Abstract

A little-used interferometric modification to the classical Hartmann optical test is being used for active optics corrections at the 6.5-m Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) Observatory. The technique produces compact interference spots whose positions depend on discrete wave-front phase-difference errors. A diffraction model illustrates the formation of interference spots. The limitations on wave-front sampling that are due to atmospheric seeing are estimated. Two data reduction matrix strategies are given. A single correction of collimation and primary mirror figure produces a nearly diffraction-limited telescope image. Wave-front polynomial coefficients ranging from several nanometers to several micrometers in amplitude are reliably detected.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. S. C. West, H. M. Martin, “Correcting 6.5m primary mirror figure errors with the active supports,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-2 (Multiple Mirror Telescope, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona/∼swest/pdfs/figureCorrectionsMemo.pdf .
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2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1987 (1)

H. M. Martin, “Image motion as a measure of seeing quality,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1360–1370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1965 (1)

Allen, R.

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Allen, R. G.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

Antebi, J.

J. Antebi, D. O. Dusenbarry, A. A. Liepins, “Conversion of the MMT to a 6.5-m telescope: the optics support structure and the enclosure,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 513–524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biasi, R.

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Brusa, G.

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Burge, J. H.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

Callahan, S.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Gray, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, S. Callahan, J. T. Williams, “Support of large borosilicate honeycomb mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 691–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. C. West, S. Callahan, D. Fisher, “An interferometric-Hartmann wavefront analyzer for the 6.5m MMT, and the first results for collimation and figure correction,” Tech. Rep. 37 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2001), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/ih\_sh.pdf .

Callahan, S. P.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chaffee, F. H.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chanan, G.

Cuerden, B.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davison, W.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davison, W. B.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Gray, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, S. Callahan, J. T. Williams, “Support of large borosilicate honeycomb mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 691–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dekens, F.

DeRigne, S.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeRigne, S. T.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dettmann, L. R.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

Dusenbarry, D. O.

J. Antebi, D. O. Dusenbarry, A. A. Liepins, “Conversion of the MMT to a 6.5-m telescope: the optics support structure and the enclosure,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 513–524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fabricant, D.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fabricant, D. G.

C. B. Foltz, J. T. Williams, S. C. West, D. G. Fabricant, H. M. Martin, “The rebirth of the MMT,” in Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference: Measurements for the New Millennium, V. Piuri, M. Savino, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 633–638.

F. G. Fata, D. G. Fabricant, “Design and support of the 1.7-m f/5 secondary mirror for the MMT conversion,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 580–592 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fata, F. G.

F. G. Fata, D. G. Fabricant, “Design and support of the 1.7-m f/5 secondary mirror for the MMT conversion,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 580–592 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D.

S. C. West, D. Fisher, P. Spencer, T. Trebisky, “6.5m MMT f/9-f/15 hexapod laboratory calibration,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-3 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/f9hexcalib.pdf .

S. C. West, S. Callahan, D. Fisher, “An interferometric-Hartmann wavefront analyzer for the 6.5m MMT, and the first results for collimation and figure correction,” Tech. Rep. 37 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2001), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/ih\_sh.pdf .

Foltz, C. B.

C. B. Foltz, “Seeing improvements resulting from improved chamber ventilation,” Conversion Tech. Memo 96-4 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1996).

C. B. Foltz, J. T. Williams, S. C. West, D. G. Fabricant, H. M. Martin, “The rebirth of the MMT,” in Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference: Measurements for the New Millennium, V. Piuri, M. Savino, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 633–638.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Gallieni, D.

D. Gallieni, “M2/f15 and M2/f9 hexapod data package,” Tech. Rep. 34 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1998).

D. Gallieni, “Secondary mirrors support: M2/F5 hexapod design technical report,” Tech. Rep. 36 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2001).

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Gallieni, W.

W. Gallieni, R. Pozzi, “Secondary mirrors support M2/f15 and M2/f9 hexapod design,” Tech. Rep. 31 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1997).

P. M. Gray, S. C. West, W. Gallieni, “Support and actuation of six secondaries for the 6.5-m MMT and 8.4-m LBT telescopes,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 374–384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gray, P. M.

