Abstract

The South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) is the first instrument of its kind—a direct-detection imaging spectrometer for astronomy in the submillimeter band. SPIFI’s focal plane is a square array of 25 silicon bolometers cooled to 60 mK; the spectrometer consists of two cryogenic scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers in series with a 60-mK bandpass filter. The instrument operates in the short submillimeter windows (350 and 450 µm) available from the ground, with spectral resolving power selectable between 500 and 10,000. At present, SPIFI’s sensitivity is within a factor of 1.5–3 of the photon background limit, comparable with the best heterodyne spectrometers. The instrument’s large bandwidth and mapping capability provide substantial advantages for specific astrophysical projects, including deep extragalactic observations. We present the motivation for and design of SPIFI and its operational characteristics on the telescope.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  40. J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): an improved model for mm/submm applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1683–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Submillimeter atmospheric transmission measurements on Mauna Kea during extremely dry El Nino conditions: implications for broadband opacity contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 419–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. J. Benford, T. R. Hunter, T. G. Phillips, “Noise equivalent power of background limited thermal detectors at submillimeter wavelengths,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 19, 931–938 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gerin, T. G. Phillips, “Atomic carbon in Arp 220,” Astrophys. J. 509, L17–L20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

N. Wang, T. R. Hunter, D. J. Benford, E. Serabyn, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, S. H. Moseley, K. Boyce, A. Szymkowiak, C. Allen, B. Mott, J. Gygax, “Characterization of a submillimeter high-angular-resolution camera with a monolithic silicon bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6629–6640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Plume, D. T. Jaffe, J. Keene, “Observations of large-scale [CI] emission from S140,” Astrophys. J. 425, L49–L52 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

C. K. Walker, G. Narayanan, T. Buttgenbach, J. Carlstrom, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips, “The detection of [CI] in molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects,” Astrophys. J. 415, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

1991 (2)

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Stacey, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, N. Geis, A. Poglistch, M. Rumitz, “Stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays for far-IR astronomy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 13, 1689–1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, D. M. Goldhaber, “Neutral atomic carbon in dense molecular clouds,” Astrophys. J. 335, 774–785 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

J. Keene, G. A. Blake, T. G. Phillips, P. J. Huggins, C. A. Beichman, “The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140,” Astrophys. J. 299, 967–980 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Tucker, M. J. Feldman, “Quantum detection at millimeter wavelengths,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 1055–1113 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal detectors as X-ray spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257–1262 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Mather, “Bolometers: ultimate sensitivity, optimization, and amplifier coupling,” Appl. Opt. 23, 584–588 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

Allen, C.

Almy, R.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Apodaca, E.

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ashok, J.

J. Ashok, P. L. H. Varaprasad, J. R. Birch, “Polyethylene,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1991).

Beeman, J. W.

G. J. Stacey, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, N. Geis, A. Poglistch, M. Rumitz, “Stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays for far-IR astronomy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 13, 1689–1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Beichman, C. A.

J. Keene, G. A. Blake, T. G. Phillips, P. J. Huggins, C. A. Beichman, “The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140,” Astrophys. J. 299, 967–980 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Benford, D. J.

Bergmann, W.

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Betz, A. L.

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, D. M. Goldhaber, “Neutral atomic carbon in dense molecular clouds,” Astrophys. J. 335, 774–785 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J. R.

J. Ashok, P. L. H. Varaprasad, J. R. Birch, “Polyethylene,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1991).

Blake, G. A.

J. Keene, G. A. Blake, T. G. Phillips, P. J. Huggins, C. A. Beichman, “The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140,” Astrophys. J. 299, 967–980 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bolatto, A. D.

M. R. Swain, C. M. Bradford, G. J. Stacey, A. D. Bolatto, J. M. Jackson, M. Savage, J. A. Davidson, “Design of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 480–492 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boreiko, R. T.

