Abstract

Single layers of MgF2 and LaF3 were deposited upon superpolished fused-silica and CaF2 substrates by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) as well as by boat and electron beam (e-beam) evaporation and were characterized by a variety of complementary analytical techniques. Besides undergoing photometric and ellipsometric inspection, the samples were investigated at 193 and 633 nm by an optical scatter measurement facility. The structural properties were assessed with atomic-force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, TEM techniques that involved conventional thinning methods for the layers. For measurement of mechanical stress in the coatings, special silicon substrates were coated and analyzed. The dispersion behavior of both deposition materials, which was determined on the basis of various independent photometric measurements and data reduction techniques, is in good agreement with that published in the literature and with the bulk properties of the materials. The refractive indices of the MgF2 coatings ranged from 1.415 to 1.440 for the wavelength of the ArF excimer laser (193 nm) and from 1.435 to 1.465 for the wavelength of the F2 excimer laser (157 nm). For single layers of LaF3 the refractive indices extended from 1.67 to 1.70 at 193 nm to ∼1.80 at 157 nm. The IBS process achieves the best homogeneity and the lowest surface roughness values (close to 1 nmrms) of the processes compared in the joint experiment. In contrast to MgF2 boat and e-beam evaporated coatings, which exhibit tensile mechanical stress ranging from 300 to 400 MPa, IBS coatings exhibit high compressive stress of as much as 910 MPa. A similar tendency was found for coating stress in LaF3 single layers. Experimental results are discussed with respect to the microstructural and compositional properties as well as to the surface topography of the coatings.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

N. T. Sullivan, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, Proc. SPIE 3998 (2000).

1996 (1)

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anton, B.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, K. R. Mann, E. Eva, R. Henking, D. Ristau, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2-dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Arens, W.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Bernitzki, H.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Bosch, S.

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “Optical characterization of materials deposited by different processes: the LaF3 in the UV–visible region,” in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE4094, 15–22 (2000).

S. Günster, D. Ristau, S. Bosch, “Spectrophotometric determination of absorption in the DUV/VUV spectral range for MgF2 and LaF3 thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 299–310 (2000).

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “New procedure for the optical characterization of high-quality thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 124–130 (2000).

Dijon, J.

E. Quesnel, J. Dijon, L. Dumas, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, L. Poupinet, B. Rolland, “The latest developments in sputtered fluoride films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 47–49.

Dumas, L.

E. Quesnel, J. Dijon, L. Dumas, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, L. Poupinet, B. Rolland, “The latest developments in sputtered fluoride films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 47–49.

Duparré, A.

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. Hummel, K. Guenther, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp.273–303.

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “New procedure for the optical characterization of high-quality thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 124–130 (2000).

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement, in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds. Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “Optical characterization of materials deposited by different processes: the LaF3 in the UV–visible region,” in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE4094, 15–22 (2000).

A. Duparré, N. Kaiser: “Scatter investigation of UV-films: facing the trend towards shorter wavelengths,” in Optical Interference Coatings” Vol. 9 of 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 346–347.

Ebert, J.

J. Kolbe, H. Müller, H. Schink, H. Welling, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds at 193 nm and correlations to optical constants and process parameters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, eds. H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, NIST Spec. Publ.801, 404–416 (1989).

Eva, E.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, K. R. Mann, E. Eva, R. Henking, D. Ristau, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2-dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Ferré-Borrull, J.

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “New procedure for the optical characterization of high-quality thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 124–130 (2000).

Ferré-Borull, J.

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “Optical characterization of materials deposited by different processes: the LaF3 in the UV–visible region,” in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE4094, 15–22 (2000).

Garrec, P.

E. Quesnel, J. Dijon, L. Dumas, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, L. Poupinet, B. Rolland, “The latest developments in sputtered fluoride films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 47–49.

Gliech, S.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement, in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds. Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).

Günster, S.

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “Optical characterization of materials deposited by different processes: the LaF3 in the UV–visible region,” in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE4094, 15–22 (2000).

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “New procedure for the optical characterization of high-quality thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 124–130 (2000).

S. Günster, D. Ristau, S. Bosch, “Spectrophotometric determination of absorption in the DUV/VUV spectral range for MgF2 and LaF3 thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 299–310 (2000).

Henking, R.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, K. R. Mann, E. Eva, R. Henking, D. Ristau, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2-dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Hofmann, T.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, D. Ristau, “Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV-coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 221–235 (1991).

Kaiser, N.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, K. R. Mann, E. Eva, R. Henking, D. Ristau, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2-dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

A. Duparré, N. Kaiser: “Scatter investigation of UV-films: facing the trend towards shorter wavelengths,” in Optical Interference Coatings” Vol. 9 of 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 346–347.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Kaiser, U.

U. Kaiser, “Strukturbedingter Verunreinigungseinbau in dünnen optischen Fluoridschichten,” Ph.D. dissertation (Humboldt University, Berlin, 1993) and references therein.

Kessler, H.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, D. Ristau, “Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV-coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 221–235 (1991).