P. M. Gray, S. C. West, W. Gallieni, “Support and actuation of six secondaries for the 6.5-m MMT and 8.4-m LBT telescopes,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 374–384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Gray, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, S. Callahan, J. T. Williams, “Support of large borosilicate honeycomb mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 691–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haarala, S. T.

T. K. Korhonen, S. T. Haarala, J. O. Piironen, A. K. Sillanpaa, “Interferometric optical test and diffraction based image analysis,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 486–491 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. M.

P. M. Gray, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, S. Callahan, J. T. Williams, “Support of large borosilicate honeycomb mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 691–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, B. R.

Ketelsen, D. A.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

Kirkman, D.

Kittrell, W. C.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

Korhonen, T. K.

T. K. Korhonen, “Interferometric method for optical testing and wavefront error sensing,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes II, L. D. Barr, B. Mack, eds., Proc. SPIE444, 249–252 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Korhonen, S. T. Haarala, J. O. Piironen, A. K. Sillanpaa, “Interferometric optical test and diffraction based image analysis,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 486–491 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Korhonen, T. Lappalainen, A. Sillanpaa, “Hartmann interferometric testing of large mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 44–49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lappalainen, T.

T. K. Korhonen, T. Lappalainen, A. Sillanpaa, “Hartmann interferometric testing of large mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 44–49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liepins, A. A.

J. Antebi, D. O. Dusenbarry, A. A. Liepins, “Conversion of the MMT to a 6.5-m telescope: the optics support structure and the enclosure,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 513–524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Martin, B.

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Martin, H. M.

H. M. Martin, “Image motion as a measure of seeing quality,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1360–1370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. C. West, H. M. Martin, “Correcting 6.5m primary mirror figure errors with the active supports,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-2 (Multiple Mirror Telescope, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona/∼swest/pdfs/figureCorrectionsMemo.pdf .

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Foltz, J. T. Williams, S. C. West, D. G. Fabricant, H. M. Martin, “The rebirth of the MMT,” in Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference: Measurements for the New Millennium, V. Piuri, M. Savino, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 633–638.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

Mast, T.

Michaels, S.

Miller, D.

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Miller, S. M.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

Nagel, R. H.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

Ohara, C.

Parodi, G.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piironen, J. O.

T. K. Korhonen, S. T. Haarala, J. O. Piironen, A. K. Sillanpaa, “Interferometric optical test and diffraction based image analysis,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 486–491 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Poyner, A.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pozzi, R.

W. Gallieni, R. Pozzi, “Secondary mirrors support M2/f15 and M2/f9 hexapod design,” Tech. Rep. 31 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1997).

Riccardi, A.

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Sillanpaa, A.

T. K. Korhonen, T. Lappalainen, A. Sillanpaa, “Hartmann interferometric testing of large mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 44–49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sillanpaa, A. K.

T. K. Korhonen, S. T. Haarala, J. O. Piironen, A. K. Sillanpaa, “Interferometric optical test and diffraction based image analysis,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 486–491 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, P.

S. C. West, D. Fisher, P. Spencer, T. Trebisky, “6.5m MMT f/9-f/15 hexapod laboratory calibration,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-3 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/f9hexcalib.pdf .

Trebisky, T.

S. C. West, D. Fisher, P. Spencer, T. Trebisky, “6.5m MMT f/9-f/15 hexapod laboratory calibration,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-3 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/f9hexcalib.pdf .

Trebisky, T. J.

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

West, S. C.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, D. Fisher, “An interferometric-Hartmann wavefront analyzer for the 6.5m MMT, and the first results for collimation and figure correction,” Tech. Rep. 37 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2001), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/ih\_sh.pdf .

S. C. West, H. M. Martin, “Correcting 6.5m primary mirror figure errors with the active supports,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-2 (Multiple Mirror Telescope, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona/∼swest/pdfs/figureCorrectionsMemo.pdf .

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. C. West, D. Fisher, P. Spencer, T. Trebisky, “6.5m MMT f/9-f/15 hexapod laboratory calibration,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-3 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/f9hexcalib.pdf .

P. M. Gray, S. C. West, W. Gallieni, “Support and actuation of six secondaries for the 6.5-m MMT and 8.4-m LBT telescopes,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 374–384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Foltz, J. T. Williams, S. C. West, D. G. Fabricant, H. M. Martin, “The rebirth of the MMT,” in Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference: Measurements for the New Millennium, V. Piuri, M. Savino, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 633–638.

