Abstract

The Jungfraujoch Research Station (46.55°N, 7.98°E, 3580 m above sea level) for decades has contributed in a significant manner to the systematic observation of the Earth’s atmosphere both with in situ measurements and with trace gas column detection. We report on the development of a lidar system that improves the measurement potential of highly resolved atmospheric parameters in both time and space, with the goal of achieving long-term monitoring of atmospheric aerosol optical properties and water-vapor content. From the simultaneously detected elastic-backscatter signals at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, Raman signals from nitrogen at 387 and 607 nm, and water vapor at 408 nm, the aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients at three wavelengths and a water-vapor mixing ratio are derived. Additional information about particle shape is obtained by depolarization measurements at 532 nm. Water-vapor measurements by use of both nitrogen and water-vapor Raman returns from the 355-nm laser beam are demonstrated with a vertical range resolution of 75 m and an integration time of 2 h. The comparison to the water-vapor profile derived from balloon measurements (Snow White technique) showed excellent agreement. The system design and the results obtained by its operation are reported.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001 (2)

C. Böckmann, J. Wauer, “Algorithms for the inversion of light scattering data from uniform and non-uniform particles,” Aerosol Sci. 32, 49–61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (4)

S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, I. Colbeck, D. T. Jost, E. Weingartner, H. W. Gäggeler, “The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6097–6107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Rind, “Just add water vapor,” Nature 281, 1152–1153 (1998).

M. de Mazière, M. van Roozendael, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, P. Demoulin, G. Roland, “Quantitative evaluation of the post-Pinatubo NO2 reduction and recovery, based on 10 years of FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements at the Jungfraujoch,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 10849–10858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. D102, 19707–19715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Delbouille, G. Roland, “High-resolution solar and atmospheric spectroscopy from the Jungfraujoch high-altitude station,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2736–2739 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

M. T. Chahine, “The hydrological cycle and its influence on climate,” Nature 359, 373–380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Amacher, W.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Amoiridis, V.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Baldasano, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Balin, I.

I. Balin, G. Larchevêque, P. Quaglia, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “Water vapor profile by Raman lidar in the free troposphere from the Jungfraujoch Alpine Station,” in Advances in Global Change Research, M. Beniston, ed., (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2001), Vol. 10, pp. 123–138.
[CrossRef]

Balin, J.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Balis, D.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Baltensperger, U.

S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, I. Colbeck, D. T. Jost, E. Weingartner, H. W. Gäggeler, “The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6097–6107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. D102, 19707–19715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barcia, A.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Baron, P.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Beaudin, G.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Bergwerff, H. B.

Böckmann, C.

C. Böckmann, J. Wauer, “Algorithms for the inversion of light scattering data from uniform and non-uniform particles,” Aerosol Sci. 32, 49–61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Boselli, A.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Bosenberg, J.

J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Theopold, J. Bosenberg, “Evaluation of DIAL measurement in presence of signal noise,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Laser Radar Conference (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence, Italy, 1988).

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Cadirola, M.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Calpini, B.

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I. Balin, G. Larchevêque, P. Quaglia, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “Water vapor profile by Raman lidar in the free troposphere from the Jungfraujoch Alpine Station,” in Advances in Global Change Research, M. Beniston, ed., (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2001), Vol. 10, pp. 123–138.
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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

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A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

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A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

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Colbeck, I.

S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, I. Colbeck, D. T. Jost, E. Weingartner, H. W. Gäggeler, “The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6097–6107 (1998).
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M. de Mazière, M. van Roozendael, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, P. Demoulin, G. Roland, “Quantitative evaluation of the post-Pinatubo NO2 reduction and recovery, based on 10 years of FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements at the Jungfraujoch,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 10849–10858 (1998).
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A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

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M. de Mazière, M. van Roozendael, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, P. Demoulin, G. Roland, “Quantitative evaluation of the post-Pinatubo NO2 reduction and recovery, based on 10 years of FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements at the Jungfraujoch,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 10849–10858 (1998).
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D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
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D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

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D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
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D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
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Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

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J. M. Vaughan, N. J. Geddes, P. H. Flamant, C. Flesia, Establishment of a Backscatter Coefficient and Atmospheric Database (Defence Evaluation and Research Agency UK, Farnborough, UK, 1998).

