Abstract

An instrument for total backscattering and forward-scattering measurements of optical coating components at 157 and 193 nm is described. The system is operated in both vacuum and nitrogen purge gas. An excimer laser as well as a deuterium lamp can be used as a radiation source. Suppression of the background signal level to 1 part in 106 permits measurements even of low-scatter samples such as superpolished substrates and antireflection coatings. Results of investigations of antireflective and highly reflective multilayers and CaF2 substrates reveal scattering from surface and interface roughness as well as from the volume of the substrate material. First steps to extend the instrument for angle-resolved scatter, transmittance, and reflectance measurements are described.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. International Organization for Standardization Working Group 6, “Optics and optical instruments—Laser and laser related equipment—Test method for radiation scattered by optical components,” ISO/DIS standard 13696 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1999).
  2. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995).
  3. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).
  4. American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard test method for measuring the effective surface roughness of optical components by total integrated scattering,” document F1048–87 (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1987).
  5. P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Apel, K. Mann, “DUV scattering measurements as a tool for characterization of UV-optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 72, 59–65 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Kadkhoda, H. Welling, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Investigations on total scattering at 157 nm and 193 nm,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc SPIE4099, 65–73 (2000).
  8. P. Kadkhoda, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Calibration aspects of total scatter measurements in the DUV/VUV,” presented at the Sixth International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, subconference of Lasers in Manufacturing meeting, Munich, Germany, 18–20 June 2001.
  9. T. Saito, J. Saito, E. Nakamura, T. Kudo, M. Kagaya, T. Takahashi, “Measurement of total integrated scatter of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries II, A. Duparre, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4449, 22–29 (2001).
  10. V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, “Determination of optical properties of thin films and surfaces in 157-nm lithography,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE3998, 480–491 (2000).
  11. A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,” in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily, ed., Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Paper Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213–231.
  12. A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple wavelength light scattering measurements,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).
  13. M. Flemming, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Strahlformung und Signaldetektion im tiefen ultravioletten Spektralbereich,” diploma dissertation (Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau, Zwickau, Germany, 2000).
  14. D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Gliech, A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Vorrichtung zur Bestimmung des an einer Probe gestreuten Lichtes,” German patent299 04 098.4 (8March, 1999).
  16. J. Steinert, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, G. Notni, “Verfahren zur Unterdrückung der Lichtstreuung an Spülgasen bei gleichzeitiger Unterdrückung von Kontaminationen und Ablagerungen beim Einsatz von Wellenlängen kleiner 200 nm,” German patent101 47 089.4 (25September2001).
  17. J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, “Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5854–5864 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, “Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2190–2199 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Jakobs, A. Duparré, H. Truckenbrodt, “Interfacial roughness and related scatter in ultraviolet optical coatings: a systematic experimental approach,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1180–1193 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104–115 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 273–304.
  22. H. Bernitzki, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, M. Klaus, H. Lauth, R. Stollmann, “Reflectance and scatter losses of 157 nm HR-coatings,” presented at the SEMATECH 157 nm data review meeting, San Diego, Calif., 14–16 November 2000.

2001

2000

1998

1994

D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1979

C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Amra, C.

Apel, O.

O. Apel, K. Mann, “DUV scattering measurements as a tool for characterization of UV-optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 72, 59–65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Bernitzki, H.

H. Bernitzki, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, M. Klaus, H. Lauth, R. Stollmann, “Reflectance and scatter losses of 157 nm HR-coatings,” presented at the SEMATECH 157 nm data review meeting, San Diego, Calif., 14–16 November 2000.

Bloomstein, T. M.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, “Determination of optical properties of thin films and surfaces in 157-nm lithography,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE3998, 480–491 (2000).

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Deumie, C.

Duparré, A.

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, “Procedure to characterize microroughness of optical thin films: application to ion-beam-sputtered vacuum-ultraviolet coatings,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2190–2199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferré-Borrull, A. Duparré, E. Quesnel, “Roughness and light scattering of ion-beam-sputtered fluoride coatings for 193 nm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5854–5864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jakobs, A. Duparré, H. Truckenbrodt, “Interfacial roughness and related scatter in ultraviolet optical coatings: a systematic experimental approach,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1180–1193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Gliech, A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Vorrichtung zur Bestimmung des an einer Probe gestreuten Lichtes,” German patent299 04 098.4 (8March, 1999).

