Abstract

The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low-pulse-energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the Southern African Regional Science Initiative’s 2000 field campaign during August and September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1564–1571 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations: the 28 October 1986 FIRE study,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. P. Duda, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Retrieval of contrail microphysical properties during SUCCESS by the split-window method,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1149–1152 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. Duda, “Evolution of the morphology and microphysics of contrail cirrus from airborne active and passive remote sensing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1153–1156 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Wang, P. Racette, J. D. Spinhirne, K. F. Evans, W. D. Hart, “Observations of cirrus clouds with airborne MIR, CLS, and MAS during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1145–1148 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Spinhirne, “Micro pulse lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 48–55 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. R. Rall, V. S. Scott, “Compact eye safe lidar systems,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 112–118 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. M. R. Platt, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Optical and microphysical properties of a cold cirrus cloud: evidence for regions of small ice particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11151–11164 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

J. Ackerman, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Duda, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Retrieval of contrail microphysical properties during SUCCESS by the split-window method,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1149–1152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. Duda, “Evolution of the morphology and microphysics of contrail cirrus from airborne active and passive remote sensing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1153–1156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wang, P. Racette, J. D. Spinhirne, K. F. Evans, W. D. Hart, “Observations of cirrus clouds with airborne MIR, CLS, and MAS during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1145–1148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. R. Rall, V. S. Scott, “Compact eye safe lidar systems,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 112–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. D. Spinhirne, “Micro pulse lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 48–55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations: the 28 October 1986 FIRE study,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. M. R. Platt, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Optical and microphysical properties of a cold cirrus cloud: evidence for regions of small ice particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11151–11164 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

Ackerman, J.

J. Ackerman, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annegarn, H.

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

Artaxo, P.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caudill, L. O.

Christopher, S. A.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D. R.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Collins, W. D.

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duda, D.

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. Duda, “Evolution of the morphology and microphysics of contrail cirrus from airborne active and passive remote sensing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1153–1156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duda, D. P.

D. P. Duda, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Retrieval of contrail microphysical properties during SUCCESS by the split-window method,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1149–1152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durkee, P. A.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. F.

J. R. Wang, P. Racette, J. D. Spinhirne, K. F. Evans, W. D. Hart, “Observations of cirrus clouds with airborne MIR, CLS, and MAS during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1145–1148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Formenti, P.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gasso, S.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gleason, J. F.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, J. A.

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. Z.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1564–1571 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, W.

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hart, W. D.

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. Duda, “Evolution of the morphology and microphysics of contrail cirrus from airborne active and passive remote sensing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1153–1156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wang, P. Racette, J. D. Spinhirne, K. F. Evans, W. D. Hart, “Observations of cirrus clouds with airborne MIR, CLS, and MAS during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1145–1148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Duda, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Retrieval of contrail microphysical properties during SUCCESS by the split-window method,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1149–1152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations: the 28 October 1986 FIRE study,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Optical and microphysical properties of a cold cirrus cloud: evidence for regions of small ice particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11151–11164 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hegg, D. A.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hlavka, D. L.

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ji, Q.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jonsson, H. H.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Justice, C. O.

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

Kaufman, Y. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M.

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

King, M. D.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kirchoff, V. W. J. H.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Longo, K. M.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mattos, L. F.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McFarquhar, G. M.

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nobre, C. A.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noone, K. J.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ostrom, E.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pilewskie, P.

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Optical and microphysical properties of a cold cirrus cloud: evidence for regions of small ice particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11151–11164 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prins, E. M.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Privette, J.

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

R. J. Swap, J. Privette, “Overview of the southern African regional science initiative—SAFARI 2000,” in Proceedings of IEEE 1999 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 595–597.

Racette, P.

J. R. Wang, P. Racette, J. D. Spinhirne, K. F. Evans, W. D. Hart, “Observations of cirrus clouds with airborne MIR, CLS, and MAS during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1145–1148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rall, J. A. R.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. R. Rall, V. S. Scott, “Compact eye safe lidar systems,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 112–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L. A.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scholes, M.

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

Scott, V. S.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. R. Rall, V. S. Scott, “Compact eye safe lidar systems,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 112–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J.

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. R. Wang, P. Racette, J. D. Spinhirne, K. F. Evans, W. D. Hart, “Observations of cirrus clouds with airborne MIR, CLS, and MAS during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1145–1148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Duda, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Retrieval of contrail microphysical properties during SUCCESS by the split-window method,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1149–1152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. Duda, “Evolution of the morphology and microphysics of contrail cirrus from airborne active and passive remote sensing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1153–1156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. R. Rall, V. S. Scott, “Compact eye safe lidar systems,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 112–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, “Micro pulse lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 48–55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations: the 28 October 1986 FIRE study,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Optical and microphysical properties of a cold cirrus cloud: evidence for regions of small ice particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11151–11164 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1564–1571 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, D.

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

Suttles, T.

