Abstract

Semianalytical (SA) ocean color models have advantages over conventional band ratio algorithms in that multiple ocean properties can be retrieved simultaneously from a single water-leaving radiance spectrum. However, the complexity of SA models has stalled their development, and operational implementation as optimal SA parameter values are hard to determine because of limitations in development data sets and the lack of robust tuning procedures. We present a procedure for optimizing SA ocean color models for global applications. The SA model to be optimized retrieves simultaneous estimates for chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, the absorption coefficient for dissolved and detrital materials [a cdm(443)], and the particulate backscatter coefficient [b bp(443)] from measurements of the normalized water-leaving radiance spectrum. Parameters for the model are tuned by simulated annealing as the global optimization protocol. We first evaluate the robustness of the tuning method using synthetic data sets, and we then apply the tuning procedure to an in situ data set. With the tuned SA parameters, the accuracy of retrievals found with the globally optimized model (the Garver-Siegel-Maritorena model version 1; hereafter GSM01) is excellent and results are comparable with the current Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) algorithm for Chl. The advantage of the GSM01 model is that simultaneous retrievals of a cdm(443) and b bp(443) are made that greatly extend the nature of global applications that can be explored. Current limitations and further developments of the model are discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2001 (5)

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C4), 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, “Modes and mechanisms of ocean color variability in the Santa Barbara Channel,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C11), 26985–27000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. 82, 202–000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Aguirre-Gómez, A. R. Weeks, S. R. Boxall, “The identification of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 315–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (C2), 3483–3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, A. F. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 931–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. 2. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. A. Siegel, A. F. Michaels, “Quantification of non-algal light attenuation in the Sargasso Sea: implications for biogeochemistry and remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 321–345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C7), 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. A. Green, N. V. Blough, “Optical-absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic-matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr 39, 1903–1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070–7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption-spectra of total particulate matter. J. Geophys. Res. 98 (C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic water. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters), “J. Geophys. Res. 93 (C9), 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).

1981 (2)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo study of the nature of the underwater light field in and the relationships between opticals properties of turbid yellow waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 32, 517–532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Computer J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre-Gómez, R.

R. Aguirre-Gómez, A. R. Weeks, S. R. Boxall, “The identification of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 315–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arrigo, K. R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface. Part 2: Ocean color analysis,” S. W. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, eds., SIO Ref. 74–10 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974).

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Baith, K.

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. 82, 202–000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. A.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Blough, N. V.

S. A. Green, N. V. Blough, “Optical-absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic-matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr 39, 1903–1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boxall, S. R.

R. Aguirre-Gómez, A. R. Weeks, S. R. Boxall, “The identification of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 315–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Chavez, R. P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cota, G. F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Culver, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Eplee, R. E.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
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G. Fargion, C. R. McClain, SIMBIOS Project 2000 Annual Report, NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-209976 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001).

Firestone, J. K.

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, J. K. Firestone, T. L. Westphal, E.-N. Yeh, Y. Ge, The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS). Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

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Franz, B. A.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Frouin, R.

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (C2), 3483–3495 (2000).
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Fu, G.

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. 82, 202–000 (2001).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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Ge, Y.

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, J. K. Firestone, T. L. Westphal, E.-N. Yeh, Y. Ge, The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS). Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
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L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (C2), 3483–3495 (2000).
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Hansell, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Harding, L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
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K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
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S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, J. K. Firestone, T. L. Westphal, E.-N. Yeh, Y. Ge, The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS). Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Hsu, N. C.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
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K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
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Letelier, R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

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K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. 82, 202–000 (2001).
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H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
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D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Magnusion, A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

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A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

McClain, C. R.

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. 82, 202–000 (2001).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

G. Fargion, C. R. McClain, SIMBIOS Project 2000 Annual Report, NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-209976 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001).

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, J. K. Firestone, T. L. Westphal, E.-N. Yeh, Y. Ge, The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS). Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Computer J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
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Menzies, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Michaels, A. F.

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D. A. Siegel, A. F. Michaels, “Quantification of non-algal light attenuation in the Sargasso Sea: implications for biogeochemistry and remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 321–345 (1996).
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Mitchell, B. G.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C4), 7125–7138 (2001).
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L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (C2), 3483–3495 (2000).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Moore, G. F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

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Mueller, J. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Mueller-Karger, F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Computer J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
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Nelson, N. B.

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, A. F. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 931–957 (1998).
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D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, “Distribution and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the open ocean, in Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, D. A. Hansell, C. A. Carlson eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

O’Brien, M. C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Patt, F. S.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C7), 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phynney, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Pietras, C. M.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Platt, T.

Pope, R. M.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vettering, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. A.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C4), 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W. D.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C7), 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7070–7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption-spectra of total particulate matter. J. Geophys. Res. 98 (C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schieber, B. D.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Schmidt, G. M.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, “Modes and mechanisms of ocean color variability in the Santa Barbara Channel,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C11), 26985–27000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, A. F. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 931–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, A. F. Michaels, “Quantification of non-algal light attenuation in the Sargasso Sea: implications for biogeochemistry and remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 321–345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, “Distribution and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the open ocean, in Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, D. A. Hansell, C. A. Carlson eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Smith, R. C.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Steward, R. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C4), 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strutton, P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vettering, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Thiria, S.

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (C2), 3483–3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toole, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Toole, D. A.

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, “Modes and mechanisms of ocean color variability in the Santa Barbara Channel,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C11), 26985–27000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ulloa, O.

Vettering, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vettering, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

Wang, M.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Weeks, A. R.

