Abstract

High-resolution infrared nongas absorption spectra derived from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment are analyzed for evidence of the presence of cirrus clouds. Several nonspherical ice extinction models based on realistic size distributions and crystal habits along with a stratospheric sulfate aerosol model are fit to the spectra, and comparisons are made with different model combinations. Nonspherical ice models often fit observed transmission spectra better than a spherical Mie ice model, and some discrimination among nonspherical models is noted. The ATMOS lines of sight for eight occultations are superimposed on coincident geostationary satellite infrared imagery, and brightness temperatures along the lines of sight are compared with retrieved vertical temperature profiles. With these comparisons, studies of two cases of clear sky, three cases of opaque cirrus, and three cases of patchy cirrus are discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, P. J. Flatau, “The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742–1753 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Webster, “The role of hydrological processes in ocean-atmosphere interactions,” Rev. Geophys. 32, 427–476 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Dowling, L. F. Radke, “A summary of the physical properties of cirrus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 970–978 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS co-located cloud height measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373–3375 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893–29900 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. 1. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).
  13. C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993).
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  14. J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, G. A. Ely, “Cryogenic Limb Etalon Spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183–22194 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
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  16. G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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  19. X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2. Locating cloud tops,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137–1147 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, Th. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 783–793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. P. Arnott, Y. Y. Dong, J. Hallett, “Extinction efficiency in the infrared (2–18-µm) of laboratory ice clouds: observations of scattering minima in the Christiansen bands of ice,” Appl. Opt. 34, 541–551 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. J. Heymsfield, “Cirrus uncinus generating cells and the evolution of cirroform clouds. Part I: Aircraft observations of the growth of the ice phase,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 799–808 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds and climate implications,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 91–98 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. C. Abrams, G. C. Toon, R. A. Schinder, “Practical example of the correction of Fourier-transform spectra for detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2001

2000

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, Th. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Hervig, M. McHugh, “Cirrus detection using HALOE measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 719–722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, G. A. Ely, “Cryogenic Limb Etalon Spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183–22194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS co-located cloud height measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373–3375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds and climate implications,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893–29900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2. Locating cloud tops,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137–1147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Arnott, Y. Y. Dong, J. Hallett, “Extinction efficiency in the infrared (2–18-µm) of laboratory ice clouds: observations of scattering minima in the Christiansen bands of ice,” Appl. Opt. 34, 541–551 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. R. Dowling, L. F. Radke, “A summary of the physical properties of cirrus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 970–978 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, P. J. Flatau, “The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

1984

A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

A. J. Heymsfield, “Cirrus uncinus generating cells and the evolution of cirroform clouds. Part I: Aircraft observations of the growth of the ice phase,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 799–808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, G. C. Toon, R. A. Schinder, “Practical example of the correction of Fourier-transform spectra for detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arduni, R. F.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnott, W.

K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnott, W. P.

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Arnott, Y. Y. Dong, J. Hallett, “Extinction efficiency in the infrared (2–18-µm) of laboratory ice clouds: observations of scattering minima in the Christiansen bands of ice,” Appl. Opt. 34, 541–551 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baum, B. A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, U. M.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, Th. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. Y.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. 1. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charlock, T.

K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dalu, G.

C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dodd, G. C.

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds and climate implications,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y. Y.

Dowling, D. R.

D. R. Dowling, L. F. Radke, “A summary of the physical properties of cirrus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 970–978 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eldering, A.

Ely, G. A.

J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, G. A. Ely, “Cryogenic Limb Etalon Spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183–22194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flatau, P. J.

G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, P. J. Flatau, “The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B.-C.

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, M. K.

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds and climate implications,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M. R.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. 1. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guy, J. H.

L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Hallett, J.

Hamill, P.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hervig, M.

M. Hervig, M. McHugh, “Cirrus detection using HALOE measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 719–722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heymsfield, “Cirrus uncinus generating cells and the evolution of cirroform clouds. Part I: Aircraft observations of the growth of the ice phase,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 799–808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Irion, F. W.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. 1. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaye, J.

J. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kent, G. S.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kratz, D. P.

C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumer, J. B.

J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, G. A. Ely, “Cryogenic Limb Etalon Spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183–22194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liao, X.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2. Locating cloud tops,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137–1147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lowes, L. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B. P.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, Th. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahieu, E.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mauldin, L. E.

L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

McCormick, M. P.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McHugh, M.

M. Hervig, M. McHugh, “Cirrus detection using HALOE measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 719–722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McMaster, L. R.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mergenthaler, J. L.

J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, G. A. Ely, “Cryogenic Limb Etalon Spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183–22194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, H. A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. L.

J. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mills, F. P.

Minnis, P.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newchurch, M. J.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, M. T.

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, T. J.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Peter, Th.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, Th. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prabhakara, C.

C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Radke, L. F.

D. R. Dowling, L. F. Radke, “A summary of the physical properties of cirrus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 970–978 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Raper, O. F.

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reber, C. A.

C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rind, D.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2. Locating cloud tops,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137–1147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Roche, A. E.

