Abstract

A gain-flattening filter (GFF) for minimum manufacturing errors (12 designs submitted) and dense wavelength-division multiplex (DWDM) filters for low group-delay (GD) variation (9 designs submitted) was the subject of a design contest held in conjunction with the Optical Interference Coatings 2001 topical meeting of the Optical Society of America. Results of the contest are given and evaluated. It turned out that the parameter space for GFFs with optimum performance when manufacturing errors are not considered is much different from that when manufacturing errors are considered. DWDM filter solutions with low GD variation are possible.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Tilsch, C. A. Hulse, K. D. Hendrix, R. B. Sargent, “Design and demonstration of a thin-film based gain equalization filter for C-band EDFAs,” presented at the National Fiber Optic Engineering Conference, Chicago, Ill., 26–30 September 1999.
  2. G. Lenz, Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs, 610 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, August2000).
  3. All elements of this design, including the use of three quarter-wave layers, were discussed in A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coating (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), Table 10.1, p. 208. This design does not meet the specification of Table 1 for Δλ-3.0 dB (50%) because of an error: The last two layers had thicknesses 0.75075H and 0.48694L instead of the values published in the contest announcement and this paper. Changing the numbers of the last two layers brings the design into specification but increases the variation of GD from 10.5 to 12.7 ps.
  4. P. G. Verly, “Design of a robust thin-film interference filter for EDFA gain equalization,” Appl. Opt. 41, xxx–xxx (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Tikhonravov, “Amplitude–phase properties of the spectral coefficients of laminar media,” USSR Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 25, 77–83 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, “Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 34, 1390–1403 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. D. Noe, “Design of reflective phase compensator filters for telecommunications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3183–3186 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Krushwitz, JK Consulting, 47 Rossiter Road, Rochester, N.Y. 14620 (personal communication, June2001).
  9. J. J. Pan, F. Q. Zhou, M. Zhou, “High-performance filters for dense wavelength-division-multiplex fiber optic communications,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters’ 41st Annual Technical Conference, Boston, Mass., 18–23 April 1998.
  10. W. H. Southwell, “Rugate index profile which suppressed all harmonic stopbands,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 142–145
  11. A. Thelen, “Nonpolarizing edge filters. 2,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3541–3543 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. C. Chen, “Optimised design of odd-order optical lowpass and highpass multiplayer filters by method of coefficient matching.” IEE Proc. J 135, 166–177 (1998).
  13. A. Thelen, “Equivalent layers in multilayer filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1533–1538 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).
  15. E. A. Guillemin, Synthesis of Passive Networks (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  16. A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubewtskov, M. A. Kokarev, “Phase properties of WDM filters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, A. A. Sawchock, ed., Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WD5.

2002 (2)

P. G. Verly, “Design of a robust thin-film interference filter for EDFA gain equalization,” Appl. Opt. 41, xxx–xxx (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Noe, “Design of reflective phase compensator filters for telecommunications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3183–3186 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

T. C. Chen, “Optimised design of odd-order optical lowpass and highpass multiplayer filters by method of coefficient matching.” IEE Proc. J 135, 166–177 (1998).

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, “Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 34, 1390–1403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. V. Tikhonravov, “Amplitude–phase properties of the spectral coefficients of laminar media,” USSR Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 25, 77–83 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1966 (1)

A. Kokarev, M.

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubewtskov, M. A. Kokarev, “Phase properties of WDM filters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, A. A. Sawchock, ed., Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WD5.

Chen, T. C.

T. C. Chen, “Optimised design of odd-order optical lowpass and highpass multiplayer filters by method of coefficient matching.” IEE Proc. J 135, 166–177 (1998).

Eggleton, B. J.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, “Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 34, 1390–1403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, “Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 34, 1390–1403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillemin, E. A.

E. A. Guillemin, Synthesis of Passive Networks (Wiley, New York, 1957).

H. Southwell, W.

W. H. Southwell, “Rugate index profile which suppressed all harmonic stopbands,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 142–145

Hendrix, K. D.

