Abstract

The recent development of satellite instruments that obtain spectrally resolved measurements of the atmosphere has highlighted the problem of how to determine the best subsets, or microwindows, of such spectra for retrievals of temperature and composition. A technique is described that maximizes the information content (or some other figure of merit) based on the modeling of the propagation of systematic as well as random error terms through the retrieval process. Apart from selecting microwindows, this technique can also prioritize existing microwindows for different circumstances and provides a full error analysis of the retrieval. A practical application is demonstrated for the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding limb-viewing interferometer, but the technique is equally applicable to nadir-viewing instruments.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2001

F. Rabier, N. Fourrié, D. Chafaï, P. Prunet, “Channel selection methods for infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer radiances,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1–15 (2001).

T. von Clarmann, U. Grabowski, M. Kiefer, “On the role of non-random errors in inverse problems in radiative transfer and other applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 39–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution remote measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 361–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

Carlotti, M.

Chafaï, D.

F. Rabier, N. Fourrié, D. Chafaï, P. Prunet, “Channel selection methods for infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer radiances,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1–15 (2001).

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B. M.

Dudhia, A.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, B. J. Kerridge, M. López-Puertas, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. P. Stiller, “Optimized spectral microwindows for MIPAS-Envisat data analysis,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5531–5540 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Echle, G.

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, B. J. Kerridge, M. López-Puertas, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. P. Stiller, “Optimized spectral microwindows for MIPAS-Envisat data analysis,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5531–5540 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

Flaud, J.-M.

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, B. J. Kerridge, M. López-Puertas, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. P. Stiller, “Optimized spectral microwindows for MIPAS-Envisat data analysis,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5531–5540 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Fourrié, N.

F. Rabier, N. Fourrié, D. Chafaï, P. Prunet, “Channel selection methods for infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer radiances,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1–15 (2001).

Funke, B.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glatthor, N.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grabowski, U.

T. von Clarmann, U. Grabowski, M. Kiefer, “On the role of non-random errors in inverse problems in radiative transfer and other applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 39–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harrold, C.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Höpfner, M.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kerridge, B.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Kerridge, B. J.

Kiefer, M.

T. von Clarmann, U. Grabowski, M. Kiefer, “On the role of non-random errors in inverse problems in radiative transfer and other applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 39–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koutoulaki, K.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Linden, A.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

López-Puertas, M.

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, B. J. Kerridge, M. López-Puertas, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. P. Stiller, “Optimized spectral microwindows for MIPAS-Envisat data analysis,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5531–5540 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

López-Valverde, M. A.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Torres, F. J.

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, B. J. Kerridge, M. López-Puertas, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. P. Stiller, “Optimized spectral microwindows for MIPAS-Envisat data analysis,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5531–5540 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P. E.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prunet, P.

F. Rabier, N. Fourrié, D. Chafaï, P. Prunet, “Channel selection methods for infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer radiances,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1–15 (2001).

Rabier, F.

F. Rabier, N. Fourrié, D. Chafaï, P. Prunet, “Channel selection methods for infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer radiances,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1–15 (2001).

Raspollini, P.

Reburn, J.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Remedios, J.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Ridolfi, M.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution remote measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 361–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution measurements,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 136–147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siddans, R.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Stiller, G.

Stiller, G. P.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von Clarmann, T.

T. von Clarmann, U. Grabowski, M. Kiefer, “On the role of non-random errors in inverse problems in radiative transfer and other applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 39–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, B. J. Kerridge, M. López-Puertas, F. J. Martín-Torres, G. P. Stiller, “Optimized spectral microwindows for MIPAS-Envisat data analysis,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5531–5540 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, G. Echle, “Selection of optimized microwindows for atmospheric spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7661–7660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wells, R. J.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zaragoza, G.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

Adv. Space Res.

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution remote measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 361–367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

T. von Clarmann, U. Grabowski, M. Kiefer, “On the role of non-random errors in inverse problems in radiative transfer and other applications,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 71, 39–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

F. Rabier, N. Fourrié, D. Chafaï, P. Prunet, “Channel selection methods for infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer radiances,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1–15 (2001).

