Abstract

We present our results of coating a first set of optical elements for an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography system. The optics were coated with Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by dc magnetron sputtering and characterized by synchrotron radiation. Near-normal incidence reflectances above 65% were achieved at 13.35 nm. The run-to-run reproducibility of the reflectance peak wavelength was maintained to within 0.4%, and the thickness uniformity (or gradient) was controlled to within ±0.05% peak to valley, exceeding the prescribed specification. The deposition technique used for this study is an enabling technology for EUV lithography, making it possible to fabricate multilayer-coated optics to accuracies commensurate with atomic dimensions.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. See article “Lithographers narrow options to EUV and EPL for commercialization,” in SEMATECH News Archive website www.sematech.org/public/news/releases/ngl-10112000.htm (2000).
  2. R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).
  5. D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Gutman, “High-performance Mo/Si and W/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray imaging optics,” J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. 4, 142–150 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
  9. J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
  10. J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).
  11. C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, S. Baker, M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, “Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10× Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 1219–1228 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).
  13. D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
  14. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).
  16. J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, P. E. Denham, “Masked deposition techniques for achieving multilayer period variations required for short-wavelength (68-Å) soft-x-ray imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6961–6968 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, S. Baker, M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, “Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10× Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 1219–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Gutman, “High-performance Mo/Si and W/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray imaging optics,” J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. 4, 142–150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

Baker, S.

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, S. Baker, M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, “Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10× Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 1219–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

Berger, K. W.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Blaedel, K.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boher, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Bokor, J.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bozman, D. R.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Cardinale, G. F.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Cobb, J. L.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Denham, P. E.

Falco, C. M.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Folk, D. R.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Folta, J. A.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

Frontier, J. P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Gaughan, R. J.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Goldberg, K. A.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Grabner, F. R.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

Gullikson, E. M.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, S. Baker, M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, “Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10× Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 1219–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, E. M. Gullikson, P. E. Denham, “Masked deposition techniques for achieving multilayer period variations required for short-wavelength (68-Å) soft-x-ray imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6961–6968 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

Gutman, G.

G. Gutman, “High-performance Mo/Si and W/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray imaging optics,” J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. 4, 142–150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gwyn, C. W.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hale, L. C.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Hanzen, R.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, C. C.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Hennet, L.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Hills, C. R.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Houdy, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Hudyma, R. M.

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).

Hull, R.

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, K. L.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joud, J. C.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Kearney, P. A.

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

Klebanoff, L. E.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Kortright, J. B.

Krumrey, M.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G. D.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Kühne, M.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Lee, S. H.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leung, H.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, U.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, P. B.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

Mirone, A.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, S. Baker, M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, “Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10× Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 1219–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Mueller, P.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Müller, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Naulleau, P.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Nguyen, T.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

O’Connell, D.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, D. J.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Panning, E.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Ray-Chaudhuri, K.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Replogle, W. C.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Rockett, P. D.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ruterana, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Schmidt, M. A.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

Schulze, D. W.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Senillou, C.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Shafer, D. R.

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).

Slaughter, J. M.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, S. Baker, M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, “Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10× Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 1219–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

Spiller, E. A.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Stalio, R.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, K. D.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Stulen, R. H.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).

Tarrio, C.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Tichenor, D. A.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Trouslard, P.

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

Vernon, S. P.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

Waskiewicz, K.

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. N.

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, F. J.

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, S. Baker, M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, “Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10× Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 1219–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

Wedowski, M.

C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, S. Baker, M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, “Multilayer coating and test of the optics for two new 10× Microstepper extreme-ultraviolet lithography cameras,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 1219–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

Williams, J. D.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wronosky, J. B.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

Yan, P.-Y.

