Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate that the stability of cw and mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers can be improved significantly with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) inside the cavity. The fast saturable gain of the SOA suppresses significantly the self-pulsing that is due to ion pairs in the erbium-doped fiber, which acts as a saturable absorber. A linear stabilization analysis of the laser system agrees with our experimental results.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Lacot, F. Stoeckel, M. Chenevier, “Dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3997–4008 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Sanchez, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Fracois, G. Stephan, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Sanchez, P. L. Flohic, G. M. Stephan, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, “Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481–488 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. H. Loh, J. P. de Sandro, “Suppression of self-pulsing behavior in erbium-doped fiber lasers with resonant pumping: experimental results,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1475–1477 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. H. Loh, “Suppression of self-pulsing behavior in erbium-doped fiber lasers with resonant pumping,” Opt. Lett. 21, 734–736 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Luo, P. L. Chu, “Suppression of self-pulsing in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1174–1176 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Shan, D. Cleland, A. Ellis, “Stabilising Er fiber soliton laser with pulse phase locking,” Electron. Lett. 28, 182–184 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kellou, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Sanchez, “Suppression of undamped oscillations in erbium fiber lasers with intensity dependent loss,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1951–1956 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 26, pp. 221–245.
  11. C. Wu, Ph.D dissertation, “Four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers and erbium doped fiber lasers,” (Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1999).
  12. C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, M. Shirasaki, K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse limiting,” Opt. Lett. 19, 31–33 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

A. Kellou, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Sanchez, “Suppression of undamped oscillations in erbium fiber lasers with intensity dependent loss,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1951–1956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1995

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. L. Flohic, G. M. Stephan, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, “Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, M. Shirasaki, K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse limiting,” Opt. Lett. 19, 31–33 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Lacot, F. Stoeckel, M. Chenevier, “Dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3997–4008 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

F. Sanchez, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Fracois, G. Stephan, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

X. Shan, D. Cleland, A. Ellis, “Stabilising Er fiber soliton laser with pulse phase locking,” Electron. Lett. 28, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ait-Ameur, K.

A. Kellou, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Sanchez, “Suppression of undamped oscillations in erbium fiber lasers with intensity dependent loss,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1951–1956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boudec, P. L.

F. Sanchez, P. L. Flohic, G. M. Stephan, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, “Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Fracois, G. Stephan, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chenevier, M.

E. Lacot, F. Stoeckel, M. Chenevier, “Dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3997–4008 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, P. L.

Cleland, D.

X. Shan, D. Cleland, A. Ellis, “Stabilising Er fiber soliton laser with pulse phase locking,” Electron. Lett. 28, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Sandro, J. P.

Doerr, C. R.

Ellis, A.

X. Shan, D. Cleland, A. Ellis, “Stabilising Er fiber soliton laser with pulse phase locking,” Electron. Lett. 28, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Flohic, P. L.

F. Sanchez, P. L. Flohic, G. M. Stephan, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, “Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fracois, P. L.

F. Sanchez, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Fracois, G. Stephan, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francois, P. L.

F. Sanchez, P. L. Flohic, G. M. Stephan, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, “Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Ippen, E. P.

Kawanishi, S.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kellou, A.

A. Kellou, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Sanchez, “Suppression of undamped oscillations in erbium fiber lasers with intensity dependent loss,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1951–1956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacot, E.

E. Lacot, F. Stoeckel, M. Chenevier, “Dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3997–4008 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loh, W. H.

Luo, L.

Sanchez, F.

A. Kellou, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Sanchez, “Suppression of undamped oscillations in erbium fiber lasers with intensity dependent loss,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1951–1956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. L. Flohic, G. M. Stephan, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, “Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Fracois, G. Stephan, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saruwatari, M.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shan, X.

X. Shan, D. Cleland, A. Ellis, “Stabilising Er fiber soliton laser with pulse phase locking,” Electron. Lett. 28, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, M.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 26, pp. 221–245.

