Abstract

A wavelength-scanning heterodyne interference confocal microscope has proved to provide the tomographic image of the refractive indices of transparent and turbid media on the scale of geometrical depth when weakly reflected light with an optical power as low as of the order of 10-14 W is used. The refractive indices of the transparent object and the turbid media were measured with accuracies of ∼0.5% and ∼3%, respectively. This imaging method is advantageous for evaluating quantitative refractive indices and internal structures.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Simultaneous measurement of thicknesses and refractive indices of multiple layers by a low-coherence confocal interference microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1942–1944 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 966–968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Yoden, M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Kunizawa, M. Haruna, “An approach to optical reflection tomography along the geometrical thickness,” Opt. Rev. 7, 402–405 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, K. Yoden, M. Haruna, “In vitro simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 1266–1270 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Knüttel, M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

K. Yoden, M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Kunizawa, M. Haruna, “An approach to optical reflection tomography along the geometrical thickness,” Opt. Rev. 7, 402–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, K. Yoden, M. Haruna, “In vitro simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 1266–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Knüttel, M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fukano, I. Yamaguchi, “Geometrical cross-sectional imaging by a heterodyne wavelength-scanning interference confocal microscope,” Opt. Lett. 25, 548–550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Boehlau-Godau, M.

A. Knüttel, M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Boppart, S. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlini, A. R.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukano, T.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haruna, M.

K. Yoden, M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Kunizawa, M. Haruna, “An approach to optical reflection tomography along the geometrical thickness,” Opt. Rev. 7, 402–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, K. Yoden, M. Haruna, “In vitro simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 1266–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 966–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Kempe, M.

Knüttel, A.

A. Knüttel, M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadowsky, “Confocal microscopy in turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2226–2235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kunizawa, N.

K. Yoden, M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Kunizawa, M. Haruna, “An approach to optical reflection tomography along the geometrical thickness,” Opt. Rev. 7, 402–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruyama, H.

Mitsuyama, T.

Ohmi, M.

K. Yoden, M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Kunizawa, M. Haruna, “An approach to optical reflection tomography along the geometrical thickness,” Opt. Rev. 7, 402–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, K. Yoden, M. Haruna, “In vitro simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 1266–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haruna, M. Ohmi, T. Mitsuyama, H. Tajiri, H. Maruyama, M. Hashimoto, “Simultaneous measurement of the phase and group indices and the thickness of transparent plates by low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 23, 966–968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, Y.

K. Yoden, M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Kunizawa, M. Haruna, “An approach to optical reflection tomography along the geometrical thickness,” Opt. Rev. 7, 402–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, K. Yoden, M. Haruna, “In vitro simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 1266–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, W.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, “Determination of the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2258–2260 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Welsch, E.

Wilson, T.

Yadowsky, M.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yoden, K.

K. Yoden, M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Kunizawa, M. Haruna, “An approach to optical reflection tomography along the geometrical thickness,” Opt. Rev. 7, 402–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, K. Yoden, M. Haruna, “In vitro simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 1266–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, K. Yoden, M. Haruna, “In vitro simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness by low-coherence interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 1266–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Knüttel, M. Boehlau-Godau, “Spatially confined and temporally resolved refractive index and scattering evaluation in human skin performed with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83–92 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Med. (N.Y.) (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 1, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Yoden, M. Ohmi, Y. Ohnishi, N. Kunizawa, M. Haruna, “An approach to optical reflection tomography along the geometrical thickness,” Opt. Rev. 7, 402–405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1990).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Focus on the front and the rear surface of a sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of measurement system: LD, laser diode; L1, L2, collimation lenses; BS, beam splitter; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; L3, L4, beam expander; L5, collector lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial response of the confocal microscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FM demodulator output versus mirror displacement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Confocal signal; (b) FM demodulator output.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of the sample; (b) tomographic image obtained from confocal signals; (c) tomographic image of refractive indices along the geometrical depth.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Light attenuation of the reflected light through turbid media with various scattering coefficients: solid line, expected exponential decay when the scattering coefficients calculated from Mie theory are subject to round-trip attenuation, exp(-2μ s d); dashed line, noise level. (b) OPD and the distance between confocal peaks of turbid media with various scattering coefficients.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Separation of thickness and refractive index of turbid media for various scattering coefficients; dashed lines, reference values.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Phase detection errors for various SNRs of reflected lights.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n sin θ1=sin θ0=NA,
Δz tan θ0=d tan θ1.
Δl=nd-Δz.
n=12NA2+NA4+41-NA2×1+Δl/Δz21/21/2, d=Δl+Δzn.
vt=v0+Δv cos2πfmt+ϕ,
φΔl, t=2πc ΔvΔl cos2πfmt+ϕ,
Δn=|nm-nr|/nr,

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