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, D. M. Goldhaber, “Neutral atomic carbon in dense molecular clouds,” Astrophys. J. 335, 774–785 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980), Chap. 7.

Boyce, K.

Bradford, C. M.

M. R. Swain, C. M. Bradford, G. J. Stacey, A. D. Bolatto, J. M. Jackson, M. Savage, J. A. Davidson, “Design of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 480–492 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bumble, B.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buttgenbach, T.

C. K. Walker, G. Narayanan, T. Buttgenbach, J. Carlstrom, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips, “The detection of [CI] in molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects,” Astrophys. J. 415, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, J.

C. K. Walker, G. Narayanan, T. Buttgenbach, J. Carlstrom, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips, “The detection of [CI] in molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects,” Astrophys. J. 415, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, J. E.

J. E. Carlstrom, J. Zmuidzinas, “Millimeter and submillimeter techniques,” in Reviews Radio Science 1993–1995, W. R. Stone, ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1996).

Cernicharo, J.

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Submillimeter atmospheric transmission measurements on Mauna Kea during extremely dry El Nino conditions: implications for broadband opacity contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 419–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): an improved model for mm/submm applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1683–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, G.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cui, W.

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, C. R.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, E. I. Robson, “SCUBA, a submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 305–318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, J. A.

M. R. Swain, C. M. Bradford, G. J. Stacey, A. D. Bolatto, J. M. Jackson, M. Savage, J. A. Davidson, “Design of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 480–492 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deiker, S.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eckhart, A.

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

Feldman, M. J.

J. R. Tucker, M. J. Feldman, “Quantum detection at millimeter wavelengths,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 1055–1113 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H. E.

H. E. Fischer, “Magnetic cooling,” in Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics at Low Temperatures, R. C. Richardson, E. N. Smith, eds. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1998).

Gear, W. K.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, E. I. Robson, “SCUBA, a submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 305–318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geis, N.

G. J. Stacey, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, N. Geis, A. Poglistch, M. Rumitz, “Stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays for far-IR astronomy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 13, 1689–1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Genzel, L.

K. Sakai, L. Genzel, “Far-infrared metal mesh filter and Fabry-Perot interferometry,” in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, K. J. Button, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Gerin, M.

M. Gerin, T. G. Phillips, “Atomic carbon in Arp 220,” Astrophys. J. 509, L17–L20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldhaber, D. M.

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, D. M. Goldhaber, “Neutral atomic carbon in dense molecular clouds,” Astrophys. J. 335, 774–785 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Graf, U. U.

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

Gull, G. E.

G. J. Stacey, T. L. Hayward, H. M. Latvakoski, G. E. Gull, “KWIC: a widefield mid-infrared array camera/spectrometer for the KAO,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE1946, 238–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gygax, J.

Haggerty, M.

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Stacey, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, N. Geis, A. Poglistch, M. Rumitz, “Stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays for far-IR astronomy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 13, 1689–1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-I.

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harper, A.

Harris, A. I.

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

A. I. Harris, “Directions for submillimeter and far-infrared instrumentation,” in The Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium, Proceedings of the Third Cologne-Zermatt Symposium, V. Ossenkopf, J. Stutzki, G. Winnewisser, eds. (GCA-Verlag Herdecke, Germany, 1999).

Hayward, T. L.

G. J. Stacey, T. L. Hayward, H. M. Latvakoski, G. E. Gull, “KWIC: a widefield mid-infrared array camera/spectrometer for the KAO,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE1946, 238–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrand, R. H.

Holland, W. S.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, E. I. Robson, “SCUBA, a submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 305–318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holt, S. S.

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huggins, P. J.

J. Keene, G. A. Blake, T. G. Phillips, P. J. Huggins, C. A. Beichman, “The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140,” Astrophys. J. 299, 967–980 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, T. R.

Jackson, J. M.