A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,” in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily, ed., Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Paper Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213–231.

H. Bernitzki, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, M. Klaus, H. Lauth, R. Stollmann, “Reflectance and scatter losses of 157 nm HR-coatings,” presented at the SEMATECH 157 nm data review meeting, San Diego, Calif., 14–16 November 2000.

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 273–304.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple wavelength light scattering measurements,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).

J. Steinert, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, G. Notni, “Verfahren zur Unterdrückung der Lichtstreuung an Spülgasen bei gleichzeitiger Unterdrückung von Kontaminationen und Ablagerungen beim Einsatz von Wellenlängen kleiner 200 nm,” German patent101 47 089.4 (25September2001).

Ferré-Borrull, J.

Flemming, M.

M. Flemming, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Strahlformung und Signaldetektion im tiefen ultravioletten Spektralbereich,” diploma dissertation (Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau, Zwickau, Germany, 2000).

Gliech, S.

P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Gliech, A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Vorrichtung zur Bestimmung des an einer Probe gestreuten Lichtes,” German patent299 04 098.4 (8March, 1999).

H. Bernitzki, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, M. Klaus, H. Lauth, R. Stollmann, “Reflectance and scatter losses of 157 nm HR-coatings,” presented at the SEMATECH 157 nm data review meeting, San Diego, Calif., 14–16 November 2000.

J. Steinert, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, G. Notni, “Verfahren zur Unterdrückung der Lichtstreuung an Spülgasen bei gleichzeitiger Unterdrückung von Kontaminationen und Ablagerungen beim Einsatz von Wellenlängen kleiner 200 nm,” German patent101 47 089.4 (25September2001).

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple wavelength light scattering measurements,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).

Günster, St.

P. Kadkhoda, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Calibration aspects of total scatter measurements in the DUV/VUV,” presented at the Sixth International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, subconference of Lasers in Manufacturing meeting, Munich, Germany, 18–20 June 2001.

P. Kadkhoda, H. Welling, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Investigations on total scattering at 157 nm and 193 nm,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc SPIE4099, 65–73 (2000).

Jakobs, S.

Jolie, C.

Kadkhoda, P.

P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Kadkhoda, H. Welling, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Investigations on total scattering at 157 nm and 193 nm,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc SPIE4099, 65–73 (2000).

P. Kadkhoda, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Calibration aspects of total scatter measurements in the DUV/VUV,” presented at the Sixth International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, subconference of Lasers in Manufacturing meeting, Munich, Germany, 18–20 June 2001.

Kagaya, M.

T. Saito, J. Saito, E. Nakamura, T. Kudo, M. Kagaya, T. Takahashi, “Measurement of total integrated scatter of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries II, A. Duparre, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4449, 22–29 (2001).

Kessler, H.

Klaus, M.

H. Bernitzki, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, M. Klaus, H. Lauth, R. Stollmann, “Reflectance and scatter losses of 157 nm HR-coatings,” presented at the SEMATECH 157 nm data review meeting, San Diego, Calif., 14–16 November 2000.

Kudo, T.

T. Saito, J. Saito, E. Nakamura, T. Kudo, M. Kagaya, T. Takahashi, “Measurement of total integrated scatter of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries II, A. Duparre, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4449, 22–29 (2001).

Lauth, H.

Liberman, V.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, “Determination of optical properties of thin films and surfaces in 157-nm lithography,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE3998, 480–491 (2000).

Lindström, T.

Mann, K.

O. Apel, K. Mann, “DUV scattering measurements as a tool for characterization of UV-optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 72, 59–65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Müller, A.

Nakamura, E.

T. Saito, J. Saito, E. Nakamura, T. Kudo, M. Kagaya, T. Takahashi, “Measurement of total integrated scatter of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries II, A. Duparre, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4449, 22–29 (2001).

