Abstract

Accurate threshold curves of laser-induced damage (7-ns single shot at 1.064 µm) are measured in bulk and at the surfaces of optical components such as substrates, thin films, multilayers, and liquids. The shapes and the slopes of the curves are related to the spot size and to the densities of the nanodefects that are responsible for damage. First, these densities are reported for bulk substrates. In surfaces and films the recorded extrinsic and intrinsic threshold curves permit the discrimination of the effects of microdefects and nanodefects. In all cases the density of nanocenters is extracted by means of a phenomenological approach. Then we test liquids and mixtures of liquids with controlled defect densities. The results emphasize the agreement between measurement and prediction and demonstrate the validity of the presence of different kinds of nanocenter as the precursors of laser damage.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  25. M. Yan, S. Oberhelman, W. Siekhaus, Z. L. Wu, L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, “Characterization of surface and subsurface defects in optical materials using near-field evanescent wave,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 718–720 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (3)

A. Chmel, “Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,” Mater. Sci. Engl. B 49, 175–190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Theocaris, “Light scattering from laser-damage speckled surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8775–8784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Toppo, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–417 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

Akhouayri, H.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Quantitative study of laser damage threshold curves in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).

Amra, C.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Quantitative study of laser damage threshold curves in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).

J. Y. Natoli, C. Deumié, C. Amra, “Laser-modulated scattering from optical surfaces using fiber detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 128–137 (2000).

André, B.

J. Dijon, B. Raffin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, B. André, “One hundred joule per square centimeter 1.06 micron mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 158–167 (2000).

Anton, B.

Anzelotti, J.

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, J. Anzelotti, D. Smith, Z. Chrzan, “AFM-mapped, nanoscale, absorber-driven laser damage in UV high reflector multilayer,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 384–394 (1996).

Arenberg, J. W.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Toppo, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–417 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Babb, M. T.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Toppo, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–417 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Balooch, M.

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Sieklhaus, M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects in HR coating as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1884, 234–242 (1993).

M. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, M. Balooch, R. Tench, W. Siekhaus, “The surface morphology of as-deposited and laser-damaged dielectric mirror coating studied in situ by atomic force microscopy,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, G. S. Kino, ed., Proc. SPIE1556, 68–78 (1991).

Bercegol, H.

H. Bercegol, “Statistical distribution of laser damage and spatial scaling law for a model with multiple defects cooperation in damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 339–346 (1998).

H. Bercegol, “What is laser conditioning? A review focused on dielectric multilayers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 421–426 (1999).

Bloembergen, N.

Bradbury, R.

Camp, D. W.

L. M. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, D. W. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds. Proc. SPIE3244, 282–295 (1998).

Chmel, A.

A. Chmel, “Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,” Mater. Sci. Engl. B 49, 175–190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chrzan, Z.

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, J. Anzelotti, D. Smith, Z. Chrzan, “AFM-mapped, nanoscale, absorber-driven laser damage in UV high reflector multilayer,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 384–394 (1996).

Commandre, M.

Desrumaux, C.

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newman, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 315–325 (1997).

Deumié, C.

J. Y. Natoli, C. Deumié, C. Amra, “Laser-modulated scattering from optical surfaces using fiber detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 128–137 (2000).

Dijon, J.

J. Dijon, B. Raffin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, B. André, “One hundred joule per square centimeter 1.06 micron mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 158–167 (2000).

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newman, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 315–325 (1997).

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, G. Ravel, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping: a new a tool for laser damage,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 90–101 (1996).

Eva, E.

Feit, M. D.

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particule,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Génin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).

Foltyn, S. R.

S. R. Foltyn, “Spot size effects in laser damage testing,” in Damage in Laser Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.669, 368–379 (1983).

Franck, J. B.

Frink, M. E.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Toppo, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–417 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gallais, L.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Quantitative study of laser damage threshold curves in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).

Garrec, P.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, G. Ravel, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping: a new a tool for laser damage,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 90–101 (1996).

Genin, F. Y.

Génin, F. Y.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Génin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).

Green, J.

C. J. Stolz, J. M. Yoshiyama, A. Salleo, Z. L. Wu, J. Green, R. Krupka, “Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coating using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 475–483 (1998).

Hacker, E.

Henking, R.

Hue, J.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, G. Ravel, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping: a new a tool for laser damage,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 90–101 (1996).

