Abstract

We present an inversion algorithm for the retrieval of particle size distribution parameters, i.e., mean (effective) radius, number, surface area, and volume concentration, and complex refractive index from multiwavelength lidar data. In contrast to the classical Tikhonov method, which accepts only that solution for which the discrepancy reaches its global minimum, in our algorithm we perform the averaging of solutions in the vicinity of this minimum. This averaging stabilizes the underlying ill-posed inverse problem, particularly with respect to the retrieval of number concentration. Results show that, for typical tropospheric particles and 10% error in the optical data, the mean radius could be retrieved to better than 20% from a lidar on the basis of a Nd:YAG laser, which provides a combination of backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm. The accuracy is improved if the lidar is also equipped with a hydrogen Raman shifter. In this case two additional backscatter coefficients at 416 and 683 nm are available. The combination of two extinction coefficients and five backscatter coefficients then allows one to retrieve not only averaged aerosol parameters but also the size distribution function. There was acceptable agreement between physical particle properties obtained from the evaluation of multiwavelength lidar data taken during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment in 1998 (LACE 98) and in situ data, which were taken aboard aircraft.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Raman lidar for the study of liquid water and water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 113–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observation on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, M. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D16, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D16, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

M. J. Post, “A graphical technique for retrieving size distribution parameters from multiple measurements: visualization and error analysis,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 863–873 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, O. Schrems, F. Wittrock, B. Knudsen, “Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 57–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Feingold, C. J. Grund, “Feasibility of using multiwavelength lidar measurements to measure cloud condensation nuclei,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 11, 543–1558 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1990

1989

1986

F. O’Sullivan, “A statistical perspective on ill-posed inverse problems,” Stat. Sci. 1, 502–527 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Ivanov, F. P. Osipenko, A. P. Chaykovskiy, V. N. Shcherbakov, “Study of the aerosol optical properties and microstructure by the method of multiwave sounding,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 22, 633–639 (1986).

1982

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

1979

V. V. Veretennikov, V. S. Kozlov, I. E. Naats, V. Ya. Fadeev, “Optical studies of smoke aerosols: an inversion method and its applications,” Opt. Lett. 4, 411–413 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Golub, M. Heath, G. Wahba, “Generalized cross-validation as a method for choosing a good ridge parameter,” Technometrics 21, 215–223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1929

J. Hadamard, “Sur les problémes aux derivees parielies et leur signification physique,” Bull. Univ. Princeton49–52 (1929).

Althausen, D.

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observation on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Ansmann, A.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observation on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosols extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Beyerle, G.

G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, O. Schrems, F. Wittrock, B. Knudsen, “Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 57–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Böckmann, C.

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bösenberg, J.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Calpini, B.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Carswell, A. I.

Cha, H. K.

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Raman lidar for the study of liquid water and water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 113–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Chaykovskiy, A. P.

A. P. Ivanov, F. P. Osipenko, A. P. Chaykovskiy, V. N. Shcherbakov, “Study of the aerosol optical properties and microstructure by the method of multiwave sounding,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 22, 633–639 (1986).

Choi, S. C.

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Raman lidar for the study of liquid water and water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 113–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Del Guasta, M.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Donovan, D. P.

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O. Dubovik, M. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D16, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Evans, K. D.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D16, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, J. Li, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, G. Schwemmer, “Observation of Raman scattering by cloud droplets in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3551–3559 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Feingold, C. J. Grund, “Feasibility of using multiwavelength lidar measurements to measure cloud condensation nuclei,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 11, 543–1558 (1994).
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Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D16, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN; the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1992).

Franke, K.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
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G. Feingold, C. J. Grund, “Feasibility of using multiwavelength lidar measurements to measure cloud condensation nuclei,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 11, 543–1558 (1994).
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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

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G. H. Golub, M. Heath, G. Wahba, “Generalized cross-validation as a method for choosing a good ridge parameter,” Technometrics 21, 215–223 (1979).
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A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
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D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
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C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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A. P. Ivanov, F. P. Osipenko, A. P. Chaykovskiy, V. N. Shcherbakov, “Study of the aerosol optical properties and microstructure by the method of multiwave sounding,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 22, 633–639 (1986).

Kaufman, Y. J.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D16, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiemle, C.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Kim, D. H.

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Raman lidar for the study of liquid water and water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 113–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, M.

O. Dubovik, M. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D16, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
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Klett, J. D.

Knudsen, B.

G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, O. Schrems, F. Wittrock, B. Knudsen, “Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 57–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kolenda, J.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. S.

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosols extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Raman lidar for the study of liquid water and water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 113–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leiterer, U.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Li, J.

Matthias, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Melfi, S. H.

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D24, 31411–31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D16, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, J. Li, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, G. Schwemmer, “Observation of Raman scattering by cloud droplets in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3551–3559 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosols extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Morandi, M.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observation on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Müller, H.

Naats, I. E.

Nakane, H.