M. Tilsch, C. A. Hulse, K. D. Hendrix, R. B. Sargent, “Design and demonstration of a thin-film based gain equalization filter for C-band EDFAs,” presented at the National Fiber Optic Engineering Conference, Chicago, Ill., 26–30 September 1999.

Hulse, C. A.

M. Tilsch, C. A. Hulse, K. D. Hendrix, R. B. Sargent, “Design and demonstration of a thin-film based gain equalization filter for C-band EDFAs,” presented at the National Fiber Optic Engineering Conference, Chicago, Ill., 26–30 September 1999.

Krushwitz, J.

J. Krushwitz, JK Consulting, 47 Rossiter Road, Rochester, N.Y. 14620 (personal communication, June2001).

Labs, Bell

G. Lenz, Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs, 610 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, August2000).

Lenz, G.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, “Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 34, 1390–1403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Lenz, Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs, 610 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, August2000).

Madsen, C. K.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, “Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 34, 1390–1403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noe, T. D.

Pan, J. J.

J. J. Pan, F. Q. Zhou, M. Zhou, “High-performance filters for dense wavelength-division-multiplex fiber optic communications,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters’ 41st Annual Technical Conference, Boston, Mass., 18–23 April 1998.

Sargent, R. B.

M. Tilsch, C. A. Hulse, K. D. Hendrix, R. B. Sargent, “Design and demonstration of a thin-film based gain equalization filter for C-band EDFAs,” presented at the National Fiber Optic Engineering Conference, Chicago, Ill., 26–30 September 1999.

Technologies, Lucent

G. Lenz, Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs, 610 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, August2000).

Thelen, A.

A. Thelen, “Nonpolarizing edge filters. 2,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3541–3543 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Thelen, “Equivalent layers in multilayer filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1533–1538 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubewtskov, M. A. Kokarev, “Phase properties of WDM filters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, A. A. Sawchock, ed., Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WD5.

All elements of this design, including the use of three quarter-wave layers, were discussed in A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coating (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), Table 10.1, p. 208. This design does not meet the specification of Table 1 for Δλ-3.0 dB (50%) because of an error: The last two layers had thicknesses 0.75075H and 0.48694L instead of the values published in the contest announcement and this paper. Changing the numbers of the last two layers brings the design into specification but increases the variation of GD from 10.5 to 12.7 ps.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

A. V. Tikhonravov, “Amplitude–phase properties of the spectral coefficients of laminar media,” USSR Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 25, 77–83 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubewtskov, M. A. Kokarev, “Phase properties of WDM filters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, A. A. Sawchock, ed., Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WD5.

Tilsch, M.

M. Tilsch, C. A. Hulse, K. D. Hendrix, R. B. Sargent, “Design and demonstration of a thin-film based gain equalization filter for C-band EDFAs,” presented at the National Fiber Optic Engineering Conference, Chicago, Ill., 26–30 September 1999.

Trubetskov, M. K.

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).

Trubewtskov, M. K.

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubewtskov, M. A. Kokarev, “Phase properties of WDM filters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, A. A. Sawchock, ed., Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WD5.

Verly, P. G.

P. G. Verly, “Design of a robust thin-film interference filter for EDFA gain equalization,” Appl. Opt. 41, xxx–xxx (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F. Q.

J. J. Pan, F. Q. Zhou, M. Zhou, “High-performance filters for dense wavelength-division-multiplex fiber optic communications,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters’ 41st Annual Technical Conference, Boston, Mass., 18–23 April 1998.

Zhou, M.

J. J. Pan, F. Q. Zhou, M. Zhou, “High-performance filters for dense wavelength-division-multiplex fiber optic communications,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters’ 41st Annual Technical Conference, Boston, Mass., 18–23 April 1998.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEE Proc. J (1)

T. C. Chen, “Optimised design of odd-order optical lowpass and highpass multiplayer filters by method of coefficient matching.” IEE Proc. J 135, 166–177 (1998).

IEEE J Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, “Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 34, 1390–1403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

USSR Comput. Math. Math. Phys. (1)

A. V. Tikhonravov, “Amplitude–phase properties of the spectral coefficients of laminar media,” USSR Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 25, 77–83 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

M. Tilsch, C. A. Hulse, K. D. Hendrix, R. B. Sargent, “Design and demonstration of a thin-film based gain equalization filter for C-band EDFAs,” presented at the National Fiber Optic Engineering Conference, Chicago, Ill., 26–30 September 1999.

