Abstract

Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar has been accomplished with surface retroreflection signals from the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. Two circular passes were made at altitudes of 6.3 and 9.3 km. The computed calibration factors for both altitudes are in excellent agreement with the value derived from standard ground-based measurements involving a fixed sandpaper target of known reflectance. This finding corroborates a previous study that successfully calibrated an airborne cw Doppler lidar with a variety of natural Earth surfaces. The present results indicate that relatively uniform Earth surface targets can be used for in-flight calibration of CO2 pulsed airborne and, in principal, other infrared lidars.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Proffitt, “Observations of Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Globe Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Spinhirne, S. Chudamani, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. L. Bufton, “Aerosol and cloud backscatter at 1.06, 1.54, and 0.53 µm by airborne hard-target-calibrated Nd:YAG methane Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3475–3490 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. N. Howell, J. Rothermel, D. M. Tratt, D. R. Cutten, L. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, “Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics III, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3757, 6–17 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. D. A. Haner, R. T. Menzies, “Reflectance characteristics of reference materials used in lidar hard target calibration,” Appl. Opt. 28, 857–864 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, “Comparison of continuous-wave CO2 lidar calibration by use of Earth-surface targets in laboratory and airborne measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7120–7127 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Post, R. E. Cupp, “Optimizing a pulsed Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4145–4158 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Y. Wang, “Heterodyne laser radar SNR from a diffuse target containing multiple glints,” Appl. Opt. 21, 464–476 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Zhao, M. J. Post, R. M. Hardesty, “Receiving efficiency of pulsed coherent lidars. 2: Applications,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4120–4132 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, “Lidar aerosol backscatter measurements: systematic, modeling, and calibration error considerations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3444–3453 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, “Comparison of continuous-wave CO2 lidar calibration by use of Earth-surface targets in laboratory and airborne measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7120–7127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. D. Spinhirne, S. Chudamani, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. L. Bufton, “Aerosol and cloud backscatter at 1.06, 1.54, and 0.53 µm by airborne hard-target-calibrated Nd:YAG methane Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3475–3490 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Globe Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Proffitt, “Observations of Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1989 (2)

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Haner, R. T. Menzies, “Reflectance characteristics of reference materials used in lidar hard target calibration,” Appl. Opt. 28, 857–864 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1982 (2)

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Ancellet, G. M.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Banta, R. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cavanaugh, J. F.

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Chudamani, S.

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Cupp, R. E.

Cutten, D. R.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Howell, J. Rothermel, D. M. Tratt, D. R. Cutten, L. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, “Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics III, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3757, 6–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Darby, L.

J. N. Howell, J. Rothermel, D. M. Tratt, D. R. Cutten, L. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, “Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics III, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3757, 6–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grund, C. J.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Proffitt, “Observations of Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gudimetla, V. S. Rao

Haner, D. A.

Hardesty, R. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, M. J. Post, R. M. Hardesty, “Receiving efficiency of pulsed coherent lidars. 2: Applications,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4120–4132 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Howell, J. Rothermel, D. M. Tratt, D. R. Cutten, L. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, “Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics III, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3757, 6–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, J. F.

Howell, J. N.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Howell, J. Rothermel, D. M. Tratt, D. R. Cutten, L. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, “Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics III, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3757, 6–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jarzembski, M. A.

Johnson, S. C.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, “Lidar aerosol backscatter measurements: systematic, modeling, and calibration error considerations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3444–3453 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kavaya, “The JPL lidar target calibration facility,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 10–13.

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Langford, A. O.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Proffitt, “Observations of Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Globe Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Haner, R. T. Menzies, “Reflectance characteristics of reference materials used in lidar hard target calibration,” Appl. Opt. 28, 857–864 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, “Lidar aerosol backscatter measurements: systematic, modeling, and calibration error considerations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3444–3453 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, L. D.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pi, W.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Proffitt, “Observations of Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, R. E. Cupp, “Optimizing a pulsed Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4145–4158 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, M. J. Post, R. M. Hardesty, “Receiving efficiency of pulsed coherent lidars. 2: Applications,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4120–4132 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proffitt, M. H.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Proffitt, “Observations of Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothermel, J.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Howell, J. Rothermel, D. M. Tratt, D. R. Cutten, L. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, “Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics III, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3757, 6–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Spinhirne, J. D.

Srivastava, V.

Tratt, D. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Globe Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Howell, J. Rothermel, D. M. Tratt, D. R. Cutten, L. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, “Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics III, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3757, 6–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. C.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wurtele, M. G.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The multi-center airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Proffitt, “Observations of Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Airborne lidar observations of tropospheric aerosols during the Globe Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Pacific circumnavigation missions of 1989 and 1990,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3701–3714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and seasonal characteristics of aerosol backscatter at thermal IR wavelengths using lidar observations from coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 9897–9908 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. N. Howell, J. Rothermel, D. M. Tratt, D. R. Cutten, L. Darby, R. M. Hardesty, “Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results,” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics III, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3757, 6–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kavaya, “The JPL lidar target calibration facility,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), pp. 10–13.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, G. P. Anderson, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, W. O. Gallery, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance-computer code LOWTRAN 7,” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Landsat image of the WSNM area superimposed with a portion of the 6.3-km altitude circular flight track of a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The small dark square indicates the location of the target area (33.03 °N, 106.34 °W). The insert shows the individual lidar beam intersections on the surface within a 1-km2 area superimposed on an equivalent Landsat image area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laboratory measurements of the angular dependence of WSNM surface reflectivity by use of a witness sample. Data are for left-handed, circularly polarized radiation incident on the sample. Solid and dashed vertical bars indicate the range of uncertainty in the angle of incidence on WSNM surfaces for 6.3- and 9.3-km altitudes, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of a single-beam surface return signal from the WSNM area for (a) 6.3-km altitude and (b) 9.3-km altitude. Relative power axes are scaled to clearly illustrate the waveforms. In (a), symbols A and B indicate the selected threshold baseline and noise-averaging windows, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-series plot of (a) the range along each individual beam to the surface, (b) the SNR of the surface return power, and (c) the calibration factor derived from 6.3-km altitude. Vertical bars in (a) indicate the averaging intervals chosen to minimize the range variation. In (b) and (c), the vertical bars represent total rms error; the solid horizontal line is the average of all data, and the short-dashed lines are associated rms error. The long-dashed line in (c) represents the hard-target calibration factor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 except for 9.3-km altitude.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram of calibration factor K c derived from individual surface returns over the WSNM area on 10 August 1998 for 6.3-km altitude. Insert is the corresponding histogram for the 40-beam averaged data. The vertical solid line in both the figure and the insert is the average for all beams.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of rms Errors for Significant Parameters in the Lidar Equation

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Kc=πηDToejD2Aηr, fT2rρ4hνbwr2ΔτSNR,
δKc=δSSig2+δSN2+δη2+δTo2+δr2+δTAer2+δTWC2+δTSp2+δej21/2,

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