Abstract

Mechanical stress and the structures of SiO2, Al2O3, and HfO2 single oxide layers and of high-reflection multilayer coatings deposited by reactive evaporation, plasma ion-assisted deposition, and ion-beam sputtering have been studied. The stress was related to the microstructure and to the incorporation of water by means of infrared spectroscopy. From the slopes of measured stress-temperature curves of these coatings deposited onto two substrate materials (silicon and fused silica), the biaxial moduli and the thermal expansion coefficients of the films were estimated.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Rainer, H. W. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Baumeister, O. Arnon, “Use of hafnium dioxide in multi-layer dielectric reflectors for the near UV,” Appl. Opt. 16, 439–444 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “Laser damage threshold of thin optical coatings at 248 nm,” NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 339–443 (1981).
  4. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 32, 172–175 (1909).
    [CrossRef]
  5. KLA-Tencor, “Thin film stress measurement system TENCOR FLX 2320,” manual (KLA-Tencor, San Jose, Calif., 1995).
  6. A. E. Ennos, “Stresses developed in optical film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 5, 51–61 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. H. Hirsch, “Stress in porous thin films through adsorption of polar molecules,” J. Phys. D 13, 2081–2094 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. K. Pulker, “Mechanical properties of optical films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 191–204 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tamulevicius, “Stress and strain in vacuum deposited thin films,” Vacuum 51, 127–139 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Kolbe, H. Schink, “Optical losses of dielectric VUV mirrors deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 435–447 (1992).
  12. A. Zoller, S. Beisswenger, R. Gotzelmann, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a novel technique for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 394–402 (1994).
  13. M. Alvisi, S. Scaglione, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Kreher, W. Pompe, Internal Stresses in Heterogeneous Solids (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin1989).
  15. S. L. Dole, O. Hunter, C. J. Wooge, “Elastic properties of monoclinic hafnium oxide at room temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 60, 488–490 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. P. H. Hasselman, “On the porosity dependence of the elastic moduli of polycrystalline refractory materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 452–453 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. M. Spriggs, “Effect of open and closed pores on elastic moduli of polycrystalline alumina,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 454 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. B. Wachtman, D. G. Lam, “Young’s modulus of various refractory materials as a function of temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 47, 254–260 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).
  20. H. Günther, “Structure and related properties of thin-film optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 2–11 (1986).
  21. H. A. McLeod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglione, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Tamulevicius, “Stress and strain in vacuum deposited thin films,” Vacuum 51, 127–139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. A. McLeod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

H. K. Pulker, “Mechanical properties of optical films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 191–204 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “Laser damage threshold of thin optical coatings at 248 nm,” NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 339–443 (1981).

1980 (1)

E. H. Hirsch, “Stress in porous thin films through adsorption of polar molecules,” J. Phys. D 13, 2081–2094 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

S. L. Dole, O. Hunter, C. J. Wooge, “Elastic properties of monoclinic hafnium oxide at room temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 60, 488–490 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Baumeister, O. Arnon, “Use of hafnium dioxide in multi-layer dielectric reflectors for the near UV,” Appl. Opt. 16, 439–444 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

1962 (2)

D. P. H. Hasselman, “On the porosity dependence of the elastic moduli of polycrystalline refractory materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 452–453 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Spriggs, “Effect of open and closed pores on elastic moduli of polycrystalline alumina,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 454 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

J. B. Wachtman, D. G. Lam, “Young’s modulus of various refractory materials as a function of temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 47, 254–260 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1909 (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 32, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Alvisi, M.

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglione, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

Anton, B.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arnon, O.

Baumeister, P.

Beisswenger, S.

A. Zoller, S. Beisswenger, R. Gotzelmann, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a novel technique for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 394–402 (1994).

Carniglia, C. K.

Dole, S. L.

S. L. Dole, O. Hunter, C. J. Wooge, “Elastic properties of monoclinic hafnium oxide at room temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 60, 488–490 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ennos, A. E.

Eva, E.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feigl, T.

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

Gotzelmann, R.

A. Zoller, S. Beisswenger, R. Gotzelmann, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a novel technique for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 394–402 (1994).

Günther, H.

H. Günther, “Structure and related properties of thin-film optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 2–11 (1986).

Hasselman, D. P. H.

D. P. H. Hasselman, “On the porosity dependence of the elastic moduli of polycrystalline refractory materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 452–453 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, E. H.

E. H. Hirsch, “Stress in porous thin films through adsorption of polar molecules,” J. Phys. D 13, 2081–2094 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, O.

S. L. Dole, O. Hunter, C. J. Wooge, “Elastic properties of monoclinic hafnium oxide at room temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 60, 488–490 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

Kaiser, U.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kolbe, J.

J. Kolbe, H. Schink, “Optical losses of dielectric VUV mirrors deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 435–447 (1992).