Kolbe, J.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, D. Ristau, “Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV-coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 221–235 (1991).

J. Kolbe, H. Schink, “Optical losses of dielectric VUV-mirrors deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, eds., Proc. SPIE1782, 435–446 (1992).

H. Schink, J. Kolbe, F. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Reactive ion-beam-sputtering of fluoride coatings for the UV/VUV range, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 327–338 (1990).

J. Kolbe, H. Müller, H. Schink, H. Welling, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds at 193 nm and correlations to optical constants and process parameters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, eds. H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, NIST Spec. Publ.801, 404–416 (1989).

Labroche, D.

E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, V. Muffato, D. Labroche, J. Y. Robic, “The ion beam sputtering: a good way to improve the mechanical properties of fluoride coatings,” in Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, 1997) pp. 293–298.

Laut, H.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Leinfellner, N.

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “Optical characterization of materials deposited by different processes: the LaF3 in the UV–visible region,” in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE4094, 15–22 (2000).

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “New procedure for the optical characterization of high-quality thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 124–130 (2000).

Mann, K.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Mann, K. R.

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, K. R. Mann, E. Eva, R. Henking, D. Ristau, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2-dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Mertin, M.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Meyer, F.

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, D. Ristau, “Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV-coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 221–235 (1991).

Muffato, V.

E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, V. Muffato, D. Labroche, J. Y. Robic, “The ion beam sputtering: a good way to improve the mechanical properties of fluoride coatings,” in Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, 1997) pp. 293–298.

Müller, H.

J. Kolbe, H. Müller, H. Schink, H. Welling, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds at 193 nm and correlations to optical constants and process parameters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, eds. H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, NIST Spec. Publ.801, 404–416 (1989).

Pellé, C.

E. Quesnel, J. Dijon, L. Dumas, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, L. Poupinet, B. Rolland, “The latest developments in sputtered fluoride films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 47–49.

Poupinet, L.

E. Quesnel, J. Dijon, L. Dumas, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, L. Poupinet, B. Rolland, “The latest developments in sputtered fluoride films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 47–49.

Quesnel, E.

E. Quesnel, J. Dijon, L. Dumas, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, L. Poupinet, B. Rolland, “The latest developments in sputtered fluoride films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 47–49.

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “Optical characterization of materials deposited by different processes: the LaF3 in the UV–visible region,” in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE4094, 15–22 (2000).

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “New procedure for the optical characterization of high-quality thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 124–130 (2000).

E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, V. Muffato, D. Labroche, J. Y. Robic, “The ion beam sputtering: a good way to improve the mechanical properties of fluoride coatings,” in Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, 1997) pp. 293–298.

Ristau, D.

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “New procedure for the optical characterization of high-quality thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 124–130 (2000).

H. Schink, J. Kolbe, F. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Reactive ion-beam-sputtering of fluoride coatings for the UV/VUV range, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 327–338 (1990).

S. Günster, D. Ristau, S. Bosch, “Spectrophotometric determination of absorption in the DUV/VUV spectral range for MgF2 and LaF3 thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 299–310 (2000).

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, D. Ristau, “Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV-coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 221–235 (1991).

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “Optical characterization of materials deposited by different processes: the LaF3 in the UV–visible region,” in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE4094, 15–22 (2000).

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, K. R. Mann, E. Eva, R. Henking, D. Ristau, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2-dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

Robic, J. Y.

E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, V. Muffato, D. Labroche, J. Y. Robic, “The ion beam sputtering: a good way to improve the mechanical properties of fluoride coatings,” in Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, 1997) pp. 293–298.

Rolland, B.

E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, V. Muffato, D. Labroche, J. Y. Robic, “The ion beam sputtering: a good way to improve the mechanical properties of fluoride coatings,” in Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, 1997) pp. 293–298.

E. Quesnel, J. Dijon, L. Dumas, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, L. Poupinet, B. Rolland, “The latest developments in sputtered fluoride films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 47–49.

Ruppe, C.

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schink, H.

J. Kolbe, H. Schink, “Optical losses of dielectric VUV-mirrors deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, eds., Proc. SPIE1782, 435–446 (1992).

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, D. Ristau, “Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV-coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 221–235 (1991).

H. Schink, J. Kolbe, F. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Reactive ion-beam-sputtering of fluoride coatings for the UV/VUV range, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 327–338 (1990).

J. Kolbe, H. Müller, H. Schink, H. Welling, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds at 193 nm and correlations to optical constants and process parameters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, eds. H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, NIST Spec. Publ.801, 404–416 (1989).

Sullivan, N. T.

N. T. Sullivan, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, Proc. SPIE 3998 (2000).

Thielsch, R.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Ullmann, J.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Welling, H.

J. Kolbe, H. Müller, H. Schink, H. Welling, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds at 193 nm and correlations to optical constants and process parameters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, eds. H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, NIST Spec. Publ.801, 404–416 (1989).

H. Schink, J. Kolbe, F. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Reactive ion-beam-sputtering of fluoride coatings for the UV/VUV range, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 327–338 (1990).

Zeiss, C.

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

Zimmermann, F.