G. Lenz, Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs, 610 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication, August2000).

All elements of this design, including the use of three quarter-wave layers, were discussed in A. Thelen, Design of Optical Interference Coating (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989), Table 10.1, p. 208. This design does not meet the specification of Table 1 for Δλ-3.0 dB (50%) because of an error: The last two layers had thicknesses 0.75075H and 0.48694L instead of the values published in the contest announcement and this paper. Changing the numbers of the last two layers brings the design into specification but increases the variation of GD from 10.5 to 12.7 ps.

J. Krushwitz, JK Consulting, 47 Rossiter Road, Rochester, N.Y. 14620 (personal communication, June2001).

J. J. Pan, F. Q. Zhou, M. Zhou, “High-performance filters for dense wavelength-division-multiplex fiber optic communications,” presented at the Society of Vacuum Coaters’ 41st Annual Technical Conference, Boston, Mass., 18–23 April 1998.

W. H. Southwell, “Rugate index profile which suppressed all harmonic stopbands,” in Optical Interference Coatings, Vol. 6 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 142–145

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubetskov, “Push-button technology in optical coating design: pro et contra,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 210–220 (1999).

E. A. Guillemin, Synthesis of Passive Networks (Wiley, New York, 1957).

A. Thelen, A. V. Tikhonravov, M. K. Trubewtskov, M. A. Kokarev, “Phase properties of WDM filters,” in Optical Interference Coatings, A. A. Sawchock, ed., Vol. 63 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper WD5.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

GFF target reflectance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Errors of a 153-layer GFF (thin solid curve, lower envelope of manufacturing errors; dashed curve, upper envelope of manufacturing errors; thick solid curve, design errors).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

GD in transmission of a classic NBP design that meets the specifications of Table 1 (design given in text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance of the winning design Verly (98% manufacturing yield; solid curve, target; dashed curve, design).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-sectional views of the designs; H layers are shown in black, L layers in white.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity transmission responses of all NBP filter designs submitted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission GD response of all NBP filter designs submitted.

Tables (16)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transmittance Specifications for a Hypothetical 50-GHz Filter

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Table 2 Names and Addresses of Contributors of GFF Designs

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Table 3 Yield, Total Physical Thickness, Number of Layers, and Contest Status of All Submitted GFF Designs

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Table 4 GFF Designs Ranked According to Merit Function and Maximum Width Error Corridor (dB), Assuming Zero Errors

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Table 5 GFF Performance with Both Errors Doubled (εabs = ±0.06 nm εrel = ±0.03%)

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Table 6 GFF Performance with Absolute Errors Only (εabs = ±0.2nm εrel = ±0%)

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Table 7 GFF Performance with Relative Errors Only (εabs = ±0 nm εrel = ±0.03%)

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Table 8 Total Physical Thicknesses TpTh and Total Optical Thicknesses ToTh of All Layers, Total Optical Thicknesses of all High-Index Layers H and All Low-Index Layers L, and Their Ratio

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Table 9 QWOT of Seven Selected Designs at the Design Wavelength of 1550 nm a

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Table 10 Names and Addresses of Contributors of NBP Designs

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Table 11 Key Features of Contributed Single-Bandpass Filters

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Table 12 NBP Design Performance Relative to Specifications

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Table 13 Evaluation of Noe’s Designs Relative to Specifications

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Table 14 QWOT of the Seven Submitted NBP Filters at the Design Wavelength of 1550 nma

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Table 15 Layer Sequence for Tony Noe’s RPCsa

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Table 16 Jennifer Kruschwitz’s Methology for the Design of an NBP

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

εabs=±0.03 nm, εrel=±0.015%,
Error functionλdB=RλactualdB-RλtargetdB.
GD=-dΦdω,
GDRPC=-GDNBP+constant.
RkTk=-2TOTH2TOTHFtexpiktdT,

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