Abstract

A novel measurement principle for fiber-optic sensing is presented. Use of a cavity-ring-down scheme enables measurements of minute optical losses in high-finesse fiber-optic cavities. The loss may be induced by evanescent-field absorption, fiber bending, fiber degradation, Bragg gratings, or any other effect that might change the fiber transmission or cavity reflector properties. The principle is proved to be rather insensitive to ambient perturbations such as temperature changes. A high-sensitivity measurement of loss due to bending is presented as a proof-of-principle. With a cavity finesse of 627 a sensitivity for induced loss of 108 ppm (4.68 × 10-4 dB) is achieved. Preliminary measurements of evanescent-field absorption are also discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

T. von Lerber, M. W. Sigrist, “Time constant extraction from noisy cavity-ring-down signals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fiber amplifier loop for intracavity and ring-down-cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843–849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength-dependent polarization-dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, R. N. Zare, M. J. Lawrence, R. L. Byer, “Frequency-switched heterodyne cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 920–922 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (4)

E. J. Friebele, M. A. Putnam, H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, A. S. Greenblatt, G. P. Ruthven, H. Krim, K. S. Gottschalck, “Ultrahigh-sensitivity fiber-optic strain and temperature sensor,” Opt. Lett. 23, 222–224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schulz, W. R. Simpson, “Frequency-matched cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 523–529 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, M. N. R. Ashfold, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity-ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Continuous-wave cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, J. S. Harris, J. Martin, J. Xie, R. N. Zare, “Laser diode cavity-ring-down spectroscopy using acousto-optic modulator stabilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3199–3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

K. K. Lehmann, D. Romanini, “The superposition principle and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263–10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, “A review of recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater. Devices Syst. 2, 291–317 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity-ring-down absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. Zalicki, R. N. Zare, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708–2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. An, C. Yang, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Cavity-ring-down technique and its application to the measurement of ultraslow velocities,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1068–1070 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

P. R. Morkel, M. C. Farries, D. N. Payne, “Losses in fiber laser cavities,” Electron. Lett. 24, 92–93 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity-ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

W. Gamblin, H. Matsumura, C. Ragdale, “Curvature andmicrobending losses in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 43–59 (1979).
[CrossRef]

An, K.

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, J. C. Frisch, C. S. Masser, “Mirror reflectometer based on optical cavity decay time,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1238–1245 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Anderson, “Reflectometer based on optical cavity decay time,” U.S. patent4,571,085 (18February1986).

Ashfold, M. N. R.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, M. N. R. Ashfold, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, K.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fiber amplifier loop for intracavity and ring-down-cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843–849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benard, D. J.

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity-ring-down absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength-dependent polarization-dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fiber amplifier loop for intracavity and ring-down-cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843–849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity-ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Engeln, R.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity-ring-down absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Falco, L.

G. Kotrotsios, L. Falco, J. P. Jeanneret, O. Parriaux, “Radio frequency phase detection for intensity modulated fiber sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors I, H. J. Arditti, L. B. Jeunhomme, eds., Proc. SPIE586, 99–103 (1985).

Falco, L. G.

L. G. Falco, O. M. Parriaux, “Optical fiber detection system using an intensity-modulating sensor,” U.S. patent4,887,901 (19December1989).

Farries, M. C.

P. R. Morkel, M. C. Farries, D. N. Payne, “Losses in fiber laser cavities,” Electron. Lett. 24, 92–93 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Friebele, E. J.

Frisch, J. C.

Gamblin, W.

W. Gamblin, H. Matsumura, C. Ragdale, “Curvature andmicrobending losses in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 43–59 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gottschalck, K. S.

Greenblatt, A. S.

Grover, C.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength-dependent polarization-dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, J. W.

Harb, C. C.

Harris, J. S.

B. A. Paldus, J. S. Harris, J. Martin, J. Xie, R. N. Zare, “Laser diode cavity-ring-down spectroscopy using acousto-optic modulator stabilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3199–3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herbelin, J. M.

Hodges, J. T.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, N.

N. Hodgson, H. Weber, Optical Resonators: Fundamentals, Advanced Concepts and Applications (Springer-Verlag, London, 1997).

Jeanneret, J. P.

G. Kotrotsios, L. Falco, J. P. Jeanneret, O. Parriaux, “Radio frequency phase detection for intensity modulated fiber sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors I, H. J. Arditti, L. B. Jeunhomme, eds., Proc. SPIE586, 99–103 (1985).