J. Dijon, B. Raffin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, B. André, “One hundred joule per square centimeter 1.06 micron mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 158–167 (2000).

Hughes, J. D.

Kaiser, N.

Kozlowski, M.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, M. Balooch, R. Tench, W. Siekhaus, “The surface morphology of as-deposited and laser-damaged dielectric mirror coating studied in situ by atomic force microscopy,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, G. S. Kino, ed., Proc. SPIE1556, 68–78 (1991).

M. Yan, S. Oberhelman, W. Siekhaus, Z. L. Wu, L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, “Characterization of surface and subsurface defects in optical materials using near-field evanescent wave,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 718–720 (1999).

L. M. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, D. W. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds. Proc. SPIE3244, 282–295 (1998).

Kozlowski, M. R.

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particule,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Sieklhaus, M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects in HR coating as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1884, 234–242 (1993).

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Génin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).

Krishnan, R.

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, R. Krishnan, L. Tsybeskov, “Using colloidal gold nanoparticles for studies of laser interaction with defects in thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 146–154 (2001).

Krupka, R.

C. J. Stolz, J. M. Yoshiyama, A. Salleo, Z. L. Wu, J. Green, R. Krupka, “Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coating using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 475–483 (1998).

Kuo, P.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, G. Ravel, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping: a new a tool for laser damage,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 90–101 (1996).

Mademann, D.

Mann, K.

Milam, D.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Picard, D. Milam, R. Bradbury, “Statistical analysis of defect-caused damage in thin films,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1563–1571 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mordaunt, D. W.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Toppo, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–417 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J. Y.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Quantitative study of laser damage threshold curves in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).

J. Y. Natoli, C. Deumié, C. Amra, “Laser-modulated scattering from optical surfaces using fiber detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 128–137 (2000).

O’Connell, R. M.

Oberhelman, S.

M. Yan, S. Oberhelman, W. Siekhaus, Z. L. Wu, L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, “Characterization of surface and subsurface defects in optical materials using near-field evanescent wave,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 718–720 (1999).

Papernov, S.

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, J. Anzelotti, D. Smith, Z. Chrzan, “AFM-mapped, nanoscale, absorber-driven laser damage in UV high reflector multilayer,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 384–394 (1996).

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, R. Krishnan, L. Tsybeskov, “Using colloidal gold nanoparticles for studies of laser interaction with defects in thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 146–154 (2001).

Pellé, C.

J. Dijon, B. Raffin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, B. André, “One hundred joule per square centimeter 1.06 micron mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 158–167 (2000).

Picard, R.

Poiroux, T.

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newman, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 315–325 (1997).

Porteus, J. O.

Poupinet, L.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, G. Ravel, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).

Raffin, B.

J. Dijon, B. Raffin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, B. André, “One hundred joule per square centimeter 1.06 micron mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 158–167 (2000).

Rainer, F.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Raupach, L.

Ravel, G.

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, G. Ravel, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).

J. Dijon, B. Raffin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, B. André, “One hundred joule per square centimeter 1.06 micron mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 158–167 (2000).

Ristau, D.

Roche, P.

Rubenchik, A. M.

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particule,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Génin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).

Salleo, A.

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particule,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, J. M. Yoshiyama, A. Salleo, Z. L. Wu, J. Green, R. Krupka, “Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coating using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 475–483 (1998).

Schmid, A.

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, J. Anzelotti, D. Smith, Z. Chrzan, “AFM-mapped, nanoscale, absorber-driven laser damage in UV high reflector multilayer,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 384–394 (1996).

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, R. Krishnan, L. Tsybeskov, “Using colloidal gold nanoparticles for studies of laser interaction with defects in thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 146–154 (2001).

Schwartz, S.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Génin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).

Seitel, S. C.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Toppo, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–417 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Porteus, S. C. Seitel, “Absolute onset of optical surface damage using distributed defect ensembles,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3796–3805 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehan, L.

M. Yan, S. Oberhelman, W. Siekhaus, Z. L. Wu, L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, “Characterization of surface and subsurface defects in optical materials using near-field evanescent wave,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 718–720 (1999).

Sheehan, L. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Génin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).

L. M. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, D. W. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds. Proc. SPIE3244, 282–295 (1998).

Siekhaus, W.

M. Yan, S. Oberhelman, W. Siekhaus, Z. L. Wu, L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, “Characterization of surface and subsurface defects in optical materials using near-field evanescent wave,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 718–720 (1999).

M. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, M. Balooch, R. Tench, W. Siekhaus, “The surface morphology of as-deposited and laser-damaged dielectric mirror coating studied in situ by atomic force microscopy,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, G. S. Kino, ed., Proc. SPIE1556, 68–78 (1991).

Sieklhaus, W. J.

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Sieklhaus, M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects in HR coating as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1884, 234–242 (1993).

Smith, D.

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, J. Anzelotti, D. Smith, Z. Chrzan, “AFM-mapped, nanoscale, absorber-driven laser damage in UV high reflector multilayer,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 384–394 (1996).

Spiker, C. J.

Staggs, M.

M. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, M. Balooch, R. Tench, W. Siekhaus, “The surface morphology of as-deposited and laser-damaged dielectric mirror coating studied in situ by atomic force microscopy,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, G. S. Kino, ed., Proc. SPIE1556, 68–78 (1991).

Staggs, M. C.

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Sieklhaus, M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects in HR coating as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1884, 234–242 (1993).

Stokowski, S.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, C. J.

Z. L. Wu, C. J. Stolz, S. C. Weakley, J. D. Hughes, Q. Zhao, “Damage threshold prediction of hafnia-silica multiplayer coatings by nondestructive evaluation of fluence-limiting defects,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1897–1906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, J. M. Yoshiyama, A. Salleo, Z. L. Wu, J. Green, R. Krupka, “Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coating using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 475–483 (1998).

Swain, J.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple, “Examination of laser damage sites of transparent surfaces and films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.568, 333–341 (1979).

Tench, R.

M. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, M. Balooch, R. Tench, W. Siekhaus, “The surface morphology of as-deposited and laser-damaged dielectric mirror coating studied in situ by atomic force microscopy,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, G. S. Kino, ed., Proc. SPIE1556, 68–78 (1991).

Theocaris, P. S.

Thomsen, M.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toppo, E. A.

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Toppo, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–417 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsybeskov, L.

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, R. Krishnan, L. Tsybeskov, “Using colloidal gold nanoparticles for studies of laser interaction with defects in thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 146–154 (2001).

Weakley, S. C.

Weissbrodt, P.

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. L.

Z. L. Wu, C. J. Stolz, S. C. Weakley, J. D. Hughes, Q. Zhao, “Damage threshold prediction of hafnia-silica multiplayer coatings by nondestructive evaluation of fluence-limiting defects,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1897–1906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Stolz, J. M. Yoshiyama, A. Salleo, Z. L. Wu, J. Green, R. Krupka, “Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coating using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 475–483 (1998).

M. Yan, S. Oberhelman, W. Siekhaus, Z. L. Wu, L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, “Characterization of surface and subsurface defects in optical materials using near-field evanescent wave,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 718–720 (1999).

Yan, M.

M. Yan, S. Oberhelman, W. Siekhaus, Z. L. Wu, L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, “Characterization of surface and subsurface defects in optical materials using near-field evanescent wave,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 718–720 (1999).

Yoshiyama, J.

Yoshiyama, J. M.

C. J. Stolz, J. M. Yoshiyama, A. Salleo, Z. L. Wu, J. Green, R. Krupka, “Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coating using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 475–483 (1998).

Zhao, Q.

Appl. Opt. (10)

J. O. Porteus, S. C. Seitel, “Absolute onset of optical surface damage using distributed defect ensembles,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3796–3805 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. O’Connell, “Onset threshold analysis of defect-driven surface and bulk laser damage,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4143–4153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Picard, D. Milam, R. Bradbury, “Statistical analysis of defect-caused damage in thin films,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1563–1571 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditionning of LaF3 MgF2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5613–5619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Porteus, C. J. Spiker, J. B. Franck, “Correlation between He–Ne scatter an pulsed laser damage at coating defect, Appl. Opt. 25, 3871–3880 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Theocaris, “Light scattering from laser-damage speckled surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8775–8784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Commandre, P. Roche, “Characterization of optical coating by photothermal deflection,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5021–5034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Genin, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, A. M. Rubenchik, A. Salleo, J. Yoshiyama, “Rear surface laser damage on 355-nm silica optics owing to Fresnel diffraction on front-surface contamination particule,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3654–3663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, “Role of cracks, pores, and absorbing inclusions on laser induced damage thresholds at surfaces of transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Opt. 12, 661–664 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wu, C. J. Stolz, S. C. Weakley, J. D. Hughes, Q. Zhao, “Damage threshold prediction of hafnia-silica multiplayer coatings by nondestructive evaluation of fluence-limiting defects,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1897–1906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Frink, J. W. Arenberg, D. W. Mordaunt, S. C. Seitel, M. T. Babb, E. A. Toppo, “Temporary laser damage threshold enhancement by laser conditioning of antireflection-coated glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 415–417 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Engl. B (1)