Neuber, R.

G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, O. Schrems, F. Wittrock, B. Knudsen, “Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 57–60 (1994).
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Papayannis, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Petzold, A.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Poellot, M.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D16, 19673–19689 (1998).
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Qing, P.

Quenzel, H.

Rairoux, P.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

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M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

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Schneider, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Schrems, O.

G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, O. Schrems, F. Wittrock, B. Knudsen, “Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 57–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwemmer, G.

Shcherbakov, V. N.

A. P. Ivanov, F. P. Osipenko, A. P. Chaykovskiy, V. N. Shcherbakov, “Study of the aerosol optical properties and microstructure by the method of multiwave sounding,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 22, 633–639 (1986).

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Stefanutti, L.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stifter, A.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Stohl, A.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

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A. Tarantola, Inverse Problem Theory: Methods for Data Fitting and Model Parameter Estimation (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987).

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN; the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1992).

Thomalla, E.

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Direct Measurements (Elsevier, New York, 1977).

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Veretennikov, V. V.

Veselovskii, I. A.

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Raman lidar for the study of liquid water and water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 113–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN; the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1992).

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosols extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observation on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wahba, G.

G. H. Golub, M. Heath, G. Wahba, “Generalized cross-validation as a method for choosing a good ridge parameter,” Technometrics 21, 215–223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observation on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosols extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Weiss, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Weitkamp, C.

Wendisch, M.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Whiteman, D.

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D24, 31411–31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D16, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiedensohler, A.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Wiegner, M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

Wittrock, F.

G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, O. Schrems, F. Wittrock, B. Knudsen, “Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 57–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heintzenberg, H. Müller, H. Quenzel, E. Thomalla, “Information content of optical data with respect to aerosol properties: numerical studies with a randomized minimization-search-technique inversion algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1308–1315 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Qing, H. Nakane, Y. Sasano, S. Kitamura, “Numerical simulation of the retrieval of aerosol size distribution from multiwavelength laser radar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5259–5265 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Donovan, A. I. Carswell, “Principal component analysis applied to multiwavelength lidar aerosol backscatter and extinction measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9406–9424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, J. Li, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, G. Schwemmer, “Observation of Raman scattering by cloud droplets in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3551–3559 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Raman lidar for the study of liquid water and water vapor in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 113–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosols extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Univ. Princeton

J. Hadamard, “Sur les problémes aux derivees parielies et leur signification physique,” Bull. Univ. Princeton49–52 (1929).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

G. Beyerle, R. Neuber, O. Schrems, F. Wittrock, B. Knudsen, “Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 57–60 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311–1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observation on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys.

A. P. Ivanov, F. P. Osipenko, A. P. Chaykovskiy, V. N. Shcherbakov, “Study of the aerosol optical properties and microstructure by the method of multiwave sounding,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 22, 633–639 (1986).

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

G. Feingold, C. J. Grund, “Feasibility of using multiwavelength lidar measurements to measure cloud condensation nuclei,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 11, 543–1558 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, “A graphical technique for retrieving size distribution parameters from multiple measurements: visualization and error analysis,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13, 863–873 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, “Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 1356–1369 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

O. Dubovik, M. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D16, 20673–20696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D16, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D24, 31411–31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.

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[CrossRef]

Stat. Sci.

F. O’Sullivan, “A statistical perspective on ill-posed inverse problems,” Stat. Sci. 1, 502–527 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Technometrics

G. H. Golub, M. Heath, G. Wahba, “Generalized cross-validation as a method for choosing a good ridge parameter,” Technometrics 21, 215–223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. C. Sabatier, “Basic concepts and methods of inverse problems,” in Basic Methods of Tomography and Inverse Problems, P. C. Sabatier, ed. (Hilger, London, 1987).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, A. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, 2001).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

V. E. Zuev, I. E. Naats, eds., Inverse Problems of Lidar Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Tarantola, Inverse Problem Theory: Methods for Data Fitting and Model Parameter Estimation (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN; the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1992).

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, eds., “Third Assessment Report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 2001).

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Direct Measurements (Elsevier, New York, 1977).

