b) 3.43 N (Sample F) at different axial positions d after CO2 laser irradiation with output power of 22.5 W for 15 min. Axial position d = 0 means the center of the irradiation position.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Net core stress distribution of the fibers drawn at 0.53 N (squares) and 3.43 N (circles) after CO2 laser irradiation with output power of 22.5 W for 15 min. Solid line, Gaussian fitting curve.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized interference shift of the fibers drawn at different drawing forces (Sample C, F = 0.53 N; Sample D, 1.38 N; Sample E, 2.50 N; and Sample F, 3.48 N) after CO2 laser irradiation with output power of 22.5 W for 15 min 5 times with 2-mm intervals (circles) and the refractive-index change determined from the fringe shift (squares). Solids lines, linear fitting curves.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized interference fringe shift on repeated CO2 laser irradiation with increasing output powers from 3.1 to 68.9 W: 3.1, 45, 90, and 135 g, applied weights to one side of the fiber during irradiation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relaxed net core stress distribution and corresponding net relaxed core stress for an effective irradiation length of 2 mm (d = 1 mm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specification of the Samples

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nr=n0+C1σr+C2σθ+σz,
Δnrsr  C2Δσzme,
mλP=-neffco-neffclL,
mλP+Δλ=-Δneffco-Δneffcl Weff-Δneff ΔL-Δneff+dΔneffdλ ΔλL,
ΔneffcoWeff+Δneff ΔL  ΔλλPS.
Δn  ΔλλPS-Δneff ΔL/Weffη.

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