Kachanov, A. A.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Continuous-wave cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kim, J. W.

Kotrotsios, G.

G. Kotrotsios, L. Falco, J. P. Jeanneret, O. Parriaux, “Radio frequency phase detection for intensity modulated fiber sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors I, H. J. Arditti, L. B. Jeunhomme, eds., Proc. SPIE586, 99–103 (1985).

Krim, H.

Kwok, M. A.

Lawrence, M. J.

Lee, H. W.

Lee, J. Y.

Lehmann, K. K.

K. K. Lehmann, D. Romanini, “The superposition principle and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263–10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

Looney, J. P.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

B. A. Paldus, J. S. Harris, J. Martin, J. Xie, R. N. Zare, “Laser diode cavity-ring-down spectroscopy using acousto-optic modulator stabilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3199–3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Masser, C. S.

Matsumura, H.

W. Gamblin, H. Matsumura, C. Ragdale, “Curvature andmicrobending losses in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 43–59 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McKay, J. A.

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity-ring-down absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morkel, P. R.

P. R. Morkel, M. C. Farries, D. N. Payne, “Losses in fiber laser cavities,” Electron. Lett. 24, 92–93 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Newman, S. M.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, M. N. R. Ashfold, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity-ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O’Keefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity-ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Orr-Ewing, A. J.

M. D. Wheeler, S. M. Newman, A. J. Orr-Ewing, M. N. R. Ashfold, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 94, 337–351 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

M. D. Levenson, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, C. C. Harb, R. N. Zare, M. J. Lawrence, R. L. Byer, “Frequency-switched heterodyne cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 920–922 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Paldus, J. S. Harris, J. Martin, J. Xie, R. N. Zare, “Laser diode cavity-ring-down spectroscopy using acousto-optic modulator stabilization,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 3199–3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

G. Kotrotsios, L. Falco, J. P. Jeanneret, O. Parriaux, “Radio frequency phase detection for intensity modulated fiber sensors,” in Fiber Optic Sensors I, H. J. Arditti, L. B. Jeunhomme, eds., Proc. SPIE586, 99–103 (1985).

Parriaux, O. M.

L. G. Falco, O. M. Parriaux, “Optical fiber detection system using an intensity-modulating sensor,” U.S. patent4,887,901 (19December1989).

Patrick, H. J.

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity-ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. N.

P. R. Morkel, M. C. Farries, D. N. Payne, “Losses in fiber laser cavities,” Electron. Lett. 24, 92–93 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Engeln, G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, “Cavity enhanced absorption and cavity enhanced magnetic rotation spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3763–3769 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

Querry, M. R.

Ragdale, C.

W. Gamblin, H. Matsumura, C. Ragdale, “Curvature andmicrobending losses in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 43–59 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Continuous-wave cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lehmann, D. Romanini, “The superposition principle and cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10263–10277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Romann, A.

T. von Lerber, A. Romann, “A method for measuring at least one physical parameter using an optical resonator,” European patent application EP00121314.9 (9October2000).

Ruthven, G. P.

Sadeghi, N.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Continuous-wave cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity-ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity-ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, K. J.

K. J. Schulz, W. R. Simpson, “Frequency-matched cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 523–529 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

T. von Lerber, M. W. Sigrist, “Time constant extraction from noisy cavity-ring-down signals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berini, C. Grover, “A comparison of wavelength-dependent polarization-dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231–1239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, W. R.

K. J. Schulz, W. R. Simpson, “Frequency-matched cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 523–529 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

Spencer, D. J.

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fiber amplifier loop for intracavity and ring-down-cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843–849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

D. Romanini, A. A. Kachanov, N. Sadeghi, F. Stoeckel, “Continuous-wave cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 316–322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uenten, R. H.

Urevig, D. S.

van den Berg, E.

R. Engeln, G. Berden, E. van den Berg, G. Meijer, “Polarization-dependent cavity-ring-down spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4458–4467 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Zee, R. D.

J. T. Hodges, J. P. Looney, R. D. van Zee, “Response of a ring-down cavity to an arbitrary excitation,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10278–10288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Helden, G.

R. Engeln, G. von Helden, G. Berden, G. Meijer, “Phase-shift cavity-ring-down absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Lerber, T.

T. von Lerber, M. W. Sigrist, “Time constant extraction from noisy cavity-ring-down signals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131–137 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Lerber, A. Romann, “A method for measuring at least one physical parameter using an optical resonator,” European patent application EP00121314.9 (9October2000).

Weber, H.

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