Abstract

A pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator operating in a cavity with a grazing-incidence grating configuration was used for sensitive and precise measurement of trace quantities of methane in nitrogen by photoacoustic spectroscopy with a novel differential photoacoustic detector. A sensitivity of 1.2 parts in 109 by volume of methane was obtained in direct calibration measurements (not extrapolated). With this apparatus, in situ measurement of the methane concentration in ambient air under atmospheric conditions was demonstrated.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in-situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, J. Limpert, “Compact CH4 sensor based on difference frequency mixing of diode lasers in quasi-phasematched LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 176, 461–468 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. M. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. W. Busch, M. A. Busch, eds., Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. B. Kreuzer, “Ultralow gas concentration infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2934–2943 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Miklós, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy with quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 887–889 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Seiter, M. W. Sigrist, “On-line multicomponent trace-gas analysis with a broadly tunable pulsed difference frequency laser spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4691–4698 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Fischer, Q. Yu, M. Seiter, M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic monitoring of trace gases using a diode-based difference frequency laser source,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1609–1611 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C.-S. Yu, A. H. Kung, “Grazing-incidence periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2233–2238 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. A. Bossio, W. R. Horwath, R. G. Mutters, C. van Kessel, “Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 1313–1322 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. L. Saaa, F. M. Fisher, A. Ding, Y. Huang, “Exchange of methane from rice fields: national, regional, and global budgets,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,943–26,951 (1999).
  24. HITRAN Database. Last update, 21September2001. http://www.hitran.com .
  25. A. Schmohl, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Effects of adsorption-desorption processes on the response time and accuracy of photoacoustic detection of ammonia,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2571–2578 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3202–3211 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, A. Pusel, P. Hess, “Absolute measurement of gas concentrations and saturation behavior in pulsed photoacoustics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 285, 235–239 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 985–901 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (6)

2000 (6)

M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 985–901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, J. Limpert, “Compact CH4 sensor based on difference frequency mixing of diode lasers in quasi-phasematched LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 176, 461–468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, R. N. Zare, J. Oomens, F. J. M. Harren, D. H. Parker, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 24, 178–180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Saaa, F. M. Fisher, A. Ding, Y. Huang, “Exchange of methane from rice fields: national, regional, and global budgets,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,943–26,951 (1999).

S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Bossio, W. R. Horwath, R. G. Mutters, C. van Kessel, “Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 1313–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yu, A. H. Kung, “Grazing-incidence periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2233–2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Seiter, M. W. Sigrist, “On-line multicomponent trace-gas analysis with a broadly tunable pulsed difference frequency laser spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4691–4698 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, A. Pusel, P. Hess, “Absolute measurement of gas concentrations and saturation behavior in pulsed photoacoustics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 285, 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3202–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1971 (1)

L. B. Kreuzer, “Ultralow gas concentration infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2934–2943 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ajie, H. O.

S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anders, J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. M.

Baillargeon, J. N.

Beck, M.

Bell, H. S. M.

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjerrum, C. J.

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, D. R.

S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, A.

A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bossio, D. A.

D. A. Bossio, W. R. Horwath, R. G. Mutters, C. van Kessel, “Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 1313–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozoki, Z.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Chave, R. G.

Cho, A. Y.

Cicerone, R. J.

S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

Ding, A.

R. L. Saaa, F. M. Fisher, A. Ding, Y. Huang, “Exchange of methane from rice fields: national, regional, and global budgets,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,943–26,951 (1999).

Dlugokencky, E. J.

S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, V.

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Farrimond, P.

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, C.

Fischer, H.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, F. M.

R. L. Saaa, F. M. Fisher, A. Ding, Y. Huang, “Exchange of methane from rice fields: national, regional, and global budgets,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,943–26,951 (1999).

Flesch, G. J.

Gmachl, C.

Green, O. R.

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grisar, R.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gröcke, D. R.

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, M. L.

S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

Harris, G. W.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hecker, A.

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

A. Schmohl, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Effects of adsorption-desorption processes on the response time and accuracy of photoacoustic detection of ammonia,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2571–2578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklós, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, A. Pusel, P. Hess, “Absolute measurement of gas concentrations and saturation behavior in pulsed photoacoustics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 285, 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3202–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hesselbo, S. P.

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, D.

Hoor, P.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horwath, W. R.

D. A. Bossio, W. R. Horwath, R. G. Mutters, C. van Kessel, “Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 1313–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

R. L. Saaa, F. M. Fisher, A. Ding, Y. Huang, “Exchange of methane from rice fields: national, regional, and global budgets,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,943–26,951 (1999).

Hutchinson, A. L.

Jenkyns, H. C.

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kendall, J.

Knothe, M.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Königstedt, R.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

Kreuzer, L. B.

L. B. Kreuzer, “Ultralow gas concentration infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2934–2943 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kuhnemann, K.

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A. H.

G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Yu, A. H. Kung, “Grazing-incidence periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2233–2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, J. Limpert, “Compact CH4 sensor based on difference frequency mixing of diode lasers in quasi-phasematched LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 176, 461–468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liang, G.-C.

G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, J. Limpert, “Compact CH4 sensor based on difference frequency mixing of diode lasers in quasi-phasematched LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 176, 461–468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-H.

G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lübken, F.-J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malinovsky, A. L.

Martis, A. A. E.

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mashni, M.

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

May, R. D.

Miklós, A.

A. Miklós, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Schmohl, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Effects of adsorption-desorption processes on the response time and accuracy of photoacoustic detection of ammonia,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2571–2578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, A. Pusel, P. Hess, “Absolute measurement of gas concentrations and saturation behavior in pulsed photoacoustics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 285, 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3202–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mohácsi, Á.