H. Schink, J. Kolbe, F. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Reactive ion-beam-sputtering of fluoride coatings for the UV/VUV range, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 327–338 (1990).

Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV (1)

N. T. Sullivan, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, Proc. SPIE 3998 (2000).

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “Optical characterization of materials deposited by different processes: the LaF3 in the UV–visible region,” in Optical and Infrared Thin Films, M. L. Fulton, ed., Proc. SPIE4094, 15–22 (2000).

E. D. Palik ed. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

J. Kolbe, H. Schink, “Optical losses of dielectric VUV-mirrors deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, eds., Proc. SPIE1782, 435–446 (1992).

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films” in Thin Films for Optical Coatings, R. Hummel, K. Guenther, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp.273–303.

U. Kaiser, “Strukturbedingter Verunreinigungseinbau in dünnen optischen Fluoridschichten,” Ph.D. dissertation (Humboldt University, Berlin, 1993) and references therein.

A. Duparré, N. Kaiser: “Scatter investigation of UV-films: facing the trend towards shorter wavelengths,” in Optical Interference Coatings” Vol. 9 of 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 346–347.

Papers presented at the International UV Laser Symposium (Lambda Physik), Fort Lauderdale, Fla.November 1–3, 2000,

J. Ullmann, M. Mertin, C. Zeiss, H. Laut, H. Bernitzki, K. Mann, D. Ristau, W. Arens, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, “Coated optics for DUV—excimer laser applications,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 514–527 (2000).

J. Kolbe, H. Müller, H. Schink, H. Welling, J. Ebert, “Laser induced damage thresholds at 193 nm and correlations to optical constants and process parameters,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, eds. H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, NIST Spec. Publ.801, 404–416 (1989).

J. Kolbe, H. Kessler, T. Hofmann, F. Meyer, H. Schink, D. Ristau, “Optical properties and damage thresholds of dielectric UV/VUV-coatings deposited by conventional evaporation, IAD and IBS,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 221–235 (1991).

N. Kaiser, B. Anton, K. R. Mann, E. Eva, R. Henking, D. Ristau, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2-dielectric coatings for excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2428, 400–409 (1994).

For further information see the homepage of the Training and Mobility of Researchers (TMR) network: http://www.lzh.de/tmr/ .

E. Quesnel, J. Dijon, L. Dumas, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, L. Poupinet, B. Rolland, “The latest developments in sputtered fluoride films,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 9 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 47–49.

H. Schink, J. Kolbe, F. Zimmermann, D. Ristau, H. Welling, “Reactive ion-beam-sputtering of fluoride coatings for the UV/VUV range, in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 327–338 (1990).

A. Tikhonravov, M. Trubetskov, OptiLayer OptiRE thin-film software, Version 1999, http://www.jcmueller.de/prof_tikhonravov.html .

S. Bosch, N. Leinfellner, E. Quesnel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, S. Günster, D. Ristau, “New procedure for the optical characterization of high-quality thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 124–130 (2000).

S. Günster, D. Ristau, S. Bosch, “Spectrophotometric determination of absorption in the DUV/VUV spectral range for MgF2 and LaF3 thin films,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Duparré, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 299–310 (2000).

E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, V. Muffato, D. Labroche, J. Y. Robic, “The ion beam sputtering: a good way to improve the mechanical properties of fluoride coatings,” in Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual SVC Technical Conference (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, 1997) pp. 293–298.

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement, in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds. Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).

International Organization for Standardization, “Test method for radiation scattered by optical components,” standard ISO/FDIS 13696 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dispersion curves of MgF2 films deposited by the PVD2 upon CaF2 substrates. Curves represent refractive index relative to wavelength of samples coated in one batch upon selected positions within the substrate holder. A linear inhomogeneity of -2.5% was assumed for the calculation with best match to the experimental data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion curves of LaF3 films deposited by PVD2 upon CaF2 substrates. The curves represent samples coated in one batch onto selected positions within the substrate holder.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) AFM pictures of selected 1 µm × 1 µm areas of MgF2 films deposited upon superpolished CaF2 substrates by three deposition processes: left, PVD2; center, PVD1; right, IBS. The gray scale for the surface profile has a dynamic range from 0 nm (dark) to 20 nm (light). (b) As for (a) but for LaF3 films. The topography of LaF3 deposited by PVD1 upon a fused-silica sample is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission electron micrograph of left, a MgF2 film and right, a LaF3 film coated by reactive IBS upon silicon substrates (transmission electron micrograph plane view).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

X-ray diffraction analysis for MgF2 films upon superpolished CaF2 substrates (b, boat evaporation; e, e-beam evaporation).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-section micrographs of (a) a MgF2 PVD2-film coated by boat evaporation upon a silicon substrate and of (b) a LaF3 layer deposited upon a quartz substrate by IBS.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deposition Parameters of MgF2 and LaF3 Layersa

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Table 2 Deposition Temperature and Coating Stressa

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Table 3 Total Backscattering and Surface Roughnessa

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Table 4 Magnesium and Fluorine Contenta

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