Kreher, W.

W. Kreher, W. Pompe, Internal Stresses in Heterogeneous Solids (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin1989).

Lam, D. G.

J. B. Wachtman, D. G. Lam, “Young’s modulus of various refractory materials as a function of temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 47, 254–260 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Lowdermilk, H. W.

Lowdermilk, W. H.

F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “Laser damage threshold of thin optical coatings at 248 nm,” NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 339–443 (1981).

Mann, K.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, S.

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglione, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

Matl, K.

A. Zoller, S. Beisswenger, R. Gotzelmann, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a novel technique for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 394–402 (1994).

McLeod, H. A.

H. A. McLeod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

F. Rainer, H. W. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “Laser damage threshold of thin optical coatings at 248 nm,” NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 339–443 (1981).

Pompe, W.

W. Kreher, W. Pompe, Internal Stresses in Heterogeneous Solids (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin1989).

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, “Mechanical properties of optical films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 191–204 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

F. Rainer, H. W. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, C. K. Carniglia, T. Tuttle Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, “Materials for optical coatings in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 24, 496–500 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “Laser damage threshold of thin optical coatings at 248 nm,” NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 339–443 (1981).

Rizzo, A.

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglione, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

Sarto, F.

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

Scaglione, S.

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglione, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

Schallenberg, U. B.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schink, H.

J. Kolbe, H. Schink, “Optical losses of dielectric VUV mirrors deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 435–447 (1992).

Spriggs, R. M.

R. M. Spriggs, “Effect of open and closed pores on elastic moduli of polycrystalline alumina,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 454 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 32, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Tamulevicius, S.

S. Tamulevicius, “Stress and strain in vacuum deposited thin films,” Vacuum 51, 127–139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

Tuttle Hart, T.

Uhlig, H.

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vasanelli, L.

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglione, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wachtman, J. B.

J. B. Wachtman, D. G. Lam, “Young’s modulus of various refractory materials as a function of temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 47, 254–260 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Wooge, C. J.

S. L. Dole, O. Hunter, C. J. Wooge, “Elastic properties of monoclinic hafnium oxide at room temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 60, 488–490 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zoller, A.

A. Zoller, S. Beisswenger, R. Gotzelmann, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a novel technique for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 394–402 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (4)

S. L. Dole, O. Hunter, C. J. Wooge, “Elastic properties of monoclinic hafnium oxide at room temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 60, 488–490 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. P. H. Hasselman, “On the porosity dependence of the elastic moduli of polycrystalline refractory materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 452–453 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Spriggs, “Effect of open and closed pores on elastic moduli of polycrystalline alumina,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 454 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wachtman, D. G. Lam, “Young’s modulus of various refractory materials as a function of temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 47, 254–260 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. H. Hirsch, “Stress in porous thin films through adsorption of polar molecules,” J. Phys. D 13, 2081–2094 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

H. A. McLeod, “Structure-related optical properties of thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 418–422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

NBS Spec. Publ. (1)

F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, “Laser damage threshold of thin optical coatings at 248 nm,” NBS Spec. Publ. 638, 339–443 (1981).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 32, 172–175 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

M. Alvisi, S. Scaglione, S. Martelli, A. Rizzo, L. Vasanelli, “Structural and optical modification in hafnium oxide thin films related to the momentum parameter transferred by ion beam assistance,” Thin Solid Films 354, 19–23 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, “Mechanical properties of optical films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 191–204 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Kaiser, H. Uhlig, U. B. Schallenberg, B. Anton, U. Kaiser, K. Mann, E. Eva, “High damage threshold Al2O3/SiO2 dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” Thin Solid Films 260, 86–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

S. Tamulevicius, “Stress and strain in vacuum deposited thin films,” Vacuum 51, 127–139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. Kolbe, H. Schink, “Optical losses of dielectric VUV mirrors deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD, and IBS,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 435–447 (1992).

A. Zoller, S. Beisswenger, R. Gotzelmann, K. Matl, “Plasma ion assisted deposition: a novel technique for the production of optical coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 394–402 (1994).

R. Thielsch, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, S. Martin, S. Scaglione, F. Sarto, M. Alvisi, A. Rizzo, “Comparison of the optical properties and UV radiation resistance of HfO2 single layers deposited by reactive evaporation, IAD, and PIAD,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 182–193 (2000).

H. Günther, “Structure and related properties of thin-film optical coatings,” in Optical Thin Films II: New Developments, R. I. Seddon, ed., Proc. SPIE678, 2–11 (1986).

W. Kreher, W. Pompe, Internal Stresses in Heterogeneous Solids (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin1989).

KLA-Tencor, “Thin film stress measurement system TENCOR FLX 2320,” manual (KLA-Tencor, San Jose, Calif., 1995).

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