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

Swap, B.

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

Swap, R. J.

R. J. Swap, J. Privette, “Overview of the southern African regional science initiative—SAFARI 2000,” in Proceedings of IEEE 1999 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 595–597.

Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. M.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Valero, F. P. J.

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. R.

J. R. Wang, P. Racette, J. D. Spinhirne, K. F. Evans, W. D. Hart, “Observations of cirrus clouds with airborne MIR, CLS, and MAS during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1145–1148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ward, D. E.

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Welton, E. J.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

EOS Earth Observer

B. Swap, J. Privette, M. King, D. Starr, T. Suttles, H. Annegarn, M. Scholes, C. O. Justice, “SAFARI 2000: a southern African regional science initiative,” EOS Earth Observer, 10, 25–28 (1998).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. P. Duda, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Retrieval of contrail microphysical properties during SUCCESS by the split-window method,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1149–1152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. Duda, “Evolution of the morphology and microphysics of contrail cirrus from airborne active and passive remote sensing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1153–1156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Wang, P. Racette, J. D. Spinhirne, K. F. Evans, W. D. Hart, “Observations of cirrus clouds with airborne MIR, CLS, and MAS during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1145–1148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

J. D. Spinhirne, “Micro pulse lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 48–55 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, J. Simpson, “The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 22, 1319–1331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

J. Ackerman, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, D. L. Hlavka, “Cirrus infrared parameters and shortwave reflectance relations from observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1438–1458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. M. R. Platt, J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Optical and microphysical properties of a cold cirrus cloud: evidence for regions of small ice particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11151–11164 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos]

Y. J. Kaufman, P. V. Hobbs, V. W. J. H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, S. C. Tsay, “Smoke, clouds, and radiation—Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 31783–31808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, W. D. Collins, J. A. Goldstein, F. P. J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, P. Pilewskie, “Cloud properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus: interpretations from CEPEX, TOGA COARE, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands,” J. Geophys. Res. [Atmos] 103, 8805–8812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Weather Rev.

J. D. Spinhirne, W. D. Hart, “Cirrus structure and radiative parameters from airborne lidar and spectral radiometer observations: the 28 October 1986 FIRE study,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2329–2343 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sensing Environ.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sensing Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Laser Eng.

J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. R. Rall, V. S. Scott, “Compact eye safe lidar systems,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 112–118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tellus B

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gasso, D. A. Hegg, E. Ostrom, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear-sky studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphotomoeter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. J. Swap, J. Privette, “Overview of the southern African regional science initiative—SAFARI 2000,” in Proceedings of IEEE 1999 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 595–597.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified optical diagram of CPL (not to scale). Components are labeled as follows: F, interference filters; M, mirrors; and W, half-wave plate. Components lying above the dashed line are mounted on one side of the optical breadboard, and components lying below the dashed line are mounted on the opposite side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photo of the transmitter side of the optical breadboard, showing the laser head and off-axis mirror. (b) Photo of the receiver side of the optical breadboard, showing the component layout and the different wavelength channels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CPL data from 25 September, 2000. Top panel, 1064-nm attenuated backscatter profiles. Middle panel, 532-nm attenuated backscatter profiles. Bottom panel, the derived total optical depth. The green trace is the 532-nm optical depth, and the red trace is 1064 nm. The plot shows the entire flight, illustrating the variability and structure that can be seen in the lidar data. Dense clouds are bright white, and cloud shadows are present whenever the lidar signal cannot penetrate through a layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ER-2 flight tracks for 1, 4, and 25 September, 2000.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cirrus optical depth from 4 September, 2000. Plot shows 2 h of data. Top panel, the 532-nm attenuated backscatter coefficient. Bottom panel, the retrieved cirrus optical depth. The cirrus optical depth is the optical depth that is due to particulates in the 9–15-km region. In the bottom panel, the green trace is the 532-nm optical depth, and the red trace is the 1064-nm optical depth. As expected, there is no wavelength dependence on the cirrus optical depth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PBL optical depth from 1 September 2000. Plot shows 2 h of data. Top panel, the 1064-nm attenuated backscatter coefficient. Bottom panel, the resultant aerosol optical depth for the PBL only. In the bottom panel, the green trace is the 532-nm optical depth, and the red trace is the 1064-nm optical depth. Evidently, there is a strong wavelength dependence that is due to heavy smoke in the PBL. At some points the 532-nm attenuation becomes so great that the optical depth becomes noisy.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of extinction profiles from CPL, micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Ames airborne tracking 14-channel sunphotomer (AATS-14) for 22 August 2000. The MPL was sited at Skukuza, and the AATS-14 was onboard the CV-580 aircraft. On that day the ER-2 flew within 5 miles of the MPL site, as did the CV-580. Despite slight wavelength differences among the three instruments, there is good agreement in the retrieved extinction profiles. The MPL profile is a 30-min average, and the CPL profile is a 30-s average.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 CPL System Parameters

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