Stephan, G.

F. Sanchez, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Fracois, G. Stephan, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephan, G. M.

F. Sanchez, P. L. Flohic, G. M. Stephan, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, “Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

E. Lacot, F. Stoeckel, M. Chenevier, “Dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3997–4008 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takara, H.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

Wu, C.

C. Wu, Ph.D dissertation, “Four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers and erbium doped fiber lasers,” (Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1999).

Electron. Lett.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by suppressing the relaxation oscillation frequency component,” Electron. Lett. 31, 292–293 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Shan, D. Cleland, A. Ellis, “Stabilising Er fiber soliton laser with pulse phase locking,” Electron. Lett. 28, 182–184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

F. Sanchez, P. L. Flohic, G. M. Stephan, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Francois, “Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481–488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

A. Kellou, K. Ait-Ameur, F. Sanchez, “Suppression of undamped oscillations in erbium fiber lasers with intensity dependent loss,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1951–1956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

E. Lacot, F. Stoeckel, M. Chenevier, “Dynamics of an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3997–4008 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sanchez, P. L. Boudec, P. L. Fracois, G. Stephan, “Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220–2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 26, pp. 221–245.

C. Wu, Ph.D dissertation, “Four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers and erbium doped fiber lasers,” (Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., 1999).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber ring laser. When the laser is operated in a cw mode, the modulator is not present.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RIN spectra of the fiber laser: curve (a) without and curve (b) with a SOA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental relation between SOA current and pump rate for suppression of self-pulsation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental relation between RIN and SOA current.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Waveforms of a mode-locked fiber laser output (a) without and (b) with a SOA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Super mode noise of the mode-locked laser output. The resolution bandwidth of the spectrum analyzer is 100 kHz: curve (a) without and curve (b) with a SOA.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relaxation oscillation of the mode-locked fiber laser output. The resolution bandwidth of the spectrum analyzer is 1 kHz: curve (a) without and curve (b) with a SOA.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Theoretical relation between the pump rate and the steady-state laser intensity: curve (a) ideal case with no ion pairs in fiber and no SOA, curve (b) ion pair fraction is 0.1 and no SOA, curve (c) ion pair fraction is 0.1 and with a SOA. For curve (c) the SOA has a gain factor of 0.5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated relation between pumping rate and Re(λ): curve (a) g = 0, x = 0 with no ion pairs and no SOA; curve (b) g = 0, x = 0.1 with ion pairs and no SOA; curve (c) g = 0.1, x = 0.1; curve (d) g = 0.2, x = 0.1; curve (e) g = 0.3, x = 0.1; curve (f) g = 1, x = 0.1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Theoretical relation between unsaturated SOA gain and pump rate for suppression of self-pulsation.

Equations (14)

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dN1tdt =-Λ+N2/τ2+σLILN2-N1,
dN2tdt =Λ-N2/τ2-σLILN2-N1,
dNLtdt=2Λ- N0+NLt/τ2-2σLILtNLt,
dNAtdt=- NAt-xN0/τA-2σAILtNAt,
dNetdt= J-Net/τe-σeILtNet,
dILtdt=-γcILt+σLNLtILt-σANAtILt+σeNetILt,
diLτdτ= AnLτ-BnAτ-1+g0neτiLτ,
dnLτdτ=2R-γL1+nLτ-2iLτnLτ,
dnAτdτ=-γAnAτ-x-2yiLτnAτ,
dneτdτ=γe1-neτ-CiLτneτ.
nLSS= 2R-γLγL+2iLSS, nASS=γAxγA+2yiLSS, neSS=γeγe+CiLSS.
2R-γLAγL+2iLSS-2γAxBγA+2iLSS+g0γeγe+CiLSS-1=0.
detL-λI=0,
L=0AiLSS-BiLSSg0iLSS-2nLSS-γL-2iLSS00-2ynASS0-γA-2iLSS0-CneSS00-γe-CiLSS.

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