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J. M. Vaughan, N. J. Geddes, P. H. Flamant, C. Flesia, Establishment of a Backscatter Coefficient and Atmospheric Database (Defence Evaluation and Research Agency UK, Farnborough, UK, 1998).

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D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

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A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Frioux, M.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

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A. Heimo, R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, C. Marty, A. Ohmura, “The Swiss atmospheric radiation monitoring network CHARM,” in Proceedings of the WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998).

Gäggeler, H. W.

S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, I. Colbeck, D. T. Jost, E. Weingartner, H. W. Gäggeler, “The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6097–6107 (1998).
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U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. D102, 19707–19715 (1997).
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D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Geddes, N. J.

J. M. Vaughan, N. J. Geddes, P. H. Flamant, C. Flesia, Establishment of a Backscatter Coefficient and Atmospheric Database (Defence Evaluation and Research Agency UK, Farnborough, UK, 1998).

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Gross, M. R.

Gustafsson, M.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Gutman, S. I.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hagard, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Heimo, A.

A. Heimo, R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, C. Marty, A. Ohmura, “The Swiss atmospheric radiation monitoring network CHARM,” in Proceedings of the WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998).

Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Hermans, C.

M. de Mazière, M. van Roozendael, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, P. Demoulin, G. Roland, “Quantitative evaluation of the post-Pinatubo NO2 reduction and recovery, based on 10 years of FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements at the Jungfraujoch,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 10849–10858 (1998).
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J. Houghton, Global Warming: The Complete Briefing (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).
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Iarlori, M.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Jedlovec, G. J.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jost, D. T.

S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, I. Colbeck, D. T. Jost, E. Weingartner, H. W. Gäggeler, “The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6097–6107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. D102, 19707–19715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kämpfer, N.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Karpov, A.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Klein, U.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Kreipl, S.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Künzi, K.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. 55, 18–28 (1992).
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Larchevêque, G.

V. Simeonov, G. Larchevêque, P. Quaglia, H. Van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The influence of the photomultiplier spatial uniformity on lidar signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5186–5190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

I. Balin, G. Larchevêque, P. Quaglia, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “Water vapor profile by Raman lidar in the free troposphere from the Jungfraujoch Alpine Station,” in Advances in Global Change Research, M. Beniston, ed., (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2001), Vol. 10, pp. 123–138.
[CrossRef]

Louhi, J.

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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Starr, D. O.

D. O. Starr, S. H. Melfi, ed., The Role of Water Vapor in Climate: A Strategic Research Plan for the Proposed GEWEX, Water Vapor Project (GVaP), NASA Conf. Publ. CP-3120 (NASA, Hanover, Md., 1991).

Starr, D. O. C.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrecht, W.

Swart, D. P. J.

Swissler, T. J.

Taylor, J.

J. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis: the Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements (University Science, Sausalito, Calif.1997).

Theopold, F.

F. Theopold, J. Bosenberg, “Evaluation of DIAL measurement in presence of signal noise,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Laser Radar Conference (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence, Italy, 1988).

Tobin, D. C.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Uchino, O.

Van den Bergh, H.

V. Simeonov, G. Larchevêque, P. Quaglia, H. Van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The influence of the photomultiplier spatial uniformity on lidar signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5186–5190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Balin, G. Larchevêque, P. Quaglia, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “Water vapor profile by Raman lidar in the free troposphere from the Jungfraujoch Alpine Station,” in Advances in Global Change Research, M. Beniston, ed., (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2001), Vol. 10, pp. 123–138.
[CrossRef]

van Roozendael, M.

M. de Mazière, M. van Roozendael, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, P. Demoulin, G. Roland, “Quantitative evaluation of the post-Pinatubo NO2 reduction and recovery, based on 10 years of FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements at the Jungfraujoch,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 10849–10858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Vaughan, J. M.