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Swain, C. M. Bradford, G. J. Stacey, A. D. Bolatto, J. M. Jackson, M. Savage, J. A. Davidson, “Design of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 480–492 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, D. T.

R. Plume, D. T. Jaffe, J. Keene, “Observations of large-scale [CI] emission from S140,” Astrophys. J. 425, L49–L52 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jenness, T.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, E. I. Robson, “SCUBA, a submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 305–318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juda, M.

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, J.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keene, J.

R. Plume, D. T. Jaffe, J. Keene, “Observations of large-scale [CI] emission from S140,” Astrophys. J. 425, L49–L52 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Walker, G. Narayanan, T. Buttgenbach, J. Carlstrom, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips, “The detection of [CI] in molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects,” Astrophys. J. 415, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Keene, G. A. Blake, T. G. Phillips, P. J. Huggins, C. A. Beichman, “The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140,” Astrophys. J. 299, 967–980 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, R. L.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, J.

J. Kooi, Caltech Submillimeter Astrophysics Pasadena, Calif. 91125 (personal communication, 2000).

Kooi, J. W.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laidlaw, K.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, E. I. Robson, “SCUBA, a submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 305–318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lamarre, J. M.

Latvakoski, H. M.

H. M. Latvakoski, “High spatial resolution mid and far-infrared imaging of the Galactic Center,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1997).

G. J. Stacey, T. L. Hayward, H. M. Latvakoski, G. E. Gull, “KWIC: a widefield mid-infrared array camera/spectrometer for the KAO,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE1946, 238–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

LeDuc, H. G.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lesser, A.

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lightfoot, J. F.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, E. I. Robson, “SCUBA, a submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 305–318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lis, D. C.

Madejski, G. M.

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, F. J.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mather, J. C.

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal detectors as X-ray spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257–1262 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Mather, “Bolometers: ultimate sensitivity, optimization, and amplifier coupling,” Appl. Opt. 23, 584–588 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCammon, D.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal detectors as X-ray spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257–1262 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgenthaler, J.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, S. H.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Wang, T. R. Hunter, D. J. Benford, E. Serabyn, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, S. H. Moseley, K. Boyce, A. Szymkowiak, C. Allen, B. Mott, J. Gygax, “Characterization of a submillimeter high-angular-resolution camera with a monolithic silicon bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6629–6640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal detectors as X-ray spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257–1262 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mott, B.

Narayanan, G.

C. K. Walker, G. Narayanan, T. Buttgenbach, J. Carlstrom, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips, “The detection of [CI] in molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects,” Astrophys. J. 415, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, J. R.

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Submillimeter atmospheric transmission measurements on Mauna Kea during extremely dry El Nino conditions: implications for broadband opacity contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 419–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): an improved model for mm/submm applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1683–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. G.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Benford, T. R. Hunter, T. G. Phillips, “Noise equivalent power of background limited thermal detectors at submillimeter wavelengths,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 19, 931–938 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gerin, T. G. Phillips, “Atomic carbon in Arp 220,” Astrophys. J. 509, L17–L20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Wang, T. R. Hunter, D. J. Benford, E. Serabyn, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, S. H. Moseley, K. Boyce, A. Szymkowiak, C. Allen, B. Mott, J. Gygax, “Characterization of a submillimeter high-angular-resolution camera with a monolithic silicon bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6629–6640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Walker, G. Narayanan, T. Buttgenbach, J. Carlstrom, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips, “The detection of [CI] in molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects,” Astrophys. J. 415, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Keene, G. A. Blake, T. G. Phillips, P. J. Huggins, C. A. Beichman, “The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140,” Astrophys. J. 299, 967–980 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Plume, R.

R. Plume, D. T. Jaffe, J. Keene, “Observations of large-scale [CI] emission from S140,” Astrophys. J. 425, L49–L52 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poglistch, A.

G. J. Stacey, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, N. Geis, A. Poglistch, M. Rumitz, “Stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays for far-IR astronomy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 13, 1689–1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Poglitsch, A.