Notni, G.

S. Gliech, A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Vorrichtung zur Bestimmung des an einer Probe gestreuten Lichtes,” German patent299 04 098.4 (8March, 1999).

J. Steinert, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, G. Notni, “Verfahren zur Unterdrückung der Lichtstreuung an Spülgasen bei gleichzeitiger Unterdrückung von Kontaminationen und Ablagerungen beim Einsatz von Wellenlängen kleiner 200 nm,” German patent101 47 089.4 (25September2001).

A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,” in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily, ed., Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Paper Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213–231.

Quesnel, E.

Reng, N.

Ribbing, C. G.

Ristau, D.

P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Kadkhoda, H. Welling, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Investigations on total scattering at 157 nm and 193 nm,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc SPIE4099, 65–73 (2000).

P. Kadkhoda, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Calibration aspects of total scatter measurements in the DUV/VUV,” presented at the Sixth International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, subconference of Lasers in Manufacturing meeting, Munich, Germany, 18–20 June 2001.

Rönnow, D.

D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rothschild, M.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, “Determination of optical properties of thin films and surfaces in 157-nm lithography,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE3998, 480–491 (2000).

Saito, J.

T. Saito, J. Saito, E. Nakamura, T. Kudo, M. Kagaya, T. Takahashi, “Measurement of total integrated scatter of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries II, A. Duparre, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4449, 22–29 (2001).

Saito, T.

T. Saito, J. Saito, E. Nakamura, T. Kudo, M. Kagaya, T. Takahashi, “Measurement of total integrated scatter of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries II, A. Duparre, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4449, 22–29 (2001).

Schuhmann, R.

Schuhmann, U.

Steinert, J.

J. Steinert, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, G. Notni, “Verfahren zur Unterdrückung der Lichtstreuung an Spülgasen bei gleichzeitiger Unterdrückung von Kontaminationen und Ablagerungen beim Einsatz von Wellenlängen kleiner 200 nm,” German patent101 47 089.4 (25September2001).

Stollmann, R.

H. Bernitzki, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, M. Klaus, H. Lauth, R. Stollmann, “Reflectance and scatter losses of 157 nm HR-coatings,” presented at the SEMATECH 157 nm data review meeting, San Diego, Calif., 14–16 November 2000.

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995).

Takahashi, T.

T. Saito, J. Saito, E. Nakamura, T. Kudo, M. Kagaya, T. Takahashi, “Measurement of total integrated scatter of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries II, A. Duparre, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4449, 22–29 (2001).

Tilsch, M.

Truckenbrodt, H.

Veszelei, E.

D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

P. Kadkhoda, H. Welling, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Investigations on total scattering at 157 nm and 193 nm,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc SPIE4099, 65–73 (2000).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

O. Apel, K. Mann, “DUV scattering measurements as a tool for characterization of UV-optical surfaces,” Appl. Phys. A 72, 59–65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. K. Carniglia, “Scalar scattering theory for multilayer optical coatings,” Opt. Eng. 18, 104–115 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. Rönnow, E. Veszelei, “Design review of an instrument for spectroscopic total integrated light scattering measurements in the visible wavelength region,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 327–334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Gliech, A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Vorrichtung zur Bestimmung des an einer Probe gestreuten Lichtes,” German patent299 04 098.4 (8March, 1999).

J. Steinert, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, G. Notni, “Verfahren zur Unterdrückung der Lichtstreuung an Spülgasen bei gleichzeitiger Unterdrückung von Kontaminationen und Ablagerungen beim Einsatz von Wellenlängen kleiner 200 nm,” German patent101 47 089.4 (25September2001).

International Organization for Standardization Working Group 6, “Optics and optical instruments—Laser and laser related equipment—Test method for radiation scattered by optical components,” ISO/DIS standard 13696 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1999).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard test method for measuring the effective surface roughness of optical components by total integrated scattering,” document F1048–87 (American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1987).

P. Kadkhoda, H. Welling, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Investigations on total scattering at 157 nm and 193 nm,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc SPIE4099, 65–73 (2000).