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wildi, F.

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

Williams, J. T.

C. B. Foltz, J. T. Williams, S. C. West, D. G. Fabricant, H. M. Martin, “The rebirth of the MMT,” in Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference: Measurements for the New Millennium, V. Piuri, M. Savino, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 633–638.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Gray, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, S. Callahan, J. T. Williams, “Support of large borosilicate honeycomb mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 691–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), Sect. 2.3.3.3, pp. 158–161.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

H. M. Martin, “Image motion as a measure of seeing quality,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1360–1370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (23)

H. M. Martin, R. G. Allen, J. H. Burge, L. R. Dettmann, D. A. Ketelsen, W. C. Kittrell, S. M. Miller, S. C. West, “Fabrication of 6.5 m f/1.25 mirrors for the MMT and Magellan Telescopes,” in Fabrication and Testing of Aspheres, Vol. 24 of the Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 187–192.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, F. H. Chaffee, W. Davison, S. DeRigne, D. Fabricant, C. B. Foltz, J. M. Hill, R. H. Nagel, A. Poyner, J. T. Williams, “Toward first light for the 6.5-m MMT Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 38–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Antebi, D. O. Dusenbarry, A. A. Liepins, “Conversion of the MMT to a 6.5-m telescope: the optics support structure and the enclosure,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 513–524 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Foltz, J. T. Williams, S. C. West, D. G. Fabricant, H. M. Martin, “The rebirth of the MMT,” in Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference: Measurements for the New Millennium, V. Piuri, M. Savino, eds. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 633–638.

P. M. Gray, S. C. West, W. Gallieni, “Support and actuation of six secondaries for the 6.5-m MMT and 8.4-m LBT telescopes,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, A. Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE2871, 374–384 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Fata, D. G. Fabricant, “Design and support of the 1.7-m f/5 secondary mirror for the MMT conversion,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 580–592 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Wildi, G. Brusa, A. Riccardi, R. Allen, M. Lloyd-Hart, D. Miller, B. Martin, R. Biasi, D. Gallieni, “Progress of the MMT adaptive optics program,” in Adaptive Optics Systems and Technology II, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, M. C. Roggemann, eds., SPIE4494, 11–18 (2001).

P. M. Gray, J. M. Hill, W. B. Davison, S. Callahan, J. T. Williams, “Support of large borosilicate honeycomb mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 691–702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Gallieni, R. Pozzi, “Secondary mirrors support M2/f15 and M2/f9 hexapod design,” Tech. Rep. 31 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1997).

D. Gallieni, “M2/f15 and M2/f9 hexapod data package,” Tech. Rep. 34 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1998).

D. Gallieni, “Secondary mirrors support: M2/F5 hexapod design technical report,” Tech. Rep. 36 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2001).

S. C. West, D. Fisher, P. Spencer, T. Trebisky, “6.5m MMT f/9-f/15 hexapod laboratory calibration,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-3 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/f9hexcalib.pdf .

T. K. Korhonen, “Interferometric method for optical testing and wavefront error sensing,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes II, L. D. Barr, B. Mack, eds., Proc. SPIE444, 249–252 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Korhonen, S. T. Haarala, J. O. Piironen, A. K. Sillanpaa, “Interferometric optical test and diffraction based image analysis,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 486–491 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Korhonen, T. Lappalainen, A. Sillanpaa, “Hartmann interferometric testing of large mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1531, 44–49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999), Sect. 2.3.3.3, pp. 158–161.

S. C. West, S. Callahan, D. Fisher, “An interferometric-Hartmann wavefront analyzer for the 6.5m MMT, and the first results for collimation and figure correction,” Tech. Rep. 37 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 2001), http://nemo.as.arizona.edu/∼swest/pdfs/ih\_sh.pdf .

BCV progetti, “MMT conversion project: mirror 6.5m F/1.25: finite element model,” Rep 8, Rev. 0 (BCV progetti, Milano Italy, 1994).

BCV progetti, “MMT conversion project: mirror 6.5m F/1.25: axial and lateral support optimisation,” Rep. 7, Rev. 0 (BCV progetti, Milano Italy, 1994).

