Abstract

Dielectric multilayers composed of niobium pentoxide and silicon dioxide, designed for broadband solar rejection, were exposed to a simulated space environment of ultraviolet light and low-energy (10–20-keV) electron radiation. Samples exhibited various degrees of exposure-induced absorption extending from the ultraviolet to the infrared. Processing variations were correlated to damage susceptibility, and methods were identified that produced parts that exhibited no degradation even though the same materials and coating design were used. Coatings prepared under energetic deposition conditions that provided the densest and most moisture-stable coatings exhibited the best stability to the exposure conditions used.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Vampola, A. Korth, “Electron drift echos in the inner magnetosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 625–628 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, C. E. McIlwain, “Observations of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 alpha and gamma,” Jet Propul. 28, 588–592 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Van Allen, L. A. Frank, “Radiation around the earth to a radial distance of 107,400 km,” Nature 183, 430–434 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Solar ultraviolet and space radiation effects on inflatable materials,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 191, 303–320 (2001).
  5. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), pp. 224–226.
  6. N. Boling, B. Wood, P. Morand, “A high rate reactive sputtering process for batch, in-line, or roll coaters,” in Proceedings of the 38th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 286–292.
  7. American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard solar constant and air mass zero solar spectral irradiance tables,” standard ASTM E490–73a (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pa., 1982).
  8. W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Space environmental stability of Tedlar with multi-layer coatings: space simulation testing results,” Tech. Rep. TR-2000(8565)-8 (Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, Calif., 2000).
  9. J. I. Vette, “The AE-8 trapped electron model environment,” National Space Science Data Center doc. NSSDC/WDC-A-RS-91-24, NASA-TM-107820 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1991).
  10. C. K. Purvis, H. B. Garrett, A. C. Whittlesey, N. J. Stevens, “Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects,” NASA Tech. paper 2361 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1984).
  11. L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (Wiley, New York, 1964), pp. 241–248.
  12. P. A. Adams, Mail Station M2/248, The Aerospace Corporation, P.O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, California 90009-2957 (personal communication, 1997).

2001 (1)

W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Solar ultraviolet and space radiation effects on inflatable materials,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 191, 303–320 (2001).

1992 (1)

A. L. Vampola, A. Korth, “Electron drift echos in the inner magnetosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 625–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

J. A. Van Allen, L. A. Frank, “Radiation around the earth to a radial distance of 107,400 km,” Nature 183, 430–434 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

J. A. Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, C. E. McIlwain, “Observations of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 alpha and gamma,” Jet Propul. 28, 588–592 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Adams, P. A.

P. A. Adams, Mail Station M2/248, The Aerospace Corporation, P.O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, California 90009-2957 (personal communication, 1997).

Boling, N.

N. Boling, B. Wood, P. Morand, “A high rate reactive sputtering process for batch, in-line, or roll coaters,” in Proceedings of the 38th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 286–292.

Frank, L. A.

J. A. Van Allen, L. A. Frank, “Radiation around the earth to a radial distance of 107,400 km,” Nature 183, 430–434 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, H. B.

C. K. Purvis, H. B. Garrett, A. C. Whittlesey, N. J. Stevens, “Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects,” NASA Tech. paper 2361 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1984).

Holland, L.

L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (Wiley, New York, 1964), pp. 241–248.

Korth, A.

A. L. Vampola, A. Korth, “Electron drift echos in the inner magnetosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 625–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, G. H.

J. A. Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, C. E. McIlwain, “Observations of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 alpha and gamma,” Jet Propul. 28, 588–592 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), pp. 224–226.

McIlwain, C. E.

J. A. Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, C. E. McIlwain, “Observations of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 alpha and gamma,” Jet Propul. 28, 588–592 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Meshishnek, M. J.

W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Solar ultraviolet and space radiation effects on inflatable materials,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 191, 303–320 (2001).

W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Space environmental stability of Tedlar with multi-layer coatings: space simulation testing results,” Tech. Rep. TR-2000(8565)-8 (Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, Calif., 2000).

Morand, P.

N. Boling, B. Wood, P. Morand, “A high rate reactive sputtering process for batch, in-line, or roll coaters,” in Proceedings of the 38th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 286–292.

Purvis, C. K.

C. K. Purvis, H. B. Garrett, A. C. Whittlesey, N. J. Stevens, “Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects,” NASA Tech. paper 2361 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1984).

Ray, E. C.

J. A. Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, C. E. McIlwain, “Observations of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 alpha and gamma,” Jet Propul. 28, 588–592 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, N. J.

C. K. Purvis, H. B. Garrett, A. C. Whittlesey, N. J. Stevens, “Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects,” NASA Tech. paper 2361 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1984).