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Porter, F. S.

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rawlins, K.

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rieke, G. H.

G. H. Rieke, Detection of Light from the Ultraviolet to the Submillimeter (Cambridge U. Cambridge, Mass., 1994), Chap. 9.

Robson, E. I.

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, E. I. Robson, “SCUBA, a submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 305–318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rumitz, M.

G. J. Stacey, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, N. Geis, A. Poglistch, M. Rumitz, “Stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays for far-IR astronomy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 13, 1689–1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A. P. G.

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

Sakai, K.

K. Sakai, L. Genzel, “Far-infrared metal mesh filter and Fabry-Perot interferometry,” in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, K. J. Button, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Savage, M.

M. R. Swain, C. M. Bradford, G. J. Stacey, A. D. Bolatto, J. M. Jackson, M. Savage, J. A. Davidson, “Design of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 480–492 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, D. J.

D. J. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1987), Chap. 15.

Serabyn, E.

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Submillimeter atmospheric transmission measurements on Mauna Kea during extremely dry El Nino conditions: implications for broadband opacity contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 419–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): an improved model for mm/submm applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1683–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Wang, T. R. Hunter, D. J. Benford, E. Serabyn, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, S. H. Moseley, K. Boyce, A. Szymkowiak, C. Allen, B. Mott, J. Gygax, “Characterization of a submillimeter high-angular-resolution camera with a monolithic silicon bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6629–6640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stacey, G. J.

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Stacey, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, N. Geis, A. Poglistch, M. Rumitz, “Stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays for far-IR astronomy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 13, 1689–1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Stacey, T. L. Hayward, H. M. Latvakoski, G. E. Gull, “KWIC: a widefield mid-infrared array camera/spectrometer for the KAO,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE1946, 238–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Swain, C. M. Bradford, G. J. Stacey, A. D. Bolatto, J. M. Jackson, M. Savage, J. A. Davidson, “Design of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 480–492 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stahle, C. K.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stark, R.

R. Stark, Max-Planck-Institute für Radiastronomie, Bonn, Germany (personal communication, 2000).

Stern, J.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stiening, R.

Stutzki, J.

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

Swain, M. R.

M. R. Swain, C. M. Bradford, G. J. Stacey, A. D. Bolatto, J. M. Jackson, M. Savage, J. A. Davidson, “Design of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 480–492 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Szymkowiak, A.

Szymkowiak, A. E.

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, J. R.

J. R. Tucker, M. J. Feldman, “Quantum detection at millimeter wavelengths,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 1055–1113 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Varaprasad, P. L. H.

J. Ashok, P. L. H. Varaprasad, J. R. Birch, “Polyethylene,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1991).

Walker, C. K.

C. K. Walker, G. Narayanan, T. Buttgenbach, J. Carlstrom, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips, “The detection of [CI] in molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects,” Astrophys. J. 415, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

White, G. K.

G. K. White, Experimental Techniques in Low-Temperature Physics (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1979), Chap. 9.

Wild, W.

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

Winston, R.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980), Chap. 7.

Zhang, J.

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zmuidzinas, J.

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, D. M. Goldhaber, “Neutral atomic carbon in dense molecular clouds,” Astrophys. J. 335, 774–785 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Carlstrom, J. Zmuidzinas, “Millimeter and submillimeter techniques,” in Reviews Radio Science 1993–1995, W. R. Stone, ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1996).

J. Zmuidzinas, Caltech Submillimeter Astrophysics Pasadena, Calif. (personal communication (2000).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

W. Wild, A. I. Harris, A. Eckhart, U. U. Graf, J. M. Jackson, A. P. G. Russell, J. Stutzki, “A multi-line study of the molecular interstellar medium in M 82’s starburst nucleus,” Astron. Astrophys. 265, 447–464 (1992).