BCV progetti, “MMT conversion project: MMT 6.5m F/1.25: axial supports influence functions,” Rep. 6, Rev. 0 (BCV progetti, Milano Italy, 1995).

H. M. Martin, S. P. Callahan, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, L. R. Dettmann, G. Parodi, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, J. T. Williams, “Active supports and force optimization for the MMT primary mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 412–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. C. West, H. M. Martin, “Correcting 6.5m primary mirror figure errors with the active supports,” Conversion Tech. Memo 00-2 (Multiple Mirror Telescope, Tucson, Ariz., 2000), http://nemo.as.arizona/∼swest/pdfs/figureCorrectionsMemo.pdf .

C. B. Foltz, “Seeing improvements resulting from improved chamber ventilation,” Conversion Tech. Memo 96-4 (Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., 1996).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical interferometric Hartmann optical path that utilizes a reimaged pupil for use at a telescope. The Hartmann mask is placed at the image of the collimated pupil. An array of m = 0 interference spots is created on the detector away from the camera focus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

View along the optic axis showing four phase apertures in the pupil plane and the interference spot they form on the detector. The shift (Δx, Δy) of the spot from the center depends on the phase differences within the apertures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One-dimensional monochromatic diffraction at the camera focus formed by two Hartmann apertures (with identical phases) for several ratios of aperture spacing to diameter D/ d. This illustrates how geometry can be used to isolate the m = 0 fringe. The figure is drawn for constant aperture size d for simplicity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional interference model for D/ d = 1.5 illustrates how compact interference spots are formed at the detector position given by Eq. (5). Shown is a series of images (left column all to same scale) and corresponding intensity distributions (right column). A single defocused Hartmann Airy disk is shown at the top. The next two images show interference from a row of two and three Hartmann apertures. The bottom image illustrates the four m = 0 interference spots that are produced by a 3 × 3 grid of Hartmann apertures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

One-dimensional model of the interference created by five Hartmann apertures in a row. The detector is shifted away from the camera focus by the amount given in Eq. (5). Four well-defined interference spots are shown with all five phases equal (solid curve) and for ϕ3 shifted in piston by +1/8 wave (dashed curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

System interferograms created with a diode laser reference source for the f/9 module (top) and the combined f/1 and f/9 modules.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Exaggerated path-length error of starlight reflecting from a point on a distorted primary mirror showing that d1 + d2 = 2N z . This diagram describes the relationship of the observed wave-front errors to the surface vector displacements derived from the finite-element model calculations of the axial support vector influences on the mirror surface. The angle of the mirror surface normal to the optic axis is α.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical interferogram of a star observed through the 6.5-m telescope. The shadow and support vanes for the secondary mirror are visible. The phase-difference sensitivity is <70 nm/pixel for this geometry.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Wave-front amplitude coefficients (in nanometers) are shown before (white) and after (black) a single correction of primary mirror figure and secondary collimation. The starting aberrations are large because no thermal control of the borosilicate optics has yet been implemented. Fifth-order coma and sixth-order spherical modes (13–15) have not been added to the data reduction yet. The calculated telescope diffraction images before and after the correction are shown in the bottom images. The image of a binary star after the force correction is also shown (0.6-arc sec separation and 0.07-arc sec pixels). The radial profile Gaussian FWHM for each star is 0.35 arc sec including atmospheric seeing and the obvious elongation that is due to an error in the telescope elevation servo.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δϕx=ϕ3+ϕ4-ϕ1+ϕ2=2DΔxf,
Δϕy=ϕ1+ϕ3-ϕ2+ϕ4=2DΔyf,
δϕwaves=0.4175xr05/6.
θarc sec20.2 λr0,
ds=λfD2,
Wix=Δϕxi2ap sp,
Wiy=Δϕyi2ap sp,
Wxi, yi=i=1N Zjxi, yiCj=Wi.
Z1xx1, y1ZNxx1, y1Z1xxM, yMZNxxM, yMZ1yx1, y1ZNyx1, y1Z1yxM, yMZNyxM, yMC1CN=W1xWMxW1yWMy.
-1-111000000-1-111001-11-10000001-11-100ϕ1ϕK=Δϕx1ΔϕxMΔϕy1ΔϕyM.

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