Stuckey, W. K.

W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Solar ultraviolet and space radiation effects on inflatable materials,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 191, 303–320 (2001).

W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Space environmental stability of Tedlar with multi-layer coatings: space simulation testing results,” Tech. Rep. TR-2000(8565)-8 (Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, Calif., 2000).

Vampola, A. L.

A. L. Vampola, A. Korth, “Electron drift echos in the inner magnetosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 625–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Allen, J. A.

J. A. Van Allen, L. A. Frank, “Radiation around the earth to a radial distance of 107,400 km,” Nature 183, 430–434 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, C. E. McIlwain, “Observations of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 alpha and gamma,” Jet Propul. 28, 588–592 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Vette, J. I.

J. I. Vette, “The AE-8 trapped electron model environment,” National Space Science Data Center doc. NSSDC/WDC-A-RS-91-24, NASA-TM-107820 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1991).

Whittlesey, A. C.

C. K. Purvis, H. B. Garrett, A. C. Whittlesey, N. J. Stevens, “Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects,” NASA Tech. paper 2361 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1984).

Wood, B.

N. Boling, B. Wood, P. Morand, “A high rate reactive sputtering process for batch, in-line, or roll coaters,” in Proceedings of the 38th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 286–292.

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. L. Vampola, A. Korth, “Electron drift echos in the inner magnetosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 625–628 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jet Propul. (1)

J. A. Van Allen, G. H. Ludwig, E. C. Ray, C. E. McIlwain, “Observations of high intensity radiation by satellites 1958 alpha and gamma,” Jet Propul. 28, 588–592 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. A. Van Allen, L. A. Frank, “Radiation around the earth to a radial distance of 107,400 km,” Nature 183, 430–434 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. (1)

W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Solar ultraviolet and space radiation effects on inflatable materials,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut. 191, 303–320 (2001).

Other (8)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), pp. 224–226.

N. Boling, B. Wood, P. Morand, “A high rate reactive sputtering process for batch, in-line, or roll coaters,” in Proceedings of the 38th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (Society of Vacuum Coaters, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 286–292.

American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard solar constant and air mass zero solar spectral irradiance tables,” standard ASTM E490–73a (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pa., 1982).

W. K. Stuckey, M. J. Meshishnek, “Space environmental stability of Tedlar with multi-layer coatings: space simulation testing results,” Tech. Rep. TR-2000(8565)-8 (Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, Calif., 2000).

J. I. Vette, “The AE-8 trapped electron model environment,” National Space Science Data Center doc. NSSDC/WDC-A-RS-91-24, NASA-TM-107820 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1991).

C. K. Purvis, H. B. Garrett, A. C. Whittlesey, N. J. Stevens, “Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects,” NASA Tech. paper 2361 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1984).

L. Holland, The Properties of Glass Surfaces (Wiley, New York, 1964), pp. 241–248.

P. A. Adams, Mail Station M2/248, The Aerospace Corporation, P.O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, California 90009-2957 (personal communication, 1997).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the DSI Microdyn deposition process. Samples are mounted upon the surface of the rotation drum and exposed to a deposition source (silicon or niobium) and then to oxidation induced by microwave-excited oxygen gas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiation-dose profile calculated for the multilayer dielectric stack in the desired orbit versus depth through the coating and into the substrate. The solid curve is the theoretical dose profile, and the dotted curve represents the dose profile simulated in the laboratory by use of a combination of 10- and 20-keV electrons.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the expected radiation dose versus depth for the multilayer stack after 10 years either in a geosynchronous orbit (GEO) or in the orbit used in the laboratory simulations presented here.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of solar reflectivity before and after simulated space radiation exposure in a stable sample prepared under favorable deposition conditions. Note that the spectra are essentially indistinguishable.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of solar reflectivity before and after simulated space radiation exposure in an unstable sample prepared under unfavorable deposition conditions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Samples that were observed to degrade significantly after radiation exposure were observed to recover their initial reflectance after being exposed to room-temperature air. This recovery was not observed for samples held in vacuum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of solar reflectivity before and after simulated space radiation exposure in a sample prepared with shorter sample-to-source distances (but still held at oblique angles).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of solar reflectivity before and after simulated space radiation exposure in a sample prepared with shorter sample-to-source distances and a poisoned niobium metal deposition target (but still held at oblique angles). Note that the curves are essentially indistinguishable, similar to the spectra shown in Fig. 4.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Degradation of Integrated Solar Reflectivity Observed from Four Separate Exposures of Parts to Simulated Space Environmental Radiationa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Observed Space Environmental Stability for Samples Prepared by Use of Different Deposition Conditions to Produce the Same Solar-Rejection Filter

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