J. M. Vaughan, N. J. Geddes, P. H. Flamant, C. Flesia, Establishment of a Backscatter Coefficient and Atmospheric Database (Defence Evaluation and Research Agency UK, Farnborough, UK, 1998).

Viguerie, C.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

von der Gathen, P.

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wauer, J.

C. Böckmann, J. Wauer, “Algorithms for the inversion of light scattering data from uniform and non-uniform particles,” Aerosol Sci. 32, 49–61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weingartner, E.

S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, I. Colbeck, D. T. Jost, E. Weingartner, H. W. Gäggeler, “The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6097–6107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. D102, 19707–19715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiegner, M.

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Wüthrich, M.

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

Aerosol Sci. (1)

C. Böckmann, J. Wauer, “Algorithms for the inversion of light scattering data from uniform and non-uniform particles,” Aerosol Sci. 32, 49–61 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Simeonov, G. Larchevêque, P. Quaglia, H. Van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “The influence of the photomultiplier spatial uniformity on lidar signals,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5186–5190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, “Polarization properties of lidar backscattering from clouds,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1530–1535 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. McNeil, A. I. Carswell, “Lidar polarization studies of the troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2158–2168 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Godin, A. I. Carswell, D. P. Donovan, H. Claude, W. Steinbrecht, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, H. Nakane, D. P. J. Swart, H. B. Bergwerff, O. Uchino, P. von der Gathen, R. Neuber, “Ozone differential absorption lidar algorithm intercomparison,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6225–6236 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for error analysis and simulation of lidar aerosol measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783–3797 (1979).
[PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor and temperature profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

M. de Mazière, M. van Roozendael, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, P. Demoulin, G. Roland, “Quantitative evaluation of the post-Pinatubo NO2 reduction and recovery, based on 10 years of FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements at the Jungfraujoch,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 10849–10858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Baltensperger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, E. Weingartner, P. Seibert, “Aerosol climatology at high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland,” J. Geophys. Res. D102, 19707–19715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, B. Demoz, D. O. C. Starr, D. C. Tobin, W. E. Feltz, G. J. Jedlovec, S. I. Gutman, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Cadirola, S. H. Melfi, F. J. Schmidlin, “Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and cirrus clouds during the passage of hurricane Bonnie,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5211–5225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, I. Colbeck, D. T. Jost, E. Weingartner, H. W. Gäggeler, “The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 6097–6107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. Rind, “Just add water vapor,” Nature 281, 1152–1153 (1998).

M. T. Chahine, “The hydrological cycle and its influence on climate,” Nature 359, 373–380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Delbouille, G. Roland, “High-resolution solar and atmospheric spectroscopy from the Jungfraujoch high-altitude station,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2736–2739 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (17)

A. Heimo, R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, C. Marty, A. Ohmura, “The Swiss atmospheric radiation monitoring network CHARM,” in Proceedings of the WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1998).

D. Maier, N. Kämpfer, W. Amacher, M. Wüthrich, J. de la Noe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, G. Beaudin, C. Viguerie, J.-R. Pardo, J. D. Gallego, A. Barcia, J. Cernicharo, B. Ellison, R. Siddans, D. Matheson, K. Künzi, U. Klein, B. Franke, J. Louhi, J. Mallat, M. Gustafsson, A. Räisänen, A. Karpov, “EMCOR radiometer: calibration and first tests,” in Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, T. Hayasaka, D. L. Wu, Y.-Q. Jin, J.-S. Jiang, eds., Proc. SPIE3503, pp. 362–374.

W. B. Grant, E. Browell, R. T. Menzies, K. Sassen, C. Y. She, ed., Selected Papers on Laser Applications in Remote Sensing (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash.1997).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, New York, 1992).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, J. Pelon, C. Loth, A. Dabas, eds. (Editions de l’École polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

J. Bösenberg, ed., “EARLINET scientific report, February 2000 to January 2001,” available at http://lidarb.dkrz.de/earlinet/scirepl.pdf .

