Abstract

Gradually layered alternated-substrate synthesis (GLASS) is an automatic design method for optical coatings, which permits a gradual increase in the layer count of a stack while its optical properties are improved. This method does not require any starting design but only the design target and the list of allowed coating materials. In contrast to the needle technique, in which the coating is optimized between its two real external media, with new layers added inside the coating, the GLASS method adds new layers at the end of the design and uses coating materials as one external medium. This external medium provides new layers and is changed for another coating material each time a new layer is added. At the end, the coating must be matched to the real external medium that was not used during the design procedure.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films, 13, 285–290 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1986).
  3. A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coating (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).
  4. H. M. Liddell, Computer-Aided Techniques for the Design of Multilayer Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1981).
  5. J. A. Dobrowolski, R. A. Kemp, “Refinement of optical multilayer systems with different optimization procedures,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2876–2893 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Mouchart, “Thin film optical coatings. 5: buffer layer theory,” Appl. Opt. 17, 72–75 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Lemarquis, E. Pelletier, “Buffer layers for the design of broadband optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5665–5672 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Sh. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Basic of Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontières, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1992), pp. 124–140.
  9. A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, G. W. DeBell, “Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5493–5508 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. H. Southwell, “Coating design using very thin high- and low-index layers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 457–460 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Lowe, “Optical thin film synthesis program based on the use of Fourier transforms,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3039–3050 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Numerical methods for optical thin films,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 24–33 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. V. Shatilov, L. P. Tyutikova, Opt. Spektrosk. 14, 426 (1963) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 14, 227 (1963)].
  14. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Completely automatic synthesis of optical thin film systems,” Appl. Opt. 4, 937–946 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985 and 1991), Vols. 1 and 2.
  16. F. Lemarquis, G. Marchand, “Analytical achromatic design of metal–dielectric absorbers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4876–4884 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Sankur, W. H. Southwell, “Broadband gradient-index antireflection coating for ZnSe,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2770–2773 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. V. Tikhonravov, “Some theoretical aspects of thin-film optics and their applications,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5417–5426 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Numerical methods for optical thin films,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 24–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1978 (2)

1972 (1)

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films, 13, 285–290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

A. V. Shatilov, L. P. Tyutikova, Opt. Spektrosk. 14, 426 (1963) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 14, 227 (1963)].

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films, 13, 285–290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

DeBell, G. W.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Fornier, A.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films, 13, 285–290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Furman, Sh. A.

Sh. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Basic of Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontières, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1992), pp. 124–140.

Kemp, R. A.

Kowalczyk, R.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films, 13, 285–290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lemarquis, F.

Liddell, H. M.

H. M. Liddell, Computer-Aided Techniques for the Design of Multilayer Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1981).

Lowe, D.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1986).

Marchand, G.

Mouchart, J.

Pelletier, E.

F. Lemarquis, E. Pelletier, “Buffer layers for the design of broadband optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5665–5672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films, 13, 285–290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films, 13, 285–290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

Shatilov, A. V.

A. V. Shatilov, L. P. Tyutikova, Opt. Spektrosk. 14, 426 (1963) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 14, 227 (1963)].

Southwell, W. H.

Thelen, A.

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coating (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Trubetskov, M. K.

Tyutikova, L. P.

A. V. Shatilov, L. P. Tyutikova, Opt. Spektrosk. 14, 426 (1963) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 14, 227 (1963)].