Other

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

“AIRS—Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Homepage,” (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2001), http://www-airs.jpl.nasa.gov/

“Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG),” (Earth Observation Research Center, Tokyo, Japan, 2001), http://www.eorc.nasda.go.jp/ADEOS/Project/Img.html .

“MIPAS Introduction,” (European Space Agency, Paris, France, 2001), http://www.envisat.esa.int/instruments/mipas/ .

“IASI Welcome!,” (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France, 2001), http://smsc.cnes.fr/IASI/welcome.html .

“Welcome to TES,” (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2001), http://tes.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

C. D. Rodgers, “Information content and optimisation of high spectral resolution measurements,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 136–147 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, J.-M. Flaud, C. Harrold, B. Kerridge, K. Koutoulaki, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, M. A. López-Valverde, F. J. Martín-Torres, J. Reburn, J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, R. Siddans, R. J. Wells, G. Zaragoza, “Study on the simulation of atmospheric infrared spectra,” ESA contract 12054/96/NL/CN (European Space Agency, Paris, 1998).

European Space Agency, “ENVISAT-MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric chemistry and climate research,” ESA SP-1229 (European Space Agency Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch indicating two possible methods of growing microwindows. A microwindow, currently bounded by the thick line, contains six measurements (3 spectral points × 2 tangent altitudes). Growing edgewise all points along one boundary are tested together, and if this improves the Figure of Merit, the microwindow is expanded in that direction. Growing pointwise all points along the boundary are tested individually, and only those points with positive impact on the Figure of Merit are included. This can leave masked points within the microwindow, as indicated by solid squares, corresponding to measurements that are excluded from the retrieval.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solid boxes and numbers show the rectangular microwindows as listed in Table 1. The open boxes and letters show the masked microwindows extended slightly in altitude for clarity (“A” overlaps “1” and “7”). The Jacobian spectra (arbitrary units) for methane at 53 km (top) and 8 km (bottom) are also plotted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Growth of information content with number of measurements for the microwindows listed in Tables 1 and 2 after reordering. Open symbols show original selection sequence (ordered A–G and 1–9 from left to right across the graph).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Growth of information content with number of measurements for different CPU cost functions. Microwindows are distinguished by different symbols, as labeled for the n = 0 curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Major components of the retrieval error from the rectangular microwindows listed in Table 1. Symbols indicate pressure, temperature, horizontal gradients, HITRAN, non-LTE, N2O, and H2O uncertainties. The combination of these gives the net systematic component, and combined with the random component gives the total error.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 First 10 Rectangular Microwindows, with Their Wave Number (cm-1) and Altitude (km) Boundaries, and Number of Measurements in Each

Tables Icon

Table 2 First 10 Masked Microwindows, with Their Wave Number (cm-1) and Altitude (km) Boundaries, Total Number of Measurements within Boundaries, and Number Actually Used

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x=Gy+I-GKa,
G=SaKTSy+KSaKT-1.
Sx=GSyGT+I-GKSaI-GKT
=Sa-SaKTSy+KSaKT-1KSa
=I-GKSa.
G=KTSy-1K+Sa-1-1KTSy-1.
xj=gjyj+I-gjkjTaj,
gj=Sajkjσj2+kjTSajkj-1,
Sxj=I-gjkjTSaj,
Sy=S+Sf.
Sytot=Syrnd+i EδyiδyiT
=Syrnd+iSyi,
δxi=Gδyi+I-GKδai,
Sxtot=Sxrnd+Sxsys,
Sxrnd=I-GKSarnd,
Sxsys=i EδxiδxiTiSxi.
H=-log2Fx/Fa,
ΔHj=-log2Fj/Fj-1,
F=|Srnd+αSsys|,
F=|Stot+Sreq|,
F=k Skktot,
F=|Stot|Cn,
g=Sarndkσy2+kTSarndk-1,
Sxrnd=I-gkTSarnd,
δxi=gδyi+I-gkTδai,
Sxtot=Sxrnd+iδxiδxiT.
kjl=kllujl/ull,
C=1+N,

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