Abstract

Damage growth in optical materials used in large-aperture laser systems is an issue of great importance to determine component lifetime and therefore cost of operation. Small size damage sites tend to grow when exposed to subsequent high-power laser irradiation at 355 nm. An understanding of the photophysical processes associated with damage growth is important to devise mitigation techniques. We examine the role of laser-modified material and cracks formed in the crater of damage pits in the damage growth process using fused-silica and deuterated KDP samples. Experimental results indicate that both of the above-mentioned features can initiate plasma formation at fluences as low as 2 J/cm2. The intensity of the recorded plasma emission remains low for fluences up to approximately 5 J/cm2 but rapidly increases thereafter, accompanied by an increase of the size of the damage crater.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Smith, “Laser induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
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  3. S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. L. Chase, “Laser ablation and optical surface damage,” in Laser Ablation, Vol. 28 of Springer Series in Material Science, J. C. Miller, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, “Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser-induced damage,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1977–1983 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 263, 240–250 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Crystal Growth 181, 265–271 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. M. Campbell, “The National-Ignition-Facility project,” Fusion Technol. 26, 755–766 (1994).
  15. M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06 µm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, National Bureau of Standards Spec. Pub. 462 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1976), pp. 305–320.
  21. D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  23. T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (3)

G. Hammersley, L. A. Hackel, F. Harris, “Surface prestressing to improve fatigue strength of components by laser shot peening,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 263, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Crystal Growth 181, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. M. Campbell, “The National-Ignition-Facility project,” Fusion Technol. 26, 755–766 (1994).

1990 (1)

P. Braunlich, S. C. Jones, X. A. Shen, R. T. Casper, “Laser-induced modifications and the mechanism of intrinsic damage in wide-gap optical materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 224–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. L. Smith, “Laser induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

N. Bloembergen, “Laser induced electric breakdown in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 375–386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Atherton, L. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Battersby, C. L.

M. R. Kozlowski, C. L. Battersby, S. G. Demos, “Luminescence investigation of SiO2 surfaces damaged by 0.35-mm laser illumination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 138–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bettis, J. R.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06 µm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, National Bureau of Standards Spec. Pub. 462 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1976), pp. 305–320.

Bloembergen, N.

Braunlich, P.

P. Braunlich, S. C. Jones, X. A. Shen, R. T. Casper, “Laser-induced modifications and the mechanism of intrinsic damage in wide-gap optical materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 224–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Britten, J. A.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, A.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Camp, D. W.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. M.

E. M. Campbell, “The National-Ignition-Facility project,” Fusion Technol. 26, 755–766 (1994).

Casper, R. T.

P. Braunlich, S. C. Jones, X. A. Shen, R. T. Casper, “Laser-induced modifications and the mechanism of intrinsic damage in wide-gap optical materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 224–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

F.Y. Genin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2607–2616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chase, “Laser ablation and optical surface damage,” in Laser Ablation, Vol. 28 of Springer Series in Material Science, J. C. Miller, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

De Yoreo, J. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dehaven, M. R.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, “Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser-induced damage,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1977–1983 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, C. L. Battersby, S. G. Demos, “Luminescence investigation of SiO2 surfaces damaged by 0.35-mm laser illumination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 138–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Laser-induced material modification in the bulk KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 428–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Donohue, E. E.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dovik, M.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, P.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 263, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 263, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, K.

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Crystal Growth 181, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Crystal Growth 181, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Genin, F.Y.

Guenther, A. H.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06 µm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, National Bureau of Standards Spec. Pub. 462 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1976), pp. 305–320.

Hackel, L. A.

G. Hammersley, L. A. Hackel, F. Harris, “Surface prestressing to improve fatigue strength of components by laser shot peening,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hammersley, G.

G. Hammersley, L. A. Hackel, F. Harris, “Surface prestressing to improve fatigue strength of components by laser shot peening,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harris, F.

G. Hammersley, L. A. Hackel, F. Harris, “Surface prestressing to improve fatigue strength of components by laser shot peening,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 327–337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

House, R. A.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, “Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06 µm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, National Bureau of Standards Spec. Pub. 462 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C., 1976), pp. 305–320.

Hrubesh, L. W.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. C.

P. Braunlich, S. C. Jones, X. A. Shen, R. T. Casper, “Laser-induced modifications and the mechanism of intrinsic damage in wide-gap optical materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 224–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kamimura, T.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanabe, T.

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Crystal Growth 181, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, T.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, C. L. Battersby, S. G. Demos, “Luminescence investigation of SiO2 surfaces damaged by 0.35-mm laser illumination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 138–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lindsey, E. F.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

P. A. Temple, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “CO2-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1.06 µm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, National Bureau of Standards Spec. Pub. 620 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 229–236.