A. Chmel, “Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,” Mater. Sci. Engl. B 49, 175–190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

M. Kozlowski, M. Staggs, M. Balooch, R. Tench, W. Siekhaus, “The surface morphology of as-deposited and laser-damaged dielectric mirror coating studied in situ by atomic force microscopy,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, G. S. Kino, ed., Proc. SPIE1556, 68–78 (1991).

M. Yan, S. Oberhelman, W. Siekhaus, Z. L. Wu, L. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, “Characterization of surface and subsurface defects in optical materials using near-field evanescent wave,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 718–720 (1999).

J. Y. Natoli, C. Deumié, C. Amra, “Laser-modulated scattering from optical surfaces using fiber detection,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 128–137 (2000).

J. Dijon, B. Raffin, C. Pellé, J. Hue, G. Ravel, B. André, “One hundred joule per square centimeter 1.06 micron mirrors,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 158–167 (2000).

M. C. Staggs, M. R. Kozlowski, W. J. Sieklhaus, M. Balooch, “Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects in HR coating as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1992, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1884, 234–242 (1993).

C. J. Stolz, J. M. Yoshiyama, A. Salleo, Z. L. Wu, J. Green, R. Krupka, “Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coating using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 475–483 (1998).

H. Bercegol, “What is laser conditioning? A review focused on dielectric multilayers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 421–426 (1999).

P. A. Temple, “Examination of laser damage sites of transparent surfaces and films using total internal reflection microscopy,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.568, 333–341 (1979).

L. M. Sheehan, M. Kozlowski, D. W. Camp, “Application of total internal reflection microscopy for laser damage studies on fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds. Proc. SPIE3244, 282–295 (1998).

H. Bercegol, “Statistical distribution of laser damage and spatial scaling law for a model with multiple defects cooperation in damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3244, 339–346 (1998).

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Génin, S. Schwartz, L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 226–234 (1999).

J. Hue, J. Dijon, P. Garrec, G. Ravel, L. Poupinet, P. Lyan, “Beam characterization: application to the laser damage threshold,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, H. G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., SPIE3578, 633–644 (1999).

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping: a new a tool for laser damage,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 90–101 (1996).

J. Dijon, T. Poiroux, C. Desrumaux, “Nano absorbing centers: a key point in laser damage of thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1996, H. Bennett, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newman, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2966, 315–325 (1997).

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, J. Anzelotti, D. Smith, Z. Chrzan, “AFM-mapped, nanoscale, absorber-driven laser damage in UV high reflector multilayer,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 384–394 (1996).

S. Papernov, A. Schmid, R. Krishnan, L. Tsybeskov, “Using colloidal gold nanoparticles for studies of laser interaction with defects in thin films,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 146–154 (2001).

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, C. Amra, “Quantitative study of laser damage threshold curves in silica and calibrated liquids: comparison with theoretical prediction,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, G. Exarhos, A. Guenther, M. Kozlowski, K. Lewis, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE4347, 295–305 (2001).

S. R. Foltyn, “Spot size effects in laser damage testing,” in Damage in Laser Materials, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.669, 368–379 (1983).