D. O. Starr, S. H. Melfi, ed., The Role of Water Vapor in Climate: A Strategic Research Plan for the Proposed GEWEX, Water Vapor Project (GVaP), NASA Conf. Publ. CP-3120 (NASA, Hanover, Md., 1991).

International Panel for Climate Change, “Climate change 2001—the scientific basis,” available at www.ipcc.ch .

R. J. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, ed., Aerosol Forcing of Climate (Wiley, New York, 1995).

J. Houghton, Global Warming: The Complete Briefing (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan, N. J. Geddes, P. H. Flamant, C. Flesia, Establishment of a Backscatter Coefficient and Atmospheric Database (Defence Evaluation and Research Agency UK, Farnborough, UK, 1998).

United States Committee on Extension to the Standard Atmosphere, U.S. Standard Atmosphere, (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1976).

A. Papayannis, V. Amoiridis, J. Baldasano, J. Balin, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaikovsky, B. Chatenet, G. Chourdakis, V. Freudenthaler, M. Frioux, J. Herman, M. Iarlori, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, D. Müller, M. Pandolfi, G. Pappalardo, J. Pelon, M. R. Perrone, V. Rizi, A. Rodriguez, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, N. Spinelli, F. de Tomasi, T. Trickl, M. Wiegner, “Continental-scale vertical profile measurements of free tropospheric Saharan dust particles performed by a coordinated ground-based European lidar network (EARLINET project),” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

F. Theopold, J. Bosenberg, “Evaluation of DIAL measurement in presence of signal noise,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Laser Radar Conference (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence, Italy, 1988).

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).

I. Balin, G. Larchevêque, P. Quaglia, V. Simeonov, H. van den Bergh, B. Calpini, “Water vapor profile by Raman lidar in the free troposphere from the Jungfraujoch Alpine Station,” in Advances in Global Change Research, M. Beniston, ed., (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2001), Vol. 10, pp. 123–138.
[CrossRef]

J. Taylor, An Introduction to Error Analysis: the Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements (University Science, Sausalito, Calif.1997).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the Jungfraujoch lidar installation in the astronomical cupola.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nighttime picture of the École Polytechnique Federal Lausanne lidar system at Jungfraujoch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the lidar detection setup (lens, L; beam splitter, BS; filter, F; Wollaston prism, WP; photomultiplier tube, PMT; avalanche photodiode, APD; neutral-density filter, ND; diffuser, D.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(left panel) Range-corrected signals at 355, 387, 532, and 1064 nm in analog mode and (right panel) photon-counting mode. Arrows mark the break in slope of the Raman channel that is due to the aerosol extinction in the cloud.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol backscatter coefficients in analog (A) and photon-counting (PC) mode retrieved from the data in Fig. 4 when the Fernald inversion formalism was applied and a lidar ratio of 15 sr was assumed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients at 355 nm obtained with the Fernald formalism and by combinations of Raman and elastic signals, retrieved from the data in Fig. 4. The corresponding lidar ratio of the Raman profiles is given in the right panel, and a constant value of the lidar ratio of 15 sr is used for the Fernald formalism.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal evolution of the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 355 nm on 28 August 2000 between 16h00 and 24h00 local time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal evolution of the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 1064 nm on 28 August 2000 between 16h00 and 24h00 local time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative error on the aerosol backscatter coefficients in analog and photon-counting modes calculated from the data in Fig. 5, taking into account the statistical error that is due to the signal detection, the systematic errors that are due to the estimate of the lidar ratio, the total backscatter coefficient at the reference altitude, and the molecular backscatter coefficient.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Depolarization ratio at 532 nm in analog and photon-counting modes. The backscatter coefficient at 532 nm when the Fernald inversion formalism is used and a lidar ratio of 15 sr is assumed is shown for direct comparison.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Water-vapor mixing ratio measured by Raman lidar and by balloon (Snow White sonde, Swiss Meteorological Station in Payerne). The calibration point for the Raman lidar data is used at an altitude range of 4.75 km ASL.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of the Jungfraujoch Lidar Systema

Tables Icon

Table 2 Technical Data of the Lidara

Metrics