Appl. Opt. (10)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Completely automatic synthesis of optical thin film systems,” Appl. Opt. 4, 937–946 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Mouchart, “Thin film optical coatings. 5: buffer layer theory,” Appl. Opt. 17, 72–75 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Lowe, “Optical thin film synthesis program based on the use of Fourier transforms,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3039–3050 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sankur, W. H. Southwell, “Broadband gradient-index antireflection coating for ZnSe,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2770–2773 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Southwell, “Coating design using very thin high- and low-index layers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 457–460 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, R. A. Kemp, “Refinement of optical multilayer systems with different optimization procedures,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2876–2893 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov, “Some theoretical aspects of thin-film optics and their applications,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5417–5426 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lemarquis, E. Pelletier, “Buffer layers for the design of broadband optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5665–5672 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, G. W. DeBell, “Application of the needle optimization technique to the design of optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5493–5508 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lemarquis, G. Marchand, “Analytical achromatic design of metal–dielectric absorbers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4876–4884 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Numerical methods for optical thin films,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 24–33 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

A. V. Shatilov, L. P. Tyutikova, Opt. Spektrosk. 14, 426 (1963) [Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 14, 227 (1963)].

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, “Optical filters: monitoring process allowing the auto-correction of thickness errors,” Thin Solid Films, 13, 285–290 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1986).

A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coating (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

H. M. Liddell, Computer-Aided Techniques for the Design of Multilayer Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1981).

Sh. A. Furman, A. V. Tikhonravov, Basic of Optics of Multilayer Systems (Editions Frontières, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1992), pp. 124–140.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985 and 1991), Vols. 1 and 2.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of three ways to increase the layer count of a starting design. (a) A single new layer is added at the end of the design.13 (b) At least two layers are added at the end of the design (gradual evolution).14 (c) A thin layer (needle) is added inside the design (needle technique).8,9 In all cases, the substrate and the external medium are not changed, and the design is refined each time a new layer is added.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of the transmittance versus optical thickness for a quarter-wave mirror. High and low indices are, respectively, 2.2 and 1.46 for coating materials. The substrate index is 1.46. The external medium is air. Only high-index layers can reach a minimum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the bandwidth of a bandpass filter versus normalized wavelength λ/λ0 for an increasing layer count of the mirrors. High and low indices are, respectively, 2.2 and 1.46 for coating materials. The substrate index is 1.46. The external medium is air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the transmittance versus optical thickness for a quarter-wave mirror by use of either a high- or a low-index external medium, according to the last layer index. High and low indices are, respectively, 2.2 and 1.46 for coatings materials. The substrate index is 1.46. Compared with Fig. 2, all the layers lead to a minimum. Discontinuities correspond to the change of the external medium.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principle of the GLASS method: Once the design is refined by use of one coating material as the external medium, a thin layer of this material is added at the end of the design, whereas the second coating material provides a new external medium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

When real external media are quite different from coating materials, the design can be made in two steps. The main stack provides the required optical properties; one coating material is used as the external medium. An antireflection structure is then designed starting from the other side and using the same coating material as the external medium. At last, these two parts are gathered in a single coating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fifteen-layer beam splitter, 85-layer minus filter, and 77-layer stairs filter designed with the GLASS method. High and low indices are, respectively, 2.2 and 1.46 for coating materials. These designs were started on the air side and stopped in a low-index coating material external medium.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Twenty-layer antireflection coating designed with the GLASS method. High and low indices are, respectively, 2.2 and 1.46 for coatings materials. The design was started on the air side and stopped in a low-index coating material external medium.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Five-layer light absorber designed with the GLASS method. The dielectric index is 1.46, and the metal index corresponds to tabulated values for chromium.15 The design was started on the air side and stopped in a metallic external medium that plays the role of an opaque metallic layer of the coating that permits transmittance to be canceled.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Evolution of the defect function for a bandpass filter versus the layer count. The two curves correspond to calculations in either a high- or a low-index external medium. For a given layer count, the lowest value corresponds to the last optimization result, whereas the other corresponds to the starting value for the next optimization, after a new layer is added and the external medium changed.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmittance profiles of the bandpass filter corresponding to the stops in the defect function evolution given in Fig. 10.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Refractive-index profile diagrams of the coatings designed with the GLASS method. The corresponding optical properties are given in Fig. 7 (beam splitter plus minus filter plus stairs filter), 8 (antireflection coating), 9 (metal–dielectric light absorber), and 11 (bandpass filter).

Equations (1)

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DF=λiOPcoating-OPtargetx,

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