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Figures (23)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for laser-damage testing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Views of damaged regions (a) at the front surface of, (b) at the back surface of, and (c) in the bulk of fused-silica substrate. Notice the different breakdown morphologies, depending on damage location.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Threshold curve of laser-induced damage measured in a bulk fused-silica substrate. The solid curve is the average fit that results from all data points. The region between dotted curves gives the theoretical accuracy of measurements with N = 30 (see text). The typical LTs and HTs are emphasized. No threshold (p = 0) occurs below the LT, whereas all R n regions are damaged (p = 1) when the fluence is greater than the HT. Between these threshold values the curve is that of probability of damage (0 < p < 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Damage morphologies created at high fluences (F > HT) in bulk crystalline and amorphous materials.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM damage morphology created at low fluences (F ≈ LT) in a SiO2 thin film. The diameters of the microscratches are much smaller than the spot size, which is 50 µm in diameter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Threshold curve that shows the probability of the presence of defects in region S T , where the energy density is greater than threshold T.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Influence of spot-size parameter on the threshold curve. The shape and slope are related to the density and the threshold of defects and to the spot size. d = 7 × 103/mm2 and T = 100 J/cm2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Threshold curve for three kinds of defect (M = 3): d 1, 500 defects/mm2; d 2, 1 × 104 defects/mm2; and d 3, 1 × 105 defects/mm2. T 1 = 150 J/cm2, T 2 = 300 J/cm2, and T 3 = 400 J/cm2. The spot diameter is L = 25 µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Shot beam focused in the bulk sample (see text).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Threshold curves calculated with the bulk model (curves 1 and 2). The parameters are d = 3 × 104/mm3, T = 180 J/cm2, w 0 = 25 µm, and λ = 1.06 µm. Curve 1 was calculated when the shot beam was focused in the bulk material; curve 2 illustrates a shot beam focused at the surface sample.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation of electric threshold field versus spot diameter L at a constant fluence.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Threshold curves measured in bulk of substrates composed of C20, EQ20, B2359, Zerodur, Suprasil, and BK7. The spot diameter is L = 25 µm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Threshold curves measured at the front and the back surfaces of fused silica. The spot size is 25 µm.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Threshold curves measured at the front surface of (curve 1) and in bulk (curve 2) fused silica. Curve 3 was calculated with the parameters (defect density and threshold) extracted from the bulk data (curve 2), when the shot beam was focused at the front surface. Therefore the large differences between curves 1 and 3 prove that the surface defects are strongly different from the bulk defects (see text).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

LT and HT values for bulk and surfaces of fused silica. The LT is an intrinsic parameter, whereas the HT depends on spot size (50 µm) and defect density.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Intrinsic (shot beam between the pits) and extrinsic (shot beam on the pits) threshold curves measured for a HfO2 film.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

LT and HT values for several thin-film materials produced by 2 standard quality process. The LT is an intrinsic parameter of the materials, whereas the HT depends on spot size (50 µm) and defect density. Extrinsic (E) and intrinsic (I) values are given.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

LIDT curves calculated for film thicknesses of L, 10, and 100 µm (see text). The LT is 110 J/cm2 and L = 25 µm at a constant density d = 106/mm3.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

LT and HT values for several multilayer mirrors produced by the standard quality process. The LT is an intrinsic parameter of the materials, whereas the HT depends on spot size (50 µm) and defect density. Extrinsic (E) and intrinsic (I) values are given.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Comparison of surface and bulk models. The surface model has a density d S = 2 × 104/mm3, and the LT is 100 J/cm2. The bulk model is calculated with the same LT value and involves different thicknesses e. For each thickness the bulk density is given by d V = d S /e. We observed that at low thickness this condition allows the surface and bulk effects to be superimposed.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Threshold curves measured for (a) NIW and (b) SW. The simultaneous presence of two defect classes is necessary for fitting the curves (see text).

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Threshold curves measured for intermediate mixtures of the two liquids [NIW labeled (NI water) and SW (labeled water)].

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Prediction and measurement of densities of the two defect classes for each mixture in Fig. 22 (NI, nonionized water).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of Bulk Substrates (Defect Densities and Low Thresholds) That Are Measured in Fig. 12a

Equations (15)

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gr=F exp-2r/L2,
F<T  p=0, F>T  p=pF=1-exp-dSTF,
ST=0.5S lnF/T,
pF=1-F/T-dS/2,
ln1-p=dS/2ln T-ln F.
Ti<F<Ti+1  PF=1-exp-diSi,
PF=1-exp-dVTF,
gr, z=Fw02/w2zexp-2r2/w2z,
F>T  VTF=0.5Vu+u3/6-arc tan u,
Ti<T<Ti+1  pF=1-exp-idiVi,
gr=F exp-2r/L2, gr=E2r, F=E02.
Φ=4π2/2ωμ0kL/2 ασA2σdσ,
Aσ=F.T.E0 exp-r/L2
FM=ΦS=E022ωμ0kL2 ασL-12exp-σ2σdσ= F2ωμIL,
E02L=F=2ωμFM/IL.

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