G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mutters, R. G.

D. A. Bossio, W. R. Horwath, R. G. Mutters, C. van Kessel, “Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 1313–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nägele, M.

D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, J. Faist, M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy with quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 887–889 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 985–901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oomens, J.

Paldus, B. A.

Parker, D. H.

Pitz, H.

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pleban, K.-U.

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pusel, A.

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, A. Pusel, P. Hess, “Absolute measurement of gas concentrations and saturation behavior in pulsed photoacoustics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 285, 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, J. Limpert, “Compact CH4 sensor based on difference frequency mixing of diode lasers in quasi-phasematched LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 176, 461–468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, W. J.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saaa, R. L.

R. L. Saaa, F. M. Fisher, A. Ding, Y. Huang, “Exchange of methane from rice fields: national, regional, and global budgets,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,943–26,951 (1999).

Schaefer, S.

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, A. Pusel, P. Hess, “Absolute measurement of gas concentrations and saturation behavior in pulsed photoacoustics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 285, 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3202–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, T.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmohl, A.

Schneider, K.

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

Seiter, M.

Sigrist, M. W.

Sivco, D. L.

Sneider, J.

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

Swanson, J. E.

Tittel, F. K.

Trimble, C. A.

Tyler, S. C.

S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Kessel, C.

D. A. Bossio, W. R. Horwath, R. G. Mutters, C. van Kessel, “Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 1313–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, V.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webster, C. R.

Weidner, R.

D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, J. Limpert, “Compact CH4 sensor based on difference frequency mixing of diode lasers in quasi-phasematched LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 176, 461–468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wienhold, F. G.

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, W. S.

Yu, C.-S.

Yu, Q.

Zare, R. N.

Appl. Opt. (8)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in-situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, “Development of an automated diode-laser-based multicomponent gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4444–4450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, G. J. Flesch, D. C. Scott, J. E. Swanson, R. D. May, W. S. Woodward, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. M. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Quantum-cascade laser measurements of stratospheric methane and nitrous oxide,” Appl. Opt. 40, 321–326 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Seiter, M. W. Sigrist, “On-line multicomponent trace-gas analysis with a broadly tunable pulsed difference frequency laser spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4691–4698 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Schmohl, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Effects of adsorption-desorption processes on the response time and accuracy of photoacoustic detection of ammonia,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2571–2578 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3202–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 985–901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuhnemann, K. Schneider, A. Hecker, A. A. E. Martis, W. Urban, S. Schiller, J. Mlynek, “Photoacoustic trace-gas detection using a cw single-frequency parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 741–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schaefer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65 µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Wienhold, H. Fischer, P. Hoor, V. Wagner, R. Königstedt, G. W. Harris, J. Anders, R. Grisar, M. Knothe, W. J. Riedel, F.-J. Lübken, T. Schilling, “TRISTAR—a tracer in situ TDLAS for atmospheric research,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 411–417 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Schaefer, A. Miklós, A. Pusel, P. Hess, “Absolute measurement of gas concentrations and saturation behavior in pulsed photoacoustics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 285, 235–239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

A. Bohren, M. W. Sigrist, “Optical parametric oscillator based difference frequency laser source for photoacoustic trace gas spectroscopy in the 3 µm mid-IR range,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 38, 423–435 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. B. Kreuzer, “Ultralow gas concentration infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2934–2943 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. L. Saaa, F. M. Fisher, A. Ding, Y. Huang, “Exchange of methane from rice fields: national, regional, and global budgets,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 26,943–26,951 (1999).

S. C. Tyler, H. O. Ajie, M. L. Gupta, R. J. Cicerone, D. R. Blake, E. J. Dlugokencky, “Stable carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric methane: a comparison of surface level and free tropospheric air,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 13,895–13,910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

G.-C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, Á. Mohácsi, A. Miklós, P. Hess, “Photoacoustic trace gas detection of methane using compact solid state lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10,179–10,183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. P. Hesselbo, D. R. Gröcke, H. C. Jenkyns, C. J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H. S. M. Bell, O. R. Green, “Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic event,” Nature 406, 392–395 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, J. Limpert, “Compact CH4 sensor based on difference frequency mixing of diode lasers in quasi-phasematched LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 176, 461–468 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Miklós, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soil Biol. Biochem. (1)

D. A. Bossio, W. R. Horwath, R. G. Mutters, C. van Kessel, “Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 1313–1322 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

HITRAN Database. Last update, 21September2001. http://www.hitran.com .

K. W. Busch, M. A. Busch, eds., Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup with pump laser, GIOPO, and photoacoustic detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the normalized photoacoustic methane spectrum of the asymmetric stretching vibration with the spectrum simulated by use of the HITRAN data base.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative concentration errors of the three calibration measurements as a function of methane concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of measured PA signals, the curve fitted with Eq. (2), and the true linear PA signal given by the product αx.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Residuals of the fit of Fig. 4 and the ±1σ curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the calculated concentration with those adjusted by the MFCs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Deviations of the calculated concentrations from the fitted curve.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the experimental error with the contributions introduced by parameters a, c, and d.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Methane spectra measured for ambient air and the calibration sample with 900-ppbv methane compared with spectra simulated for a mixture of 0.45% water and 1840-ppbv methane.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Vectorial Fit to the Experimental Data

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

UPA=S2+2SB cosθPA-θBG+B2+N21/2.
UPA=ax2+bx+c21/2,
a=0.09365±0.00028 μV/ppbv 0.09365 μV/ppbv ± 0.3%.
x=UPA2-c2+d2½-da,
d=b2a=c2-N2cosθPA-θBG.

Metrics