Astrophys. J. (5)

J. Keene, G. A. Blake, T. G. Phillips, P. J. Huggins, C. A. Beichman, “The abundance of atomic carbon near the ionization fronts in M17 and S140,” Astrophys. J. 299, 967–980 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, D. M. Goldhaber, “Neutral atomic carbon in dense molecular clouds,” Astrophys. J. 335, 774–785 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Walker, G. Narayanan, T. Buttgenbach, J. Carlstrom, J. Keene, T. G. Phillips, “The detection of [CI] in molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects,” Astrophys. J. 415, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Plume, D. T. Jaffe, J. Keene, “Observations of large-scale [CI] emission from S140,” Astrophys. J. 425, L49–L52 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gerin, T. G. Phillips, “Atomic carbon in Arp 220,” Astrophys. J. 509, L17–L20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Atmospheric transmission at microwaves (ATM): an improved model for mm/submm applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 1683–1694 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (4)

A. Poglitsch, J. W. Beeman, N. Geis, M. Haggerty, E. E. Haller, J. M. Jackson, M. Rumitz, G. J. Stacey, C. H. Townes, “The MPE/UCB far-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FIFI),” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 12, 859–870 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Stacey, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, N. Geis, A. Poglistch, M. Rumitz, “Stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays for far-IR astronomy,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 13, 1689–1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Benford, T. R. Hunter, T. G. Phillips, “Noise equivalent power of background limited thermal detectors at submillimeter wavelengths,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 19, 931–938 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kooi, J. Kawamura, J. Chen, G. Chattopadhyay, J. R. Pardo, J. Zmuidzinas, T. G. Phillips, B. Bumble, J. Stern, H. G. LeDuc, “A low-noise, NbTiN-based 850 GHz SIS receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1357–1373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. H. Moseley, J. C. Mather, D. McCammon, “Thermal detectors as X-ray spectrometers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1257–1262 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

J. R. Pardo, J. Cernicharo, E. Serabyn, “Submillimeter atmospheric transmission measurements on Mauna Kea during extremely dry El Nino conditions: implications for broadband opacity contributions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 419–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

D. McCammon, R. Almy, S. Deiker, J. Morgenthaler, R. L. Kelley, F. J. Marshall, S. H. Moseley, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 370, 266–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. McCammon, W. Cui, M. Juda, J. Morgenthaler, J. Zhang, R. L. Kelley, S. S. Holt, G. M. Madejski, S. H. Moseley, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Thermal calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 326, 157–165 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. R. Tucker, M. J. Feldman, “Quantum detection at millimeter wavelengths,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 1055–1113 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

G. H. Rieke, Detection of Light from the Ultraviolet to the Submillimeter (Cambridge U. Cambridge, Mass., 1994), Chap. 9.

S.-I. Han, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann, S. Deiker, A. Lesser, D. McCammon, K. Rawlins, R. L. Kelley, S. H. Moseley, F. S. Porter, C. K. Stahle, A. E. Szymkowiak, “Intrinsic 1/f noise in doped silicon thermistors for cryogenic calorimeters,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, O. H. Siegmund, M. A. Gummin, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 640–644 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. K. White, Experimental Techniques in Low-Temperature Physics (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1979), Chap. 9.

H. E. Fischer, “Magnetic cooling,” in Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics at Low Temperatures, R. C. Richardson, E. N. Smith, eds. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1998).

J. Ashok, P. L. H. Varaprasad, J. R. Birch, “Polyethylene,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1991).

R. Stark, Max-Planck-Institute für Radiastronomie, Bonn, Germany (personal communication, 2000).

See paper by R. Stark, “MPIRE: the MPIfR/SRON 800 GHz heterodyne spectrometer,” http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/div/mm/tech/mpire.html , (2000).

See paper by H. Matthews, “Estimating time requirements and sensitivity for heterodyne receivers” (1999), http://www.jach.hawaii.edu/JACpublic/JCMT/User_documentation/Users_guide/guide/node29.html .