A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, eds., Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, New York, 1977).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Discrepancy ρ versus Lagrange multiplier γ. Calculation number K is related to the Lagrange multiplier as γ = 2 K 10-23.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Size distribution retrieved from set 1 (2α + 3β, crosses), set 2 (2α + 5β, filled circles), and set 3 (2α + 6β, open circles). The data were assumed to be free of error (δ = 0). The solid curve shows the initial log normal distribution with r 0 = 0.3 µm, ln σ = 0.15 µm, and n t = 1. The initial refractive index m = 1.4 - i0.04 was assumed to be unknown; the inversion was performed with NK density functions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Size distribution retrieved from set 1 (crosses), set 2 (filled circles), and set 3 (open circles). The data errors were assumed to be 20%. The solid curve shows the initial log normal distribution with the same parameters as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Solutions that correspond to the minimum discrepancy (filled circles) and averaged over the interval of 2% < ρ < 10% (open circles). The distortion of the optical data is 10%. The solid curve shows the initial log normal distribution with r 0 = 0.4 µm, ln σ = 0.3 µm, and n t = 1. Set three of optical data were used. The initial refractive index m = 1.45 - i0.02 was assumed to be unknown. The inversion was performed with VK functions. The dashed curves indicate the mean-square deviation of individual solutions from the average value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Errors of number (n t ) and volume concentration (v t ) and of mean radius r mean versus the averaging interval ρmax. The dotted curve shows the relative number of solutions N sol inside the averaging interval. The dash-dot vertical line represents the boundary of the averaging interval used for the retrieval.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of the stabilizing role of extinction coefficients. The retrieval is performed for 8β (filled circles), 8β + α (open circles), 8β + 2α (stars), 8β + 4α (crosses). Average data distortions are 10%. The solid curve represents the initial log normal distribution with r 0 = 0.15 µm, ln σ = 0.3 µm and n t = 1. The initial refractive index m = 1.45 - i0.02 was assumed to be unknown. The inversion was performed with VK functions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieval of particle complex refractive index. The real (circles and triangles) and imaginary (squares) parts are plotted versus the averaging interval ρmax. For the simulation the correct refractive index m = 1.45 - i0.02 was used. The distortion of the optical data was 10%. For the retrieval the VK functions were applied to 2α + 3β (open symbols) and to 2α + 6β (filled symbols) data sets. The dash-dot vertical line represents the boundary of the averaging interval used for the retrieval. The initial size distribution was the same as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Particle size distribution retrieved from the ITR multiwavelength lidar data on 9 August 1998 for the height interval from 3500 to 4000 m. The distributions were obtained by the use of NK (squares) and VK density (circles) functions. For the inversion we used 2α + 6β (filled symbols) and 2α + 3β (open symbols) data sets.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Retrieval of particle parameters from six-wavelength observations on 9 August 1998 for the height interval from 3500 to 4000 m. (a) Effective radius, (b) number, (c) surface area, and (d) volume concentrations, and (e) real and (f) imaginary parts of the refractive index versus the averaging interval for solutions obtained with NK, SK, and VK density functions. The NK applied to the full set of data (filled symbols) and to data obtained from a triple Nd:YAG laser (2α + 3β, open symbols). The dotted curve in (a) shows the relative amount of solutions N sol inside the averaging interval for the NK functions. The dash-dot vertical line represents the boundary of the averaging interval used for the retrieval.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Size distribution retrieved with VK (filled circles) and NK (open circles) density functions. The solid curve shows the initial log normal distribution with r 0 = 0.2 µm, ln σ = 0.4 µm and n t = 1. Optical data distortion is 10%, the refractive index m = 1.54 - i0.02 was suggested to be unknown during the inversion.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Errors of Aerosol Parameter Retrieval for Different Combinations of Aerosol Backscatter and Extinction Coefficients

Tables Icon

Table 2 Errors ε of the Particle Parameter Estimation for Two Nd:YAG Lasersa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Physical Particle Parametersa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Same as Table 3 but for Lidar Measurements from 4200 to 5400 m and in situ Data from 4400 to 5000 m

Tables Icon

Table 5 Physical Particle Parametersa

Tables Icon

Table 6 Same as Table 5 but for Lidar Measurements from 900 to 1000 m and in situ Measurements from 500 to 900 m

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

βi=0 Kβm, r, λifrdr,
αi=0 Kαm, r, λifrdr.
gjλi=rminrmax Kjm, r, λifrdr,
gpδ=rminrmax Kpm, rfδrdr,
fδr=f˜δr+ε=j CjBjrdr+ε.
Bjr=0;r<rj-11-rj-rrj-rj-1 ;rj-1<rrjj=1N,1-r-rjrj+1-rj ;rj<rrj+10;r>rj+1
gpδ=j=1N ApjmCj+ε,
Apjm=rminrmax Kpm, rBjrdr,
εp=rminrmax Kpm, rεrdr.
gδ=AC+ε,
C=A-1gδ+ε,
Aˆf=g.
g-gδEδ,
Mγf, gδ=Aˆf-gδE2+γΓf,
ATAC-ATgδ+γHC=0.
C=ATA+γH-1ATgδ.
H=1-2100000-25-4100001-46-4100001-46-4100001-46-4100001-46-4100001-45-2000001-21.
ρ1Nigiδ-Aˆ|fδ|giδ.
nr ln r=nt2π1/2 ln σexp-ln r-ln r022ln σ2,
rmean=rminrmax rfrrrminrmax frr, reff=rminrmax r3frrrminrmax r2frr.
σrj=1Nsoli=1Nsolfirj-fmeanrj21/2,
fmean=1Nsoli=1Nsol firj, fmaxrj=fmeanrj+σrj, fminrj=fmeanrj-σrj.

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