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. L. Windt, R. Hull, K. Waskiewicz, “Interface imperfections in metal/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2675–2678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, “Structure and performance of Si/Mo multilayer mirrors for the extreme ultraviolet,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144–2156 (1994).
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J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo-Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. (2)

H. N. Chapman, K. Ray-Chaudhuri, D. A. Tichenor, W. C. Replogle, R. H. Stulen, G. D. Kubiak, P. D. Rockett, L. E. Klebanoff, D. O’Connell, H. Leung, K. L. Jefferson, J. B. Wronosky, J. S. Taylor, L. C. Hale, K. Blaedel, E. A. Spiller, G. E. Sommargren, J. A. Folta, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, D. T. Attwood, U. Mickan, R. Hanzen, E. Panning, P.-Y. Yan, C. W. Gwyn, S. H. Lee, “First lithographic results from the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 19, 2389–2395 (2001).
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J. X-Ray. Sci. Technol. (1)

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Other (8)

P. Boher, P. Houdy, L. Hennet, M. Kühne, P. Müller, J. P. Frontier, P. Trouslard, C. Senillou, J. C. Joud, P. Ruterana, “Structural characteristics and performances of rf-sputtered Mo/Si and Co/Si multilayer for soft x-ray optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 21–38 (1991).

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, F. R. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).

J. E. M. Goldsmith, K. W. Berger, D. R. Bozman, G. F. Cardinale, D. R. Folk, C. C. Henderson, D. J. O’Connell, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, K. D. Stewart, D. A. Tichenor, H. N. Chapman, R. J. Gaughan, R. M. Hudyma, C. Montcalm, E. A. Spiller, J. S. Taylor, J. D. Williams, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, P. Naulleau, J. L. Cobb, “Sub-100-nm lithographic imaging with an EUV 10x microstepper,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 264–271 (1999).

D. A. Tichenor, G. D. Kubiak, W. C. Replogle, L. E. Klebanoff, J. B. Wronosky, L. C. Hale, H. N. Chapman, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, C. Montcalm, R. M. Hudyma, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, “EUV Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 48–69 (2000).

D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. R. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).

M. Wedowski, J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, S. Bajt, J. A. Folta, P. A. Kearney, C. Montcalm, E. Spiller, “High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, E. A. Dobisz, R. L. Engelstad, eds., Proc. SPIE3997, 83–95 (2000).

See article “Lithographers narrow options to EUV and EPL for commercialization,” in SEMATECH News Archive website www.sematech.org/public/news/releases/ngl-10112000.htm (2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the ETS showing the plasma source, condenser, and projection optics. C1, C2, C3, and C4 are the condenser elements, and M1, M2, M3, and M4 are the projection elements. The sizes of the physical apertures in the camera are roughly to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Average normalized thickness profiles for all six C1 elements. The open circles are the measured values, the solid curve is the targeted thickness profile, the dashed curve is a second-degree polynomial fit to the measured points, and the dotted curves represent the boundaries of a ±0.4% tolerance zone. (b) Platter velocity modulation recipe used to coat these C1 optic elements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average normalized thickness distribution of (a) ten C3 optical elements to be used at 10.645° and (b) six C3 optical elements to be used at 11.850°. The solid circles are the measured values, the solid curves are the targeted thickness profile, and the dotted curves are the boundaries of a ±0.4% tolerance zone. Note that one element was coated first with a 10.645° incidence multilayer and then overcoated to provide an extra spare mirror for 11.850°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized thickness distribution of all four projection optics. The solid circles are the measured values; the dashed curves are the targeted thickness profile; the dotted curves are the boundaries of the ±0.1% tolerance zone; and the solid curves are second-degree polynomial fits to the measured data points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized thickness of optic M3 in the direction perpendicular to the ray clearance cutout. The thickness was graded by 0.6% to compensate for a variation of angle of incidence across the optic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Representative reflectance versus wavelength curves for each of the six condenser and projection optics. (b) Product of the measured reflectance curves shown in (a) together with the calculated product curve assuming perfect wavelength matching.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Description of the ETS Projection and Condenser Opticsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the Characterization Results of the Multilayer Coatings and Their Performance for Each Optica

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