J. Zmuidzinas, Caltech Submillimeter Astrophysics Pasadena, Calif. (personal communication (2000).

W. S. Holland, C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, T. Jenness, K. Laidlaw, J. F. Lightfoot, E. I. Robson, “SCUBA, a submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Advanced Technology MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 305–318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Swain, C. M. Bradford, G. J. Stacey, A. D. Bolatto, J. M. Jackson, M. Savage, J. A. Davidson, “Design of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI),” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 480–492 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Latvakoski, “High spatial resolution mid and far-infrared imaging of the Galactic Center,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1997).

D. J. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1987), Chap. 15.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980), Chap. 7.

G. J. Stacey, T. L. Hayward, H. M. Latvakoski, G. E. Gull, “KWIC: a widefield mid-infrared array camera/spectrometer for the KAO,” in Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE1946, 238–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakai, L. Genzel, “Far-infrared metal mesh filter and Fabry-Perot interferometry,” in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, K. J. Button, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Harris, “Directions for submillimeter and far-infrared instrumentation,” in The Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium, Proceedings of the Third Cologne-Zermatt Symposium, V. Ossenkopf, J. Stutzki, G. Winnewisser, eds. (GCA-Verlag Herdecke, Germany, 1999).

J. E. Carlstrom, J. Zmuidzinas, “Millimeter and submillimeter techniques,” in Reviews Radio Science 1993–1995, W. R. Stone, ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1996).

J. Kooi, Caltech Submillimeter Astrophysics Pasadena, Calif. 91125 (personal communication, 2000).

R. Hills, J. Richer, S. Withington, H. Smith, H. Gibson, B. Dent, W. Duncan, J. Harris, P. Hastings, L. Avery, C. Cunningham, P. Feldman, R. Redman, K. Yeung, P. Jewell, “Heterodyne array receiver programme for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope” (2000), http://www.jach.hawaii.edu/JACpublic/JCMT/Heterodyne_observing/Instrument_homes/harp-info.html .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SPIFI optical layout. The beam is near its f/8.4 focus as it enters the cryostat through the polyethylene window. M1 is an off-axis paraboloid and collimates the beam at 9 cm; M2 is a flat mirror that directs the collimated beam through the high-order FPI (HOFPI) and into the 3.7-K enclosure. Flat mirror M3 directs the beam through the cold aperture stop (Lyot stop) and scatter filter to the camera mirror M4, another off-axis paraboloid. The field is imaged at f/12.6 on the detector array by flat mirrors M5 and M6 after the beam transits the low-order FPI (LOFPI) and mesh filters at 1.5 and 0.06 K. For clarity, M6 and the detector array are shown rotated 90° about the beam axis as it is incident on M6 (see also Fig. 2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPIFI cryostat. Two independent cryostats joined together share a common vacuum and radiation shields. In the spectrometer cryostat, the liquid-nitrogen and helium-cooled optical benches lie below the cryogen vessels. A lengthwise split in this large vacuum vessel provides easy access to the optical components when it is inverted. The smaller detector cryostat supports the millidegrees Kelvin refrigerator (see Fig. 7), with liquid-nitrogen and pumped liquid-helium baths. The system of matching cylindrical snouts and close-fitting connecting shields excludes ambient radiation to the level of 1% of the power in the spectrometer beam (∼10-14 W/detector in the 12% band).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SPIFI spectrometer with example configuration for R = 6000. The spectral profiles of the three components in the spectrometer are plotted for an example setup (each offset and plotted at 1/4 vertical scale). The net profile is the product, plotted with the thick curve at the bottom (full vertical scale). The peak transmission of 0.41 does not include losses in the window, mirrors, or the thermal IR blocking filters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SPIFI HOFPI with the outer sidewalls removed. The FPI mirrors are nickel mesh stretched and glued onto stainless-steel (ss) rings (shown in section) held magnetically to the fixed and moving frames. To adjust the cavity order m (here based on λ = 370 µm), the entire inner assembly is translated on the roller-bearing stage by the adjustment screw. For spectral scanning, the PZT pushes the inner frame to the left against the bottom of the flex-vane parallelogram. The top of the flex-vane parallelogram is part of the inner frame; the bottom remains fixed to the outer frame with the adjustment screw. FP, Fabry-Perot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SPIFI LOFPI with the sidewalls removed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SPIFI electronics block diagram. Each of the bolometers is biased in series with a 29-MΩ load resistor and buffered with a cooled junction FET (J-FET). To minimize pickup, all signal wires are twisted pairs or coaxial, the FETs and amplifiers are powered with batteries, and the preamplifier box is bolted tight to the cryostat. Also shown are the essentials of the capacitance bridge circuit and its connection to the FPIs. Dashed lines indicate shielded cables. ADC, analog-to-digital converter; DAC, digital-to-analog converter; MUX, multiplexer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

