Abstract

The optical design of systems for use in water is considered. Use of flat and concentric dome ports are discussed as well as problems with pupil location that are due to the dome–water interface. Data for the optical properties of seawater and various port materials are presented as well as a sample design.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).
  2. R. C. Smith, K. C. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” (200–800 nm) Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Quan, E. S. Fry, “Empirical equation for the index of refraction of seawater,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3477–3480 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. D. T. Huibers, “Models for the wavelength dependence of the index of refraction of water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3785–3787 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. ZEMAX Optical Design Program, Focus Software, Incorporated, Tucson, Ariz. (2001).
  6. D. C. Sinclair, “Optical design software,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 34.
  7. G. D. Boreman, “Transfer function techniques,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 32.

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1981 (1)

R. C. Smith, K. C. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” (200–800 nm) Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. C.

R. C. Smith, K. C. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” (200–800 nm) Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

G. D. Boreman, “Transfer function techniques,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 32.

Fry, E. S.

Huibers, P. D. T.

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

Quan, X.

Sinclair, D. C.

D. C. Sinclair, “Optical design software,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 34.

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, K. C. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” (200–800 nm) Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef]

(200–800 nm) Appl. Opt. (1)

R. C. Smith, K. C. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” (200–800 nm) Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Other (4)

ZEMAX Optical Design Program, Focus Software, Incorporated, Tucson, Ariz. (2001).

D. C. Sinclair, “Optical design software,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 34.

G. D. Boreman, “Transfer function techniques,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, Chap. 32.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission through 10 m of seawater.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Corrector system, layout, plots of the modulation transfer function (MTF), ray fan, and spot radius.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Refractive Index versus Wavelength for Seawater

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Table 2 Material Properties

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Table 3 Optical System Parameters

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Table 4 System Prescription

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Table 5 Distortion versus Focal Length

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1F=Ng-NwR1+1-NgR2-DNw-NgNg-1NgR1R2.
D=R1-R2.
1F=Ng-NwNg-R1-Ng-1NwNgR2,
410=1.7783.
F=f1f2f3f1-D1f2+f1+f2-D1f3-D2.

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