J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, G. A. Ely, “Cryogenic Limb Etalon Spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183–22194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, W. B.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2. Locating cloud tops,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137–1147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds and climate implications,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schinder, R. A.

Shaw, J. H.

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skeens, K. M.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stackhouse, P. W.

G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, P. J. Flatau, “The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Steele, H. M.

Stephens, G. L.

G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, P. J. Flatau, “The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Abrams, G. C. Toon, R. A. Schinder, “Practical example of the correction of Fourier-transform spectra for detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsay, S.-C.

G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, P. J. Flatau, “The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M. A.

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, W. R.

L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Vernekar, A.

C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.-H.

D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS co-located cloud height measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373–3375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893–29900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Webster, P. J.

P. J. Webster, “The role of hydrological processes in ocean-atmosphere interactions,” Rev. Geophys. 32, 427–476 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woodbury, G. E.

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wylie, D. P.

D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS co-located cloud height measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373–3375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893–29900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J.-M.

C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. F.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zaun, N. H.

L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Res.

P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS co-located cloud height measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373–3375 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Hervig, M. McHugh, “Cirrus detection using HALOE measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 719–722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds and climate implications,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 91–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Dowling, L. F. Radke, “A summary of the physical properties of cirrus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 970–978 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, P. J. Flatau, “The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742–1753 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heymsfield, “Cirrus uncinus generating cells and the evolution of cirroform clouds. Part I: Aircraft observations of the growth of the ice phase,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 799–808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893–29900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2. Locating cloud tops,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137–1147 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, G. A. Ely, “Cryogenic Limb Etalon Spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183–22194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, Th. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Weather Rev.

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).

Rev. Geophys.

P. J. Webster, “The role of hydrological processes in ocean-atmosphere interactions,” Rev. Geophys. 32, 427–476 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative transmission versus wave number for four nonspherical ice models,24 a Mie spherical ice model, and a SA model25 with a sulfate composition of 65%, a temperature of 220 K, and a log-normal size distribution with r e = 0.07 µm and σ= 2.03.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Selected residual continua from ATMOS ATLAS 3 occultations SS25, SS84, SS92, and SS98 with various model fits and uncertainties. The last two panels for SS98 use SI and CS to demonstrate differences in the fits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission at 900 cm-1 versus altitude for eight selected occultations. Solid curves are for thin cirrus, short-dashed curves are for clear sky, and long-dashed curves are for opaque cirrus cases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Values of χ2 versus tangent altitude for sulfate only and five ice models combined with sulfate for the clear cases. Scaling factors (C) for each model combination are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Infrared satellite image for SS03 on 0233 UTC 4 November 1994, courtesy of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and SS84 on 1700 UTC 10 November 1994, courtesy of Europe’s Meteorological Satellite Organisation. The yellow points in the upper right (lower left) are the Space Shuttle locations (tangent points) for each line of sight.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Altitude versus distance from tangent points for two select lines of sight taken from SS84. The upper (lower) scale indicates distance along the great circle arc in degrees latitude (kilometers). (b) Expanded view of (a) in and around the tangent points. (c) Shown is the resultant horizontal distance the line of sight spends in each atmospheric layer (divided into 1-km layers) combined for both segments on either side of the tangent points.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieved ATMOS temperature profiles for the clear cases with superimposed minimum and maximum brightness temperatures along 1 arc deg, which are centered at tangent altitudes along lines of sight. Pairs of brightness temperatures for each altitude in SS03 are from two images at times on either side of the occultation time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Values of χ2 versus tangent altitude for sulfate only and five ice models combined with sulfate for the opaque cases. Insets are scaling factors (C) for each model combination.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Infrared satellite imagery for SS13 on 0633 UTC 5 November 1994, courtesy of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; SS92 on 0503 UTC 11 November 1994, courtesy of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-7 channel 8 imagery for SS25 on 0101 UTC 6 November 1994, courtesy of the National Climatic Data Center.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Retrieved ATMOS temperature profiles as described in Fig. 7 for the opaque cases.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Values of χ2 versus tangent altitude for sulfate only and five ice models combined with sulfate for the thin cirrus cases. Insets are scaling factors (C) for each model combination.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Select residual continua for SS107 below 20 km with associated error bars and tangent altitudes.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Infrared satellite imagery for SS102 on 2145 UTC 11 November 1994, courtesy of the National Climatic Data Center; SS107 on 0503 UTC 12 November 1994, courtesy of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; and SS98 on 1400 UTC 11 November 1994, courtesy of Europe’s Meteorological Satellite Organisation.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Retrieved ATMOS temperature profiles as in Fig. 7 for the thin cirrus cases. For SS102, minimum and maximum brightness temperatures are for 2 arc deg, which are centered at tangent altitudes along lines of sight.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Two residual continua from a SS93 filter 4 occultation. Shown is transmission as a function of wave number.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of Occultations

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Tυ=C exp-τgasυexp-τaerυexp-τiceυ=C exp-τgasυexp-τresidualυ,
χ2=1N-11NTresidualυ-Tmdlυσυ2,

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