Abstract

Extinction-to-backscatter ratio or lidar ratio is a key parameter in the issue of backscatter-lidar inversions. The lidar ratio of Asian dust was observed with a high-spectral-resolution lidar and a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar during the springs of 1998 and 1999. The measured values range from 42 to 55 sr in most cases, with a mean of 51 sr. These values are significantly larger than those predicted by the Mie computations that incorporate measured Asian dust size distributions and a range of refractive index with a typical value of 1.55–0.005i. The enhancement of lidar ratio is mostly due to the nonsphericity of dust particles, as indicated by the T-matrix calculations for spheroid particles and a number of other theoretical studies. In addition, possible contamination of urban aerosols may also contribute somewhat in optically thin cases. Mie theory, although it can well describe spherical particle scattering, will not be sufficient to represent the scattering characteristics of irregular particles such as Asian dust, especially in directions larger than approximately 90°,when the size parameter is large.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2001

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, P. Voelger, N. Sugimoto, “Simulations of the observation of clouds and aerosols with the Experimental Lidar in Space Equipment system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3120–3137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. J. Doherty, T. L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, “Measurement of the lidar raio for atmospheric aerosols with a 180° backscatter nephelometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1823–1832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution retrieval from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,753–31,762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, I. Matsui, N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,781–31,792 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Winker, “Global observations of aerosols and clouds from combined lidar and passive instruments to improve radiation budget and climate studies,” Earth Obs. 11, 22–25 (1999).

1998

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosols: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase function for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, R. G. Pinnick, D. M. Garvey, “Measurement of extinction-to-backscatter ratio for near-surface aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6017–6024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. A. Young, “Analysis of lidar backscatter profiles in optical thin clouds,” Appl. Opt. 30, 7019–7031 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebessell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michealis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28, 1992.
[CrossRef]

1991

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm paticles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

1986

K. Arao, Y. Ishizaka, “Volume and mass of yellow sand dust in the air over Japan as estimated from atmospheric turbidity,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 79–94 (1986).

1985

A. Kobayashi, S. Hayashida, K. Okada, Y. Iwasaka, “Measurements of the polarization properties of KOSA (Asian dust storm) particles by a laser radar in spring 1983,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 144–149 (1985).

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

1983

S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Eloranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1. Theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3716–3724 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Parrington, W. H. Zoller, N. K. Aras, “Asian dust: seasonal transport to the Hawaiian Islands,” Science 220, 195–197 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the North Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iwasaka, H. Minoura, K. Nagaya, “The transport and spatial scale of Asian dust-storm clouds: a case study of the dust-storm event of April 1979,” Tellus B 35, 189–196 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 861–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, “Transport of Asian desert aerosol to the Hawaiian Islands,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1254–1259 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Asano, M. Sato, “Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962–974 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

1977

1976

1974

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. B. Russell, “Complex index of refraction of air borne soil particles,” J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 459–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, “Measurement of the aerosol total scatter-backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2886–2889 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

1967

A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, J. J. Barrett, “High-resolution Raman spectroscopy of gases with cw-laser excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 9–28 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, J.

J. Ackermann, “The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosols: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 1043–1050 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahlquist, N. C.

Althausen, D.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. L.

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebessell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michealis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamamoto, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki-Pat II models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

K. Arao, Y. Ishizaka, “Volume and mass of yellow sand dust in the air over Japan as estimated from atmospheric turbidity,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 64, 79–94 (1986).

Aras, N. K.

J. R. Parrington, W. H. Zoller, N. K. Aras, “Asian dust: seasonal transport to the Hawaiian Islands,” Science 220, 195–197 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnott, W. P.

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution retrieval from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,753–31,762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asano, S.

Barber, P. W.

Barrett, J. J.

A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, J. J. Barrett, “High-resolution Raman spectroscopy of gases with cw-laser excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 9–28 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Blifford, I. H.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. B. Russell, “Complex index of refraction of air borne soil particles,” J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 459–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Carroll, D. E.

Charlson, R. J.

Cheesman, L. E.

A. Weber, S. P. S. Porto, L. E. Cheesman, J. J. Barrett, “High-resolution Raman spectroscopy of gases with cw-laser excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 9–28 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the North Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cho, B. S.

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31, 1275–1285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cuzzi, J. N.

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, “Scattering by nonspherical particles of size comparable to a wavelength: a new semi-empirical theory and its application to tropospheric aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 861–881 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Doherty, S. J.

Duce, R. A.

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the North Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Franke, K.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, H.

H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, H. Kobayashi, W. Takahashi, A. Tanaka, B.-J. Sohn, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for satellite ocean color data over the Asian waters,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 18–30 (2000).

Gagne, G.

Garvey, D. M.

J. M. Rosen, R. G. Pinnick, D. M. Garvey, “Measurement of extinction-to-backscatter ratio for near-surface aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6017–6024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giese, R. H.

Gillette, D. A.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. B. Russell, “Complex index of refraction of air borne soil particles,” J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 459–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Grams, G. W.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. B. Russell, “Complex index of refraction of air borne soil particles,” J. Appl. Meteor. 13, 459–471 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hagiwara, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, J.

Y. Liu, W. P. Arnott, J. Hallett, “Particle size distribution retrieval from multispectral optical depth: influences of particle nonsphericity and refractive index,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,753–31,762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, T.

Hayashida, S.

A. Kobayashi, S. Hayashida, K. Okada, Y. Iwasaka, “Measurements of the polarization properties of KOSA (Asian dust storm) particles by a laser radar in spring 1983,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 144–149 (1985).

Heintzenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C.

Hill, S. C.

Hofmann, D. J.

Holland, A. C.

Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
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A. Kobayashi, S. Hayashida, K. Okada, Y. Iwasaka, “Measurements of the polarization properties of KOSA (Asian dust storm) particles by a laser radar in spring 1983,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 63, 144–149 (1985).

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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
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M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the North Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
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M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the North Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebessell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michealis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28, 1992.
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Y. Iwasaka, H. Minoura, K. Nagaya, “The transport and spatial scale of Asian dust-storm clouds: a case study of the dust-storm event of April 1979,” Tellus B 35, 189–196 (1983).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
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T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,781–31,792 (1999).
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Muller, D.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
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K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm paticles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

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K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm paticles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

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T. Murayama, H. Okamoto, N. Kaneyasu, H. Kamataki, K. Miura, “Application of lidar depolarization measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer: effects of dust and sea-salt particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,781–31,792 (1999).
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M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the North Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
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Sohn, B.-J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
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Z. Liu, I. Matsui, N. Sugimoto, “High-spectral-resolution lidar using an iodine absorption filter for atmospheric measurements,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1661–1670 (1999).
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H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, H. Kobayashi, W. Takahashi, A. Tanaka, B.-J. Sohn, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for satellite ocean color data over the Asian waters,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 18–30 (2000).

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H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, H. Kobayashi, W. Takahashi, A. Tanaka, B.-J. Sohn, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for satellite ocean color data over the Asian waters,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 18–30 (2000).

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T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, M. Yamamoto, M. Shiobara, K. Arao, Y. Nakanishi, “Aerosol optical characteristics in the Yellow Sand events observed in May, 1982 at Nagasaki-Pat II models,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 67, 279–291 (1989).

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K. Okada, A. Kobayashi, Y. Iwasaka, H. Naruse, T. Tanaka, O. Nemoto, “Features of individual Asian dust-storm paticles collected at Nagoya, Japan,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 65, 515–521 (1987).

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H. Fukushima, M. Toratani, H. Kobayashi, W. Takahashi, A. Tanaka, B.-J. Sohn, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for satellite ocean color data over the Asian waters,” in Advances in X-Ray Optics, A. K. Freund, T. Ishikawa, A. M. Khounsary, D. C. Mancini, A. G. Michette, S. Oestreich, eds., Proc. SPIE4145, 18–30 (2000).

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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Sohn, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18,345–18,359 (2001).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebessell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michealis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28, 1992.
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Wagner, F.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Muller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebessell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michealis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28, 1992.
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Weiss, K.

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A. Ansmann, M. Riebessell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michealis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28, 1992.
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, R. A. West, “Modeling phase function for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,831–16,847 (1997).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of simultaneously observed BR and PDR at (a) NIES and (b) TUMM on the night of 1 May 1999.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Retrieved lidar ratios for the lower dust layer shown in Fig. 1, along with BRs for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average of volume size distributions obtained with sky radiometers at Tokyo, Tsukuba, Okayama, and Sapporo on 19–21 April 1998, along with distributions for Tokyo and Tsukuba and curve-fitted multimode log-normal models of these distributions. (b) Phase functions computed with Mie theory for equivalent spheres and the T-matrix code for randomly oriented oblate and prolate spheroids with the average size distribution in (a) and a typical refractive index of m = 1.55–0.005i for two long-to-short dimension ratios of e = 1.4 and 1.7. Lower values of phase function at 180° for the spheroids than that for the equivalent spheres show the enhancement in lidar ratio of irregular particles [see Eq. (3)].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Lidar Ratio Measured with the NIES HSRL

Tables Icon

Table 2 Lidar Ratios Computed by Means of Mie Theory and T-Matrix Methoda

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PDR=TDRBR+BR×MDR-MDR-MDRBR-1+BR×MDR-TDR.
120πsinθPθdθ=1.
S=ExtinctionBackscatter=4πωP180°,
ω=0 Cscarnrdr0 Cextrnrdr=1- 0 Cabsrnrdr0 Cextrnrdr.

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