P. Kadkhoda, St. Günster, D. Ristau, “Calibration aspects of total scatter measurements in the DUV/VUV,” presented at the Sixth International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, subconference of Lasers in Manufacturing meeting, Munich, Germany, 18–20 June 2001.

T. Saito, J. Saito, E. Nakamura, T. Kudo, M. Kagaya, T. Takahashi, “Measurement of total integrated scatter of optical coatings for 157-nm lithography,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries II, A. Duparre, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4449, 22–29 (2001).

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, “Determination of optical properties of thin films and surfaces in 157-nm lithography,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, N. T. Sullivan, ed., Proc. SPIE3998, 480–491 (2000).

A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,” in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily, ed., Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Paper Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213–231.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple wavelength light scattering measurements,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).

M. Flemming, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Strahlformung und Signaldetektion im tiefen ultravioletten Spektralbereich,” diploma dissertation (Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau, Zwickau, Germany, 2000).

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Guenther, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 273–304.

H. Bernitzki, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, M. Klaus, H. Lauth, R. Stollmann, “Reflectance and scatter losses of 157 nm HR-coatings,” presented at the SEMATECH 157 nm data review meeting, San Diego, Calif., 14–16 November 2000.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the instrument for total backscatter and forward-scatter measurements in ambient air from 193 through 10.6 µm. 2D, two dimensional.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the instrument for total backscatter and forward-scatter measurements at 157 and 193 nm, in vacuum and in purge gas. 2D, two dimensional.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The 157–193-nm TS system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variable radiation attenuator system for 157 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coblentz sphere arrangement. Position for TS-T measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Scattering imaging by the Coblentz sphere into the detector aperture. Scatter angle range, 2°–85° (5° steps); spot size on sample, ∅1 mm. x_D and y_D, distances from the center of the detector aperture. (b) Tolerance region of adjustment: z_S, sample position; z_D, detector position; z_S = 1.1 mm, z_D = -1 mm for (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6, except for the spot size on the sample, ∅4 mm; sample position, z_S = 1.5 mm; and detector position, z_D = -1 mm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Background scatter levels of the VUV TS setup at 157 nm. The curves represent one-dimensional TS-T (gray curves) and TS-R (black curves) scans. Measurements were performed with an empty sample holder in purge gas (dotted curves) and in vacuum (solid curves). Light source, excimer laser.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of extension of the instrument to ARS and angle-dependent transmittance and reflectance measurements at 157 and 193 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

TS-R and TS-T measurements at 157 nm of a CaF2 diffuser disk. Light source, D2-lamp.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) TS-T (157 nm) of two CaF2 substrates with different polishing qualities. (b) Two-dimensional forward-scatter mapping of the low-scatter sample. Light source, excimer laser.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a), (b) Forward-scatter and backscatter scans at 193 nm of two identically polished CaF2-substrates. (b) Noticeably increased TS-T values, indicating volume scattering from the bulk of the substrate. (c) Two-dimensional forward-scatter map of the sample with volume scattering. Light source, excimer laser.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Two-dimensional (a) backscatter and (b) forward-scatter maps at 193 nm of a CaF2 substrate coated onto one half of the surface with a fluoride multilayer HR system for 193 nm. Light source, excimer laser.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

TS-R scans (157 nm) of two HR multilayer (fluoride) mirrors (HR 1 and HR 4 in Table 1) deposited upon CaF2. Radiation source, D2 lamp. Both samples were also measured with excimer laser radiation (see Fig. 15).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

TS-R scans (157 nm) of different HR multilayer (fluoride) mirrors deposited upon CaF2. Radiation source, excimer laser. HR 1 and HR 4 were also measured with D2-lamp radiation (see Fig. 14).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(a) TS-T and TS-R scans (157 nm) of a CaF2 substrate with a 157-nm fluoride AR coating upon each side and (b) a two-dimensional TS-T map of this sample. Light source, excimer laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 TS-R of Four Fluoride Multilayer Mirrors with Different Qualitya

Equations (2)

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TS=PSP0=SS-S0ASACSC-S0 TSC,
TST=T 2π σλns-12,

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