ADR schematic. A network of Kevlar threads support the 60-mK stage and its 300-mK thermal guard. Mechanical heat switches connecting the salt pill and 3He pot to the 1.5-K bath are closed when the systems are recycled. The 3He pump heat switch is opened and the pump is heated for the recycling, forcing 3He to condense in the pot. In operation, the heat switches are reversed. The hold time of the system is around 40 h, limited by conduction through the fiber-glass mounting of the 3He pot.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SPIFI forward beam map at the JCMT. The observed pattern is the two-dimensional convolution of the Mars disk and the telescope beam pattern; at high frequencies, this is dependent on the conditions of the dish at the time of observation. This profile, measured in April 2001, is well fit with two Gaussian components, a 7.8-arc sec main lobe and a 60-arc sec error lobe.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Integrated intensity map of the CO J = 7 → 6 (370-µm) emission from the Galactic Center circumnuclear disk (CND). Offsets are in seconds of arc relative to the dynamical center of the galaxy SGR A* (RA1950 = 17h 42m 29s.3, Dec1950 = -28° 59′ 19′), and the beam size is 11-arc sec FWHM. Emission traces warm dense molecular gas and are observed throughout the map; contours are linear in T MBΔν, with a 250-K km s-1 interval. The peak in the southwest CND is 5400 K km s-1; the minimum at the edges of the map is 750 K km s-1. Velocity resolution in the spectra is 50 km s-1. Overall rotational motion is evident in the shifting of the velocity from north to south. RA, right ascension; Dec, declination.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

CO (J = 7 → 6) in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. These data are a single footprint of the array from our first run at the JCMT in April 1999 and were obtained in 15 min of on-source integration time with atmospheric transmission to the source between 5 and 8%. The data indicate widespread excited molecular gas in the nuclear starburst of NGC 253. RA, right ascension; Dec, declination.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Elements in SPIFI Optical Train

Tables Icon

Table 2 SPIFI Detector Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 SPIFI Sensitivities at the JCMTa

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DC=2.25λ2Rnbeams1/2,
ηA=λ2AtelΩMB.
SNR=Pobs2tintNEP,
NEFD=NEPMBηAAtelΔν,
Srms=2kBTA* rmsλ2 Ωbeam1ηMB.
TA*rms=2TsysκΔνtint1/2,
Tsys=NEPMBηMB42 kBκΔν.
NEP2=NEPphoton2+NEVexcessSopt2,
σ2=1tintidνhν2niT, νiτiη×niT, νiτiη+1.
σ2=hν02tint NmΔνna,ν0ambτηna,ν0ambτη+1,
amb=1-tlens+tlens1-ηF+ηF1-tsky,
SNR=Pamb22 σ,
NEPphoton=Pamb2tintSNR=22σ1 sWHz.
Tsys=2 TRXDSB+ηF1-ηskyTsky+1-ηFTηskyηF,

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