Matsuo, S.

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Crystal Growth 181, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Temple, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “CO2-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1.06 µm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, National Bureau of Standards Spec. Pub. 620 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 229–236.

Molander, W. A.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, K. E.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, K.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Crystal Growth 181, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Natura, U.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 263, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neeb, P. C.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, M. A.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M. A.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pistor, T. V.

Radousky, H. B.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Laser-induced material modification in the bulk KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 428–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raether, R. G.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchic, A. M.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Runkel, M.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

Sasaki, T.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sell, W. D.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, L. M.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X. A.

P. Braunlich, S. C. Jones, X. A. Shen, R. T. Casper, “Laser-induced modifications and the mechanism of intrinsic damage in wide-gap optical materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 224–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, “Laser induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, “Application of fluorescence microscopy for noninvasive detection of surface contamination and precursors to laser-induced damage,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1977–1983 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Laser-induced material modification in the bulk KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 428–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Summers, L. J.

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “CO2-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1.06 µm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, National Bureau of Standards Spec. Pub. 620 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 229–236.

Thomas, I. M.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tien, A. C.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vital, R. L.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P. J.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zaitseva, N. P.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, L.

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. G. Demos, A. Burnham, P. Wegner, M. Norton, L. Zeller, M. Runkel, M. R. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Surface defect generation in optical materials under high fluence laser irradiation in vacuum,” Electron. Lett. 36, 566–567 (2000).
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E. M. Campbell, “The National-Ignition-Facility project,” Fusion Technol. 26, 755–766 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Bloembergen, “Laser induced electric breakdown in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 375–386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Crystal Growth (2)

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40–55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 180, 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujioka, S. Matsuo, T. Kanabe, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, “Optical properties of rapidly grown KDP crystal improved by thermal conditioning,” J. Crystal Growth 181, 265–271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids. (1)

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoride-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 263, 240–250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

P. Braunlich, S. C. Jones, X. A. Shen, R. T. Casper, “Laser-induced modifications and the mechanism of intrinsic damage in wide-gap optical materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 46, 224–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

W. L. Smith, “Laser induced breakdown in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 489–503 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

G. Hammersley, L. A. Hackel, F. Harris, “Surface prestressing to improve fatigue strength of components by laser shot peening,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 327–337 (2000).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

T. Kamimura, K. Nakai, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, M. Tanaka, Y. Okada, H. Yoshida, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kojima, K. Yoshida, “High damage resistivity of optical surface for UV lasers by ion beam etching,” Rev. Laser Eng. 27, 623–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

L. W. Hrubesh, M. A. Norton, W. A. Molander, P. J. Wegner, M. Staggs, S. G. Demos, J. A. Britten, L. J. Summers, E. F. Lindsey, M. R. Kozlowski, “Chemical etch effects on laser-induced surface damage growth in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 553–560 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. A. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. G. Raether, I. M. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 356–364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Temple, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “CO2-laser polishing of fused silica surfaces for increased laser damage resistance at 1.06 µm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, National Bureau of Standards Spec. Pub. 620 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 229–236.

L. L. Chase, “Laser ablation and optical surface damage,” in Laser Ablation, Vol. 28 of Springer Series in Material Science, J. C. Miller, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, P. C. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchic, W. D. Sell, P. J. Wegner, “Growth of laser-initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Kozlowski, C. L. Battersby, S. G. Demos, “Luminescence investigation of SiO2 surfaces damaged by 0.35-mm laser illumination,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 138–143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, H. B. Radousky, “Laser-induced material modification in the bulk KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 428–432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectra under 351-nm cw excitation from the modified material layer inside the damage crater for KDP and SiO2

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Light-scattering image of the crater of a DKDP surface damage site. Plasma emission images under 355-nm, 3-ns irradiation at (b) 1.9 ± 0.4, (c) 2.9 ± 0.6, (d) 3.9 ± 0.8, (e) 5 ± 1, (f) 7.5 ± 1.5 J/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated plasma emission intensity from (a) DKDP and (b) SiO2 surface damage sites as a function of the laser fluence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Image of the crack in the bulk of a SiO2 sample, (b) plasma emission image during irradiation with a pulse at ≈2.2 J/cm2 followed by (c) a second pulse at 5.3 J/cm2; (d) fluorescence image under 351-nm cw excitation, (e) plasma image during exposure of this site to another pulse at ≈5.3 J/cm2, (f) fluorescence image following irradiation with 23 pulses at ≈5.2 J/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Image of two intersecting cracks before irradiation. (b) Fluorescence image following exposure to two pulses at ≈10.5 J/cm2, which shows the presence of emissive-modified material at isolated sites in the bulk.

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