R. Aguirre-Gómez, A. R. Weeks, S. R. Boxall, “The identification of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 315–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

Westphal, T. L.

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, J. K. Firestone, T. L. Westphal, E.-N. Yeh, Y. Ge, The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS). Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Yeh, E.-N.

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, J. K. Firestone, T. L. Westphal, E.-N. Yeh, Y. Ge, The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS). Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. (1)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo study of the nature of the underwater light field in and the relationships between opticals properties of turbid yellow waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 32, 517–532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Computer J. (1)

J. A. Nelder, R. Mead, “A simplex method for function minimization,” Computer J. 7, 308–313 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. I (1)

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, A. F. Michaels, “Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 931–957 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II (1)

D. A. Siegel, A. F. Michaels, “Quantification of non-algal light attenuation in the Sargasso Sea: implications for biogeochemistry and remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 321–345 (1996).
[CrossRef]

EOS Trans. (1)

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS Trans. 82, 202–000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Ocean color remote sensing: influence of the particle phase function and the solar zenith angle,” EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 14, 1055 (1986).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

R. Aguirre-Gómez, A. R. Weeks, S. R. Boxall, “The identification of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 315–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (13)

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters), “J. Geophys. Res. 93 (C9), 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (C7), 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. I. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104 (C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reynolds, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, “A chlorophyll-dependent semianalytical reflectance model derived from field measurements of absorption and backscattering coefficients within the Southern Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C4), 7125–7138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Hoepffner, S. Sathyendranath, “Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption-spectra of total particulate matter. J. Geophys. Res. 98 (C12), 22789–22803 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel, “Modes and mechanisms of ocean color variability in the Santa Barbara Channel,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (C11), 26985–27000 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gross, S. Thiria, R. Frouin, B. G. Mitchell, “Artificial neural networks for modeling the transfer function between marine reflectance and phytoplankton pigment concentration,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (C2), 3483–3495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr (1)

S. A. Green, N. V. Blough, “Optical-absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic-matter in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr 39, 1903–1916 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

C. R. McClain, R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, B. A. Franz, N. C. Hsu, F. S. Patt, C. M. Pietras, W. D. Robinson, B. D. Schieber, G. M. Schmidt, M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 2, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 10, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., (2000).

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

For further information, see http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/ cgibrs/level3.pl .

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, M. C. O’Brien, D. A. Siegel, D. Toole, D. Menzies, R. C. Smith, J. L. Mueller, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, R. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Mueller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnusion, D. Phynney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, J. K. Firestone, T. L. Westphal, E.-N. Yeh, Y. Ge, The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS). Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, Vol. 20 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vettering, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992).

S. A. Garver, “Variability in ocean color observations and their use in the study of upper ocean ecosystem dynamics,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1997).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1974), pp. 1–24.

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signatures of the ocean surface. Part 2: Ocean color analysis,” S. W. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, eds., SIO Ref. 74–10 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974).

N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, “Distribution and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the open ocean, in Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, D. A. Hansell, C. A. Carlson eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002).

G. Fargion, C. R. McClain, SIMBIOS Project 2000 Annual Report, NASA Tech. Memo. 2001-209976 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chl retrievals of the Garver-Siegel model5 with its initial set of parameters and the SeaBAM1 data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Retrieved Chl (left panels), a cdm(443) (center panels), and b bp (443) (right panels) versus the actual values in the synthetic data sets with no noise (upper panels), 2% noise noise (middle panels), and 5% noise (lower panels).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the optimized a ph*(λ) spectrum with the mean spectrum of Morel2 and a spectrum generated with the model of Bricaud et al. 9 for a Chl concentration of 0.35 mg m-3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of the GSM01 model with the quasi-real data set by use of the set of parameters selected after the simulated annealing procedure. (a) Chl, (b) Chl estimates with the OC4v4 algorithm,24 (c) a cdm(443), and (d) b bp (443). For comparison, the original model of Garver and Siegel5 achieves a slope of 0.876, a r 2 of 0.768, and a rms of 0.333 when used with the quasi-real data set.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chl retrievals generated by the optimized model with the in situ L wN (λ) data from the SeaWIFS match-up data set versus in situ Chl data from that same data set: (a) the original Garver and Siegel model,5 (b) OC4v4, and (c) the GSM01 model.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Model Parameters (vector Ψ) Used to Create the Synthetic Data Sets and the Values Retrieved by the Simulated Annealing Procedure for the 0, 2, and 5% Noise Data Setsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Selected Set of Optimized Parameters from the Simulated Annealing Procedure Applied to the Quasi-Real Data Set and with the First Five SeaWiFS Bands

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LˆwNλ=tF0λnw2i=12 gibbλbbλ+aλi,
bbλ=bbwλ+bbpλ,
aλ=awλ+aphλ+acdmλ.
aphλ=Chl aph*λ,
acdmλ=acdmλ0exp-Sλ-λ0,
bbpλ=bbpλ0λ/λ0-η,
LˆwNλ=tF0λnw2i=12 gibbwλ+bbpλ0λ/λ0-ηbbwλ+bbpλ0λ/λ0-η+awλ+Chl aph*λ+acdmλ0exp-Sλ-λ0i.
MSD=1Nλ-1i=1NλLˆwNλi, Θ, Ψ-LwNλi2,
CF¯=t=1Ntk=1NΘωkΘˆkΨˆ; t-Θkt2+i=1NΨΩiΨˆi-Ψ˜i2,
bλ=bwλ+bpλ=bwλ+0.252 Chl0.635660/λ,
Kd443=a4432+0.256 a443b4430.5,
acdm443=a443-aw